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IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems IEEE Power and Energy

IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

IEEE Power and Energy Society

Sponsored by the Transmission and Distribution Committee

IEEE 3 Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5997 USA

IEEE Std 1250™-2018

(Revision of IEEE Std 1250-2011)

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IEEE Std 1250™-2018

(Revision of IEEE Std 1250-2011)

IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Sponsor

Transmission and Distribution Committee

of the

IEEE Power and Energy Society

Approved 27 September 2018

IEEE-SA Standards Board

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Abstract: The use of some electrical equipment attached to typical power systems creates power quality concerns. There is an increasing awareness that some equipment is not designed to withstand the surges, faults, distortion, and reclosing duty present on typical utility distribution systems. Traditional concerns about steady-state voltage levels and light flicker due to voltage fluctuation also remain. These concerns are addressed by this guide by documenting typical levels of these aspects of power quality and indicating how to improve them. Other documents that treat these subjects in more detail are referenced.

Keywords: benchmarking, dips, disturbance analyzers, faults, harmonic distortion, IEEE 1250, light flicker, momentary voltage disturbances, noise, performance, power conditioners, power quality, sags, susceptible equipment, surge protection, surges, swells, transients, voltage fluctuation, voltage quality

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Participants

At the time this guide was submitted to the IEEE-SA Standards Board for approval, the Voltage Quality Working Group had the following membership:

Theo Laughner, Chair Steve Tatum, Vice Chair David Zech, Secretary

Mohamad Abdelrahman

Geza Joss

Scott Peele

Rich Bingham

Marc Lacroix

Paulo Ribeiro

Gary Chang

Chester Li

Sarah Ronnberg

Tom Cooke

Alex McEachern

Daniel Sabin

Jiri Drapola

Carl Miller

Ken Sedziol

Joseph Grappe

Dave Mueller

Harish Sharma

Mark Halpin

Matthew Norwalk

Brian Wong

Steven Johnston

Francisc Zavoda

The following members of the balloting committee voted on this guide. Balloters may have voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention.

Ali Al Awazi

John Houdek

Christopher Petrola

Saleman Alibhay

William Howe

Iulian Profir

Jason Andrews

Steven Johnston

Reynaldo Ramos

Curtis Ashton

Laszlo Kadar

John Roach

Thomas Barnes

Innocent Kamwa

Charles Rogers

Steven Bezner

Peter Kelly

Thomas Rozek

Rich Bingham

Yuri Khersonsky

Ryandi Ryandi

Jeffrey Brogdon

James Kinney

Daniel Sabin

Gustavo Brunello

Gary Kobet

Steven Sano

Demetrio Jr Bucaneg

Boris Kogan

Sergio Santos

William Bush

Jim Kulchisky

Bartien Sayogo

William Byrd

Benjamin Lanz

Ken Sedziol

Thomas Callsen

Theo Laughner

Suresh Shrimavle

Sean Carr

Lawrenc Long

Jerry Smith

Wen-Kung Chang

Bruce Mackie

Gary Smullin

Michael Chirico

Reginaldo Maniego

Wayne Stec

Glenn Davis

John McDaniel

Gary Stoedter

Mamadou Diong

Thomas McDermott

K. Stump

Gary Donner

Sean McGuinness

Sercan Teleke

Neal Dowling

Arun Narang

David Tepen

Donald Dunn

Alexandre Nassif

James Van De Ligt

Jorge Fernandez Daher

Arthur Neubauer

John Vergis

Gearold O. H. Eidhin

Joe Nims

William Walter

Dale Fredrickson

Matthew Norwalk

Daniel Ward

Mietek Glinkowski

Gregory Olson

Steven Whisenant

Joseph Grappe

Marty Page

Kenneth White

Randall Groves

Jan Paramalingam

James Wikston

Thomas Gruzs

Bansi Patel

Wilsun Xu

Lee Herron

Dhiru Patel

Nicholas Zagrodnik

Werner Hoelzl Ronald Hotchkiss

Marc Patterson

Francisc Zavoda David Zech

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When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this guide on 27 September 2018, it had the following membership:

Jean-Philippe Faure, Chair Gary Hoffman, Vice Chair John D. Kulick, Past Chair Konstantinos Karachalios, Secretary

Ted Burse

Xiaohui Liu

Robby Robson

Guido R. Hiertz

Kevin Lu

Dorothy Stanley

Christel Hunter

Daleep Mohla

Mehmet Ulema

Joseph L. Koepfinger*

Andrew Myles

Phil Wennblom

Thomas Koshy

Paul Nikolich

Philip Winston

Hung Ling

Ronald C. Petersen

Howard Wolfman

Dong Liu

Annette D. Reilly

Jingyi Zhou

*Member Emeritus

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Contents

1. Overview

9

1.1 Scope

9

1.2 Purpose

9

2. The power system

9

2.1 Introduction

9

2.2 Overview of power systems

10

3. Identifying power quality in electrical systems

12

3.1 Introduction

12

3.2 Basic types of power quality variations

13

3.3 Steady-state (continuous) voltage characteristics

13

3.4 Disturbances

28

3.5 Conclusions

36

4. Susceptibility of power system loads

36

4.1 Types of susceptible loads

36

4.2 Ride-through capability

39

5. Power quality improvements for end users

39

5.1 End user wiring and grounding

40

5.2 Premium power solutions

40

5.3 End-user power conditioning (within the facility)

43

5.4 Controlling harmonics

49

5.5 Surge protective devices (SPDs)

51

5.6 Special considerations for variable frequency drives (VFDs)

51

5.7 Special considerations for residential loads

52

5.8 Economic analysis of power conditioning alternatives

52

Annex A (informative) Glossary

54

Annex B (informative) Lookup table of standards

57

Annex C (informative) Bibliography

58

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IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

1. Overview

1.1 Scope

The reader of this guide will find discussions of ways to identify and improve power quality in power systems, as well as references to publications in this area. More specifically, this guide includes the following:

a) Power quality levels from benchmarking studies

b) Factors that affect power system performance

c) Mitigation measures that improve power system performance

d) References to current relevant in-depth IEEE standards and other documents

This guide only addresses subjects in depth where no other power quality reference does so. It is a “gateway” document for power quality that points the way to other documents in this field.

1.2 Purpose

The primary purpose of this guide is to assist power delivery system designers and operators in delivering power with power quality that is compatible with electrical end-use equipment. Another purpose is to point utility system customers toward power quality solutions that may exist in the power utilization system and equipment.

2. The power system

2.1 Introduction

This subclause describes typical utility power systems. Understanding the basics of power system design and operation is helpful in understanding the power quality characteristics described in Clause 3. Power quality characteristics can be affected at various levels of a power system. Electricity is typically generated and delivered at either 50 Hz or 60 Hz.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

2.2 Overview of power systems

Power systems are usually thought of as having three main divisions—generation, transmission, and distribution. With the proliferation of distributed energy resources (DER) such as wind turbines, solar panels, and fuel cells, generation is no longer centralized into a small number of power plants. DER is connected to transmission, distribution, and consumer low voltage electrical systems. Figure 1 shows a diagram of a changing electrical power system.

1 shows a diagram of a changing electrical power system. Figure 1—The electric power system Interconnection

Figure 1—The electric power system

Interconnection of the generation, transmission, and distribution systems takes place in an electrical substation. Substations may include transformers that raise or lower the voltage depending on the need. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current, whereas a step- down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for distribution. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plants and consumers, and it may be changed in voltage several times.

The generation and transmission components are typically connected in an interconnected grid fashion. Within the “grid,” the transmission lines transport bulk power for long distances that typically cross multiple service territories and multiple utilities. Figure 2 shows a simple transmission system, referred to as a transmission network, illustrating how most of the substation buses have more than one source. In most circumstances, the loss of a single line or generator should not cause overloads within the remaining network. This offers a high degree of reliability because power can be maintained to most buses even with the loss of a line or source.

Distribution lines (commonly called primaries) are usually not interconnected but are designed in a radial fashion except in some cities that use a mesh or network distribution scheme. Traditional radial distribution systems consist of a source originating at a substation in which the system voltage is stepped down (see Figure 3). The distribution bus has breakers that feed lines (feeders) that carry the power to many customers in an area. There are usually line protective components (reclosers and fuses) downstream of the substation breaker on distribution lines. These components create situations in which only a portion of the distribution line may need to be de-energized to clear a fault (short circuit), thereby saving many customers on the line from experiencing interruptions unnecessarily. This protection scheme is commonly called line sectionalization. With smart grid becoming more common, another distribution protection scheme called segmentation is being utilized. Segmentation involves electronic line reclosers communicating with one another and isolating the smallest amount of customers closest to the fault location. It also involves switching portions of one circuit over to other circuits in some cases. DER sources can connect to distribution feeders near the substation or out on the feeder. Typically, there is a line protective component placed at the DER metering point.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 2—Transmission network showing generators,

Figure 2—Transmission network showing generators, substations, and line sections

network showing generators, substations, and line sections Figure 3—Distribution substation and example of recloser

Figure 3—Distribution substation and example of recloser and fuses along line

Power system voltages are typically expressed in line-to-line kV. The line-to-line voltage is √3 or 1.732 times the line-to-neutral voltage on wye systems. Practically all generation and transmission is three phase. Distribution lines typically leave the substation as three phase and may proceed that way for several miles. However, they may also have lateral tap lines that are only providing one or two phases, depending on the

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

loads being served. Electrical services to customers may be from the transmission or the distribution system. Table 1 describes the various components and typical voltage ranges of the utility system.

Table 1—Common parts of the power system

Conventional Generation

Converts sources of energy such as fuel, falling water, or nuclear material to electricity.

Distributed Energy Resource

Source of electric power that is not directly connected to a bulk power transmission system. DERs include both generators and energy storage technologies.

Transmission

Bulk power transport connecting generating stations to substations serving load areas.

 

Generally 230 kV to 765 kV.

 

Long lines with few, if any, taps or customer connections.

 

May be overhead or underground; underground circuits are short because of charging current limitations.

 

Loading limits for lines and loading areas including normal, long-term emergency, and short-term emergency limits.

 

Loading may be limited by system stability, voltage control, or thermal considerations.

 

Loading follows a cycle with time of day, season, and weather.

Subtransmission

Not distinguished in many systems. Lower level bulk power connecting transmission and distribution substations.

 

Generally 46 kV to 161 kV.

 

May serve large loads directly.

Distribution

Local connections to supply customers or groups of customers.

 

4 kV to 35 kV.

 

Short lines with many taps, laterals, or branches; direct customer connections; may be reconfigured from time to time.

 

Loading is especially variable as customers turn devices ON and OFF.

 

May be overhead or underground, with underground especially in urban or new residential areas.

A significant goal related to the operation of the utility power system is to provide reliable power with a

minimum number of interruptions. The utility systems are designed to isolate problem areas quickly and to

interrupt as few customers as possible. The system protection schemes must quickly identify a faulted

component and then trip or open the proper isolating component to cause the fewest number of customers

to experience the loss of power.

3. Identifying power quality in electrical systems

3.1 Introduction

This subclause describes expected power quality characteristics at various levels of a power system. Electric utilities strive to maintain good power quality. Limiting disturbances and distortion that affect power quality minimizes damage and the costs to maintain the network. There are some statutory guidelines, generally put forward by regulatory agencies that provide limits for frequency, voltage, and sometimes reliability (interruptions).

Methods of describing the power quality characteristics are presented along with example benchmarking results. Important characteristics that may impact the power quality characteristics are also described. Finally, most utilities strive to meet their customers’ needs for reliability and power quality.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

3.2 Basic types of power quality variations

It is useful to divide power quality characteristics into the following two basic categories:

a) Steady-state (continuous) power quality characteristics. This refers to the quality of the normal voltage supplied to a facility. How much can the voltage magnitude vary from the nominal value? How distorted is the voltage or current? What is the imbalance among the three-phase voltages or current? What is the magnitude, frequency, and angle of each phase? All of these characteristics can be quantified, and limits for the variations can be developed.

b) Disturbances. This refers to power quality variations that occur at random intervals and are not associated with the continuous characteristics of the voltage. The variations include sustained interruptions, momentary interruptions, voltage sags (and swells), and transients. All of these disturbances can impact a facility, depending on the equipment susceptibility and investments that have been made in power conditioning.

Each of these two basic categories has indices associated with it. Indices provide the foundation for characterizing the supply system power quality levels in a consistent manner. Indices can be used to establish baselines of performance as a function of system characteristics. The following subclauses describe indices that can be used to describe power quality levels in both of these major categories along with example benchmarking results that can provide the basis for establishing targets and limits.

3.3 Steady-state (continuous) voltage characteristics

Steady-state power quality characteristics must meet minimum requirements to assure the proper operation of equipment. The basic concepts of voltage levels are established in ANSI C84.1 [B3] 1 where service voltage ranges and utilization voltages ranges are stated. There are two ranges, range A and range B. The service voltage is at the point where the electrical system of the supplier and the electrical system of the user are connected. The utilization voltage is at the line terminals of utilization equipment.

The concepts of compatibility levels are established in IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20]. This concept applies to all steady-state types of power quality. It is not as applicable to disturbances, such as voltage sags (dips), interruptions, and transients. The normal variations of steady-state power quality characteristics allow them to be characterized with trends over time and with statistical distributions. The statistical nature of these characteristics lends them to being represented by specific statistical levels. For instance, the limits in EN 50160-2010/A1:2015 [B14] for steady-state power quality are evaluated at the 95% probability level. Recent discussions have indicated that other probability levels may also be appropriate for fully characterizing performance.

Figure 4 illustrates the relationship between the severity of network events (left-most curve) and the sensitivity of end-use equipment to those events (right-most curve). The goal is for the severity of all network events to be below a pre-defined level of compatibility (center) and for all equipment to also be immune to misoperation for all events below that same compatibility level. Various planning, alarm, and immunity levels are established and maintained in order to help achieve this outcome.

1 The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex C.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 4—Concept of compatibility levels for the electric

Figure 4—Concept of compatibility levels for the electric supply system and the immunity characteristics of equipment

Figure 5 illustrates the concept of the “compatibility level” compared to a time trend of a steady-state power quality characteristic (for example, harmonic distortion). Other important power quality levels are also shown in both Figure 4 and Figure 5.

levels are also shown in both Figure 4 and Figure 5 . Figure 5—Important concepts for

Figure 5—Important concepts for compatibility levels of the steady-state power quality characteristics of the supply system

The following is a list of the characteristics illustrated in Figure 5:

Equipment damage level—This is the level of quality that may pose a threat to equipment health if it is exceeded. Such conditions are important to identify when they occur and to prevent if possible. Examples may include harmonic resonance, ferroresonance, high neutral currents, conditions that may cause overheating, and so on. There should be some margin between the compatibility level for the supply and the equipment damage level.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Equipment immunity level—This is the level of quality that may affect equipment performance if it is exceeded. It is also defined statistically. There should be some margin between the compatibility level for the supply and the equipment immunity level.

Alarm level—This is the level of quality at which notification will occur (i.e., the level at which an investigation or other response may be warranted). The alarm level should be above the planning level but below equipment immunity, equipment damage, and safety levels.

Compatibility level—This is the level of quality that, if exceeded, could affect equipment performance, or objectionable flicker observed.

Utility planning level—This is the level of quality that the electric utility establishes as its design objective. Usually, the planning level is defined at some level below the compatibility level to help assure that the actual compatibility level will not be exceeded. For instance, the compatibility level for harmonic voltage distortion might be 8%, but the planning level might be 5% to help make sure that the 8% level is not exceeded.

Assessed level—This is the actual level existing on the system, usually based on measurements. For instance, the evaluation of performance for the European standards requires measurements over a 1 week period and then the assessed level for comparison with the minimum performance requirements (based on the compatibility levels) is the level that is exceeded for 5% of the measurements (one measured value every 10 min).

Additionally, this level should define the steady-state power quality levels that allow proper operation of virtually all customer equipment. Thus, if these power quality levels are met at the supply point, the steady- state quality should be considered acceptable and should not result in customer problems. There is little value to providing even better power quality if these levels are not likely to cause problems. Extremely susceptible equipment that requires even better quality justifies special power conditioning and should not be the basis of the overall system requirements.

The steady-state power quality levels should be evaluated using the measurement procedures outlined in IEC 61000-4-30: 2015 [B24]. This standard provides a convenient reference to make sure that all systems are being evaluated in the same manner. The IEEE 1159 working group has developed a similar set of recommended characterization procedures (IEEE Std 1159™-2009 [B31]) that are consistent with the methods in the IEC standard.

Studies of the typical levels of these steady-state characteristics are provided from the following two important sources:

The EPRI Distribution Power Quality (DPQ) project ([B15]) describes steady-state power quality characteristics for distribution systems in the United States. Note that these statistics are based on the evaluation of single-cycle samples of the three-phase voltages. These samples are then analyzed to determine the root mean square (rms) voltage magnitudes, the imbalance, and the harmonic distortion levels. Flicker levels were not characterized in the EPRI DPQ project. This method of evaluating steady-state power quality characteristics is different from the method recommended in IEC 61000-4-30: 2015 [B24] and related standards. These methods use 10 min rms values as the basis for characterizing the steady-state power quality. The 10 min calculations can involve smoothing compared with the single-cycle samples.

In the CIGRE C4.07 Working Group Report [B10], this working group gathered survey information describing both steady-state power quality and disturbances from systems around the world. In general, the surveys referenced in this report used IEC methods for characterizing performance.

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3.3.1 Voltage regulation

The ability of equipment to handle steady-state voltage variations varies. The steady-state voltage variation limits for equipment are usually part of equipment specifications. The Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) specifies equipment withstand recommendations for IT equipment according to the ITIC Curve [formerly the Computer Business Equipment Manufacturer’s Association (CBEMA) curve]. The 1996 ITIC Curve specifies that equipment should be able to withstand voltage variations that last longer than 10 s within ± 10% of equipment nominal.

Steady-state voltage will vary at different points along the electric supply network. As load current flows through the lines and transformers, voltage drops are caused by the impedances. Utilities use various design strategies and equipment to control or regulate the voltage levels on the network to provide the end users with suitable voltage levels.

Voltage regulation of a system is affected by the electrical equipment from the generators to the end user. However, voltage regulation is tied most closely with the distribution system. The distribution system will typically have voltage-regulating transformers that can either increase or decrease the voltage that is supplied to the voltage input of service transformers. These voltage-regulating transformers are commonly capable of increasing or decreasing the distribution voltage up to 10%, usually in multiple steps of either 0.625% or 1.25% per step. The wide operating range allows the distribution voltage to correct automatically for the varying load conditions and voltage variations on the system. The voltage-regulating feature can either be built into the substation distribution transformer itself or be separate regulating transformers located downstream of the substation transformer. Substation transformers with regulating capabilities are called either tap changing under load (TCUL) or on load tap changing (OLTC) transformers. They have multitapped transformer windings usually designed into the low-voltage winding of the transformer. All three phases will change steps simultaneously either to raise or lower the voltage by changing the transformation ratio. Single-phase voltage regulators are also used extensively on distribution systems downstream of the substation transformer. They are often installed at strategic points along distribution lines to maintain proper voltage levels and can be cascaded along the circuit.

The current that flows to provide the reactive power requirements of inductive loads, such as motors, on the network is a significant cause of line voltage drop. A phase angle relationship exists between the reactive and real currents drawn by loads on a power system. A properly sized capacitor located near an inductive load will serve to counteract the reactive power conducted through the power system by the inductive load. By using capacitor banks to provide reactive power for inductive loads, such as motors, the total current flowing from the substation is reduced, and so the voltage drop along the distribution line is reduced also. Utilities use capacitor banks located on distribution lines or in substations to help control voltage by controlling reactive power flow. Utility capacitor banks either will be switched by automatic controls or will be manually switched seasonally. Automatic capacitor switching controls use such things as voltage level, temperature, time of day, or reactive power flow to determine whether to close or open a particular capacitor bank.

3.3.1.1 Recommended limit and assessment method

Because the objective is to define minimum acceptable requirements based on an evaluation at the Point of Common Coupling (realizing that the voltage variations inside a facility may be greater than the voltage variations on the system or at the supply point), the recommended level is ±5% with an evaluation at the 95% probability level.

3.3.1.2 Example survey

Figure 6 illustrates the statistics of voltage regulation levels obtained in the EPRI DPQ project [B15]. Voltage regulation is described in this case as the range of voltage over the period of the day expressed as a percent of nominal. Although the percent regulation is given as an absolute value, the results illustrate that almost all sites achieve a total variation level within 10%. The 95% for the entire sample of sites is a voltage regulation range of 8.5%.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 6—Voltage regulation statistics (total daily

Figure 6—Voltage regulation statistics (total daily voltage variation range) from EPRI DPQ project (1 June 1993 to 1 June 1995) [B15]

3.3.2 Voltage imbalance

Voltage balance is referred to as unbalance or imbalance and both are used interchangeably with one another throughout the industry, even IEEE Standards Dictionary Online list both together. In this subclause, the term voltage imbalance is used. 2

There are many reasons for voltage imbalance on utility distribution systems. It is well known that the most common cause of voltage imbalance on a utility distribution system is current imbalance on the system itself. Depending on the length of the circuit and the circuit make up, the system may seem to be balanced at the substation but out on the circuit it could have a current imbalance causing a voltage imbalance situation. Current imbalance can become a challenge on utility circuits because the utility system has single-phase customers on the system, along with underground networks and long overhead networks in rural areas. This can create a voltage imbalance at different points on the distribution system and at different times of day. Another cause of voltage imbalance in a utility distribution system is non- transposition of transmission lines. In a transmission system with long circuits with no phase transposition, the coupling with high load balanced current will cause voltage imbalance and current imbalance. The transposing of lines to cancel the effect of the circuit will help keep this type of voltage imbalance at a minimum. VAR balances with capacitor banks and loads on the system can also create balance issues for utility distribution systems. There are two effects from a three-phase capacitor banks when opening a single fuse. One effect is that the VAR imbalance may cause a voltage imbalance on the system. The other effect is the loss of one fuse will cause a voltage drop on that phase, and the remaining phase will have the associated voltage rise. VARs are also developed from underground cable capacitance. Single-phase underground networks can cause imbalances due to VAR loading from the cabling on the system. A larger underground circuit on one phase vs. another phase can cause the same effect as a blown fuse on a three- phase capacitor bank.

Banking of transformers can cause voltage imbalance if the transformer impedances are not matched within a certain percentage of their %Z rating. When installing a three-phase bank, the bank impedances should be within 7.5% of each other for %Z rated values more than 2.5% and 10% for values %Z rated values 2.5%

2 IEEE Standards Dictionary Online is available at: http://dictionary.ieee.org.

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and less (IEEE Std C57.12.00-2015 [B37]). This will help ensure that the loading on the bank will not cause excessive voltage drop difference on each bank thus causing a voltage imbalance.

With a renewed emphasis on voltage reduction to decrease loading on the utility system, other challenges are presented. Specifically, single-phase regulators on a utility system installed to level the voltage profile along the circuit, may create voltage imbalance. Most regulator controls are phase to ground (neutral) sensing for voltage regulation. In most cases, the single-phase regulator will improve voltage balance. However, if a system has imbalanced current, single-phase regulators may raise or lower each phase-to- neutral voltage in significantly different amounts, and could make the system have a greater voltage imbalance, when measuring phase-to-phase voltage, due to a phase angle shift. Even a 1 to 2 degree phase angle shift can have a great effect on the voltage imbalance at the measured point in the system.

Understanding the effects of voltage imbalance is important to recognize an issue on the electrical system. Voltage imbalance has an influence on heating of three-phase devices such as motors, transformers, drives, and rectifier circuits. This excess heating can cause damage to the device. For example, according to Figure 7, a three-phase motor running at full load should be de-rated if the voltage imbalance exceeds 1%.

load should be de-rated if the voltage imbalance exceeds 1%. Figure 7—Figure 14-1 in NEMA MG

Figure 7—Figure 14-1 in NEMA MG 1 [B50]

The efficiency of the device can be reduced as well. Experimentation has shown that when voltage imbalance is between 3% and 5% the efficiency of a motor can decline by 1% to 3% (see Agamloh, Peele, and Grappe article [B1]). ANSI C-84.1 [B3] standard Annex C field survey results states that “approximately 98% of the electric supply systems surveyed were within the 0% to 3% voltage imbalance range.” A 1% voltage imbalance can cause approximately 7% to 8% current imbalance in traditional poly- phase motors. Effects on VSD and rectifying load can cause even higher current imbalances. Motors typically have circuit protection installed in the circuit to trip them off, when they experience imbalance conditions above a threshold value. This includes the extreme case of voltage imbalance known as single phasing. This is where one of the incoming phases serving the loads has been lost. Single phasing can originate on the primary source voltage or the secondary source voltage. Protection relays use three basic sensing techniques, thermal, current, or voltage, depending on their function. Many of the devices installed to protect the motor and the circuit, are protection relays and fall into different categories such as Thermal Overload Relay, Over Current relay, Over and Under Voltage Relay, Single Phasing Relay, and Imbalance relay.

Voltage imbalance relays typically operate by sensing an imbalance in the phase-to-phase voltage, such that once the sensed imbalance exceeds a specified threshold, a control signal is generated that may be used to interrupt power flow to the protected device (by tripping a circuit breaker or contactor). These devices can be put on each individual motor for protection, or with the advent of shunt trip breakers, on entire circuits or facilities. Some facilities have also started implementing Voltage Imbalance relays on their main switchgear.

There are different ways to calculate voltage imbalance and they have been well defined in many papers and documents. NEMA’s definition of voltage imbalance in Equation (1) is the most useful definition

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applied in the field. This definition specifies voltage imbalance as the maximum deviation from average voltage divided by average voltage expressed as a percentage. The voltages used in this calculation must be phase-to-phase voltage:

V

un

=

max

(

VV

ab

−−− , ,

avg

bc

avg

ca

VV

VV

avg

)

V avg

× 100

%

V =

unbalance

Maximum Deviation from Average Voltage

Average Voltage

where

V un

V

ab

,

V avg

is the percentage voltage imbalance

V

bc

,

V

ca

are phase-to-phase voltages

is the average of the three-phase voltages

×

100

(1)

ANSI C84.1-2016 [B3] also uses this same calculation for voltage balance. ANSI also states, “Electric supply systems should be designed and operated to limit the maximum voltage imbalance to 3% when measured at the electric-utility revenue meter under no-load conditions.” This is a recommendation only within the standard and not a requirement.

IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20] specifies a compatibility level of 2% for voltage imbalance, recognizing that systems with large single-phase loads may have voltage imbalance levels as high as 3%.

EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14] requires that utilities maintain voltage imbalance less than 2% for 95% of the 10 min samples in 1 week. For systems with significant single-phase loads, the imbalance can be as high as 3%.

Clearly, if the three-phase voltages are equal, the imbalance would be zero. The voltage imbalance is created when at least one of the phase-to-phase voltages is different from the other phase-to-phase voltages. It is also well known that the unbalanced voltages can be resolved into symmetrical components called sequence voltages. The formal or true definition of voltage unbalance percentage is defined as the ratio of negative sequence voltage to positive sequence voltage [Equation (2)].

V unf

=

V

2

V

1

× 100

%

V =

unbalance

Negative Sequence Voltage

Positive Sequence Voltage

where

V unf

is the voltage imbalance factor

V 1 is positive sequence voltage

V

2

is the negative sequence voltage

×

100

(2)

In Equation (2) if the voltages V 1 and V 2 are expressed with their phase angles, the ratio becomes the complex unbalance factor. IEEE Std 1159-2009 [B31] covers more details on the use of these and other equations.

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3.3.2.1 Recommended limit and assessment method

The CIGRE working group recommends that the 95% value for weekly measurements of the 10 min imbalance values be used for comparison with recommended imbalance limits (voltage characteristics). The most commonly used value for this characteristic is 2%. It seems to be a value that is very achievable and also has minimal consequences for customer equipment applied at low voltage. Equipment applied at medium voltage might have more stringent requirements for voltage balance.

3.3.2.2 Example surveys

Negative sequence voltage imbalance statistics from the EPRI DPQ project [B15] are given in Figure 8 and shows that the 95% level for negative sequence imbalance over all the sites in the project was about 1.3%.

imbalance over all the sites in the project was about 1.3%. Figure 8—Voltage imbalance statistics (entire

Figure 8—Voltage imbalance statistics (entire data set for all sites) from EPRI DPQ project (1 June 1993 to 1 June 1995) [B15]

from EPRI DPQ project (1 June 1993 to 1 June 1995) [B15] Figure 9—Measurement data for

Figure 9—Measurement data for voltage unbalance at MV, high voltage (HV), and extremely high voltage (EHV)—all sites (CIGRE C4.07/CIRED Report [B10])

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The CIGRE C4.07/CIRED Working Group [B10] gathered survey data from around the world. Only a few surveys actually compiled information about imbalance, but the results are still informative for developing a recommended minimum performance level. Figure 9 illustrates the results (95% probability level over one week of measurements at each site) for the different system voltage levels. The medium voltage (MV) results are most interesting. In this case, none of the sites had an imbalance level exceeding 2% at the 95% probability level.

3.3.3 Voltage distortion

Traditional utility generators produce voltage with almost no harmonic distortion. The voltage harmonic distortion on the system is mostly because of the nonlinear customer loads that are served. These loads draw harmonic currents that interact with the system impedance to create voltage distortion. Because of this, voltage harmonic distortion is usually a local phenomenon related to serving loads with high harmonic current content. More recently some nonlinear generation, such as photovoltaics with inverters, have been found to produce distortion as well.

Harmonic distortion in the supply voltage results in increased heating in transformers, motors, capacitors, and conductors. This increased heating is usually the most important effect. Sensitivity of customer equipment to voltage distortion may be dependent on both the magnitude of the distortion levels and the specific harmonic components. For instance, transformer eddy current losses increase with approximately the square of the frequency.

An unintended consequence of the use of capacitors, by either the utility or its customers, is their effect on harmonics. Capacitors cause a change in system impedance, and voltage distortion is directly related to the system impedance. Their capacitive reactance will create a resonant impedance at one frequency or at multiple frequencies. If a harmonic current exists having the same frequency as a resonant impedance, there will be increased voltage distortion. In some cases, this distortion will be in excess of the recommended limits of IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28]. In those cases, the utility may have to change the size of the capacitor bank, relocate it, or install a tuned filter.

IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] establishes current harmonic limits for customers and voltage harmonic limits for electrical utilities. Examples of the limits set by the document are shown in Table 2 and Table 3. The harmonic current limits are designed to prevent voltage distortion from reaching excessive levels. The relative size of a customer load compared with the supply network serving the load determines the amount of harmonic current the user is allowed to inject into the utility system. There is no guarantee that harmonic voltage distortion limits will not be exceeded even though each customer on a given line conforms to the current injection limits. Because voltage distortion is created by the voltage drops that occur due to current distortion and system impedance, one method to reduce voltage distortion is to reduce system impedance.

Very short-term effects of harmonics can include the misoperation of electronic controls or the operation of uninterruptible power supplies. There may be a need for limits on the short-term harmonics as well as on the long-term levels that cause heating.

3.3.3.1 Recommend limits and survey methods

The IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] recommended limit for harmonic voltage distortion levels at medium voltage is 5% at the point of common coupling (PCC) for the total harmonic distortion. At voltage < 1 kV, IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] recommends a limit of 8% at the PCC for total harmonic distortion.

Individual harmonic limits are also important, especially at higher frequencies. Higher frequency voltage harmonic components need to be limited to lower levels because of the potential duty on capacitor banks (both on the utility distribution system and in customer systems). Also, higher voltage harmonic components can cause the misoperation of customer equipment because of the tendency to introduce multiple zero crossings into the voltage waveform. Specific limits for higher voltage components are not

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proposed here—these will be addressed in future revisions of IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28]. The individual harmonic limits in IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] and in IEC standards provide some guidance.

The recommended limit is compared with the 95% probability level of the 10 min voltage distortion values measured over a one-week period. Examples of the types of limits set by the document are found in Table 2 and Table 3, although these particular tables come from European standards instead of IEEE Std 519 [B28].

Table 2—Harmonic compatibility levels

Odd harmonics Non-multiple of 3

Odd harmonics Multiple of 3

Even harmonics

Harmonic

Harmonic

Harmonic

Harmonic

Harmonic

Harmonic

Order

Voltage

Order

Voltage

Order

Voltage

h

%

h

%

h

%

5

6

3

5

2

2

7

5

9

1,5

4

1

11

3,5

15

0,4

6

0,5

13

3

21

0,3

8

0,5

17 ≤ h ≤ 49

2,27 × (17/h) − 0,27

21 < h ≤ 45

0,2

10 ≤ h ≤ 50

0,25 × (10/h) + 0,25

NOTE—The levels given for odd harmonics that are multiples of three apply to zero sequence harmonics. Also, on a three-phase network without a neutral conductor or without a load connected between line and ground, the values of the 3 rd and 9 th harmonics may be much lower than the compatibility levels, depending on the unbalance of the system.

NOTE—Table 2 is reproduced with permission from the EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14].

Table 3—Individual harmonic voltage limits from EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14]

 

ODD HARMONICS

 

EVEN HARMONICS

not multiple of 3

multiples of 3

 
 

Relative

 

Relative

 

Relative

Order h

Voltage

Order h

Voltage

Order h

Voltage

5

6.0%

3

5.0%

2

2.0%

7

5.0%

9

1.5%

4

1.0%

11

3.5%

15

0.5%

6–24

0.5%

13

3.0%

21

0.5%

17

2.0%

19

1.5%

23

1.5%

25

1.5%

NOTE—Table 3 is reproduced with permission from the EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14].

A comparison of IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] limits with the limits from EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14] show that the harmonic distortion limits in Europe are considerably relaxed compared with the IEEE limits. New revisions to IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] address this compatibility issue, at least at low-voltage interface points. Even with the less severe limits in Europe, few problems related to harmonics are reported.

3.3.3.2 Example survey

Harmonic levels were monitored in the EPRI DPQ project based on single-cycle samples rather than on 10 min values. However, the statistics for large numbers of samples are likely to be similar to the statistics obtained with 10 min values at the system level because the changes in harmonic levels are gradual. Larger differences could occur at individual locations with dynamic loads, such as arc furnaces.

Most of the DPQ results are reported as average harmonic levels. For instance, Figure 10 gives the distribution of average voltage distortion levels for all the sites in the EPRI DPQ project [B15]. The

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average distortion level across all the sites is 1.57%. No sites had an average voltage distortion level exceeding 5%. However, this can be misleading because the voltage distortion limits are meant to be compared with the 95% probability level for the harmonic distortion, not the average value. Figure 11 gives the distribution of 95% probability level voltage distortion (CP95) values for all the sites in the EPRI DPQ project [B15]. In this case, about 3% of the sites have distortion levels exceeding 5%. These cases usually involve resonance conditions associated with power factor correction on the distribution system.

with power factor correction on the distribution system. Figure 10—Distribution of average voltage distortion

Figure 10—Distribution of average voltage distortion levels for all sites in the EPRI DPQ project [B15]

levels for all sites in the EPRI DPQ project [B15] Figure 11—Distribution of CP95 voltage distortion

Figure 11—Distribution of CP95 voltage distortion values (level not exceeded 95% of the time) for all sites in the EPRI DPQ project [B15]

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Limited survey results were collected from MV systems in the CIGRE C4.07/CIRED effort [B10]. The results from two surveys (178 sites) are summarized in Table 4. These give the most important individual harmonic distortion levels and are very consistent with the DPQ survey results. (Note that the use of commas in Table 4 is the European convention instead of the U.S. decimal point convention.)

Table 4—CIGRE/C4.07 survey results

Harmonic order

Measurement results 95%-site for Uh,sh95

Measurement results max-site for Uh,sh95

Planning levels

Min

Max

Mean

Min

Max

Mean

3

1,5

2,8

2,15

2

3,7

2,85

4

5

2,56

4,5

3,53

4,2

5

4,6

5

7

1,3

1,5

1,4

1,5

3,4

2,4

4

11

0,5

0,95

0,75

1

3,8

2,4

3

A survey of harmonic levels was conducted at residential locations in eight different countries in Europe (EPRI PEAC [B63]). Figure 12 gives the consolidated results from all 74 sites combined from this survey. Note that the results are actually very consistent with the results from the EPRI DPQ project [B15]. The 95% probability level for voltage THD across all the sites in the European survey project was 3.8%. This compares with a voltage THD level of 4.0% at the aggregate 95% level in the EPRI DPQ project [B15]. The overall harmonic distortion levels are very similar in the United States and Europe.

levels are very similar in the United States and Europe. Figure 12—Results of harmonic survey at

Figure 12—Results of harmonic survey at European residential locations

3.3.3.3 Higher frequency harmonics

Higher order individual harmonic limits are also important, especially at higher frequencies. Higher frequency voltage harmonic components need to be limited to lower levels because of the potential duty on capacitor banks (both on the utility distribution system and in customer systems). Also, higher voltage harmonic components can cause the misoperation of customer equipment because of the tendency to introduce multiple zero crossings into the voltage waveform. Specific limits for higher voltage components are not proposed here—these will be considered in future revisions of IEEE Std 519 [B28]. The individual harmonic limits in IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] and in IEC standards provide some guidance.

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The recommended limit is compared with the 95% probability level of the 10 min voltage distortion values measured over at least a one-week period.

3.3.4 Voltage fluctuations

Voltage fluctuations are generally considered to be cyclic variations of voltage where the changes in amplitude do not exceed 10%. The magnitude variation is typically less than the sensitivity threshold of all but the most sensitive end-use equipment. The main disturbing effect of these voltage fluctuations is changes in the illumination intensity of light sources. When the illumination intensity fluctuates periodically, it can produce an unpleasant visual sensation to people that is called flicker. Even though flicker implies that there is a physiological relationship involved because of its relation to human visual perception and a periodic time element, many utilities will use the term “flicker” when referring to repetitive fluctuations as well as a single-step voltage change.

Humans can be very susceptible to light flicker caused by voltage fluctuations. Human perception of light flicker is almost always the limiting criteria for controlling small voltage fluctuations. Figure 13 illustrates the level of perception of light flicker from an incandescent bulb for rectangular variations. The sensitivity is a function of the frequency of the fluctuations, and it is also dependent on the voltage level of the lighting.

Sensitivity or objection to flicker is a subjective phenomenon, and depends on the physiology of the eye and brain of the person who is exposed to the variation in luminance output caused on an incandescent light bulb due to a variation in the RMS voltage level.

Flicker was originally related to the behavior of a 230 V, 60 W incandescent light bulb when subjected to voltage fluctuations. Other types of lighting may provide different fluctuation of the luminance and flicker perception problems when subjected to the same voltage fluctuations. EPRI testing illustrated the different characteristics of other types of lighting and developed the concept of a gain factor for the lighting for comparison of susceptibility with that of a 60 W incandescent bulb. In this context, a lower gain factor means that the fluctuation of light output from a light source is less susceptible to a given voltage fluctuation. Figure 14 provides an example.

given voltage fluctuation. Figure 14 provides an example. Figure 13—Curves illustrating the level of rectangular

Figure 13—Curves illustrating the level of rectangular voltage fluctuations that will result in a Pst value of 1.0 when measured with the IEC flickermeter

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 14—Lamp gain versus flicker frequency for

Figure 14—Lamp gain versus flicker frequency for fluorescent electronic and incandescent lamps

Typically, voltage fluctuations on utility systems are caused by sudden large changes in the amount of load current. As load or generation current flows through the wires and transformers of the electrical system, it produces voltage change proportional to the impedance of the wires and transformers. Common causes of sudden load or generation current changes include the following:

Large motors starting

Large loads being switched ON or OFF

Switching to isolate sections of the network for maintenance

Variable loads such as metal shredders and wood chippers

Arc furnace operation

Large or multiple welders

Switching of capacitor banks

Wind/photovoltaic (PV) or other intermittent generation sources

Utilities usually place limits on the amount of starting current allowed for large motors. The limits are typically established based on the allowable percentage voltage drop at the PCC. If the customer PCC is located far from the substation, the system impedance will be larger than the impedance of a PCC located close to the substation. Therefore, the allowable inrush current is lowest for motors located far from a substation.

When responding to voltage fluctuation concerns, utilities often focus on the impedance of the local electrical system. Lowering the system impedance by changing wire size or transformer size is a common solution. Other less commonly used options used by utilities include compensating reactive power flow by installing shunt connected VAR compensation on the electrical grid. Typical switched capacitors will not provide a solution to the voltage fluctuations discussed here. Instead, an advanced VAR support system capable of quickly responding to the dynamic VAR requirements of the system is needed.

These systems are commonly referred to as static VAR compensators (SVC) or static synchronous compensators (STATCOM). SVC systems combine electronic switching with capacitors and reactors to provide leading and lagging VAR compensation. STATCOM systems combine electronic switching with electronic voltage source converters to provide dynamic leading or lagging VAR compensation. Both types of systems are costly and often include negotiations with the customer that is deemed to be creating the voltage fluctuations. However, when compared against the much larger cost of building a new transmission line to solve a light flicker problem, the cost is occasionally justified.

Additional information is available in IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34].

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3.3.4.1 Basic EMC concepts related to voltage fluctuations

The flicker levels in IEC standards and in IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34] are characterized by the following two parameters:

10 min “short-term flicker severity”—Pst: This value is obtained from a statistical analysis of the “instantaneous flicker value” in a way that models incandescent lamps and the observation of light intensity variations.

2 h “long-term flicker severity”—Plt: This is calculated by combining 12 successive Pst measurements using a cubic relationship.

Both of these parameters are defined along with the equipment to measure them in IEC 61000-4-15:2015

[B23].

A human observer can tolerate a certain amount of light flicker before becoming annoyed. IEC 61000-2-

2:2002 [B20] defines this level of flicker as the compatibility level. It is important to note that compatibility levels are defined for LV systems only (IEC 61000-3-7:2008 [B21]) where the following is true:

Short-term flicker compatibility level (Pst) is 1.0

Long-term flicker level (Plt) is 0.8

A flicker planning level at individual customers is utilized so that the overall flicker level at MV, HV, and

EHV buses does not result in an LV flicker level that is above the compatibility level, thereby greatly

reducing the probability of having customer complaints. Suggested planning levels for flicker are provided

in IEC 61000-3-7:2008 [B21] and IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34]. To maintain proper coordination, it is

suggested that flicker planning levels be based on 99th percentile values.

The flicker planning limits can be found in Table 2 of IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34] and are shown below in Figure 15:

Std 1453-2015 [B34] and are shown below in Figure 15 : Figure 15—Recommended flicker planning levels

Figure 15—Recommended flicker planning levels in IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34]

Note that individual step changes in the voltage, such as would be caused by a motor starting or switching a capacitor bank, are often limited separately from the continuous flicker limits. IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20] specifies a compatibility level of 3% for the individual voltage variations. EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14] specifies a limit of 5% for these variations but mentions that more significant variations (up to 10%) can occur for some switching events. These step changes in voltage are referred to as rapid voltage change (RVC). IEC 61000-3-7 [B21] specifies planning limits for RVC. These limits are adopted in IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34].

3.3.4.2 Recommended limits and assessment method

The recommended compatibility limit for flicker is Pst = 1.0 at the 95% probability level. This is consistent with the compatibility levels in IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34] and or IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20] and is based on the actual design of the flicker meter. In other words, this flicker limit should prevent customer complaints associated with light flicker.

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The limit is lower than the limit specified in EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14]. However, it is an appropriate limit when considering the philosophy of establishing a limit to prevent customer complaints rather than setting a limit that is a legal requirement for the utility to meet.

The Pst level is measured with a flicker meter that complies with IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34] and IEC 61000-4-15:2010 [B23] requirements. The Pst values are calculated for 10 min intervals; 95% of these values should be below the limit in a 1 week measured period.

3.3.5 Summary of steady-state power quality performance levels

Table 5 summarizes the recommended steady-state power quality characteristics (planning levels). All of these are based on 10 min samples calculated according to IEC 61000-4-30:2015 [B24]. They are evaluated based on the 95% probability level. In other words, the system should be designed so that these levels are expected to be exceeded less than 5% of the time. Ideally, all locations on the power system should meet these power quality levels. However, there will always be some locations that have power quality characteristics that may exceed these levels in one or more categories. When a situation such as this is identified that causes customer issues, the utility should work to solve the problem (that may be caused by one or more customers or may be related to a system condition).

It is important to remember that the power quality levels indicated in Table 5 can be considered normal when measured at the point of common coupling with customer facilities, and minimum requirements may not be defined for all categories. A customer should not assume that the power quality levels will be significantly better than the levels indicated. For instance, when applying power factor correction, it is reasonable to assume that the background harmonic distortion levels on the supply system could be as high as 3% for individual harmonics and 5% for the total distortion. This could influence the design requirements for power factor correction equipment within a facility.

Table 5—Summary of typical power quality performance expectations (table applies to distribution voltage)

Power quality category

Voltage regulation

Voltage unbalance

Voltage distortion

Voltage fluctuation/flicker

Voltage frequency

Example limits

±5% of nominal for normal conditions

±10% of nominal for unusual a conditions

2% negative sequence

5% total harmonic distortion

3% individual harmonic components

Pst b less than 1.0

Individual step changes less than 4%

±0.015 Hz c

a Unusual conditions are conditions of abnormal stress for the electric supplier such as when an essential transmission line is out of service during a period of exceptionally heavy system loading. Such conditions are typically unplanned, rare, and brief.

b Pst is a measure of flicker where a value of 1.0 indicates that 50% of the people are likely to notice a flicker in a 60 W incandescent lamp. Measurement procedures are defined in IEC 61000-4-15:2010 [B23] and have been adopted by IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34].

c Typical steady-state maximum frequency deviation in an interconnected power system in North America.

3.4 Disturbances

Disturbances are power quality issues that cannot be characterized with the same time trends and statistical distributions that are used for the steady-state power quality characteristics. These variations occur randomly, and each event could have an effect on customer facilities.

Disturbances from the electric utility system are typically caused either by a fault or by a switching transient. A fault usually involves a short circuit between an energized phase conductor and ground or

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between two or more energized phase conductors. The time duration of a fault is usually between one cycle and 1 s. An interruption is what occurs after a protective device senses and isolates a fault.

With the advent of large solar system (1 MW and above) some rural locations may have issues with magnetizing inrush on solar farms. If the solar system is large compared to the distribution substation, this can become an issue.

A switching transient may occur when large inductive loads, capacitor banks, or line sections are switched.

The electrical system reaction to adding or removing components and loads often creates a short duration change in the voltage waveform. The time duration of a switching event is usually between one-half cycle

and three cycles.

It is highly recommended that one reviews and becomes very familiar with IEEE Std 1159 [B31] for

describing techniques for defining, measuring, quantifying, and interpreting electromagnetic disturbances

on the power system.

3.4.1 Reliability

The most commonly discussed type of disturbance is an interruption. However, it is important to recognize and distinguish that reliability is fundamentally a different subject matter compared to power quality. The term interruption is common to both subjects, but is defined and considered differently within their context. Most utilities around the world report on the reliability performance of the power system. A common index used to track reliability for power systems is the System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI). For power systems in most developed countries, average SAIFI levels are generally accepted to be in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 interruptions per year (depending on factors such as weather, underground vs. overhead systems, networked systems vs. radial systems, etc.). This is the number of times that customers experience an actual power interruption each year (usually defined as an interruption lasting more than 5 min). The average SAIFI across the United States is about 1.3 interruptions per year. Typically, this index is also

adjusted so that it does not include “major events” that affect a significant portion of the system (the index

is used to evaluate the performance of the system for events that could possibly be avoided through system

investments, maintenance, etc.).

Although reliability indices are useful for regulators and for establishing company goals, they have limited use to a specific customer because these are based on the entire system. It would be much more important

to get information about the expected number of interruptions where that specific customer is actually

connected to the system. The utility may be able to provide location-specific historical data about reliability that would be more useful for evaluating the need for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or backup

generation to protect critical operations.

Detailed information about calculating reliability indices and characterizing reliability performance are provided in IEEE Std 1366-2012 [B33].

3.4.2 Voltage sags and momentary interruptions

Facility operations can be affected by more than just long duration interruptions. Momentary voltage sags lasting less than 100 milliseconds are often sufficient to cause disruptions to susceptible equipment and operations (see example in Figure 16). Even though the effect of these disturbances can be the same as long duration interruptions, they can be more important because they occur much more frequently. These disturbances are caused by faults on distribution circuits and transmission circuits. The interconnected nature of the system means that faults remote from a facility can still cause a momentary voltage sag that could be sufficient to affect operations.

Power system faults cause interruptions and voltage sags on the electric system. During a fault, very high current levels flow until protective devices isolate the fault. The many causes of faults include lightning, animal contacts, tree contact, underground cable dig-ins, and equipment failures. While fault current is

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flowing, a voltage sag impacts the involved electrical system. Just what constitutes the “involved electrical system” varies depending on where the fault occurs. A fault on a high-voltage transmission line may impact several substations and affect power quality 100 or more miles from the fault. A fault on a medium voltage distribution line will typically only impact power quality of the feeders on a common substation bus. Figure 16 is an example of percent remaining voltage possible because of a fault on the transmission system.

possible because of a fault on the transmission system. Figure 16—Percent remaining voltage Industrial facilities

Figure 16—Percent remaining voltage

Industrial facilities are often impacted by the incompatibility of their equipment to voltage sags. The impacts are most significant where the automated industrial process is difficult and time consuming to restart. The system strength at the PCC of an industrial plant is a key factor in minimizing the number of voltage sag disturbances that will be experienced because of faults on the utility grid. Usually, because of the system impedance characteristics, the transmission system will not be significantly impacted by faults on distribution lines. However, distribution lines will be impacted by faults on the transmission system. Because of the lower incidence of faults on the transmission system, customers sometimes request service from dedicated substations.

Figure 17 is an example of the types of faults experienced by a typical distribution-fed customer.

Electric utilities typically direct maintenance activities toward minimizing fault rates. Reducing the number of faults on the system improves the system reliability, reduces voltage sags, and minimizes equipment failure. Typical fault reduction activities include tree trimming, lightning arrester installation, grounding improvements, and animal guard installation.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 17—Faults experienced by typical distribution

Figure 17—Faults experienced by typical distribution customer

EPRI conducted a benchmarking project that provided an estimate for the average number of voltage sags that customers experience on distribution systems across the United States. To present the results of this extensive benchmarking project, a new index to describe voltage sag performance was developed. This index represents the average number of voltage sags experienced by a customer each year with a specified characteristic. For SARFI x , the index would include all of the voltage dips where the minimum voltage was less than x. For example, SARFI 70 represents the expected number of voltage sags where the minimum voltage is less than 70% of nominal.

sags where the minimum voltage is less than 70% of nominal. Figure 18—Example of a short

Figure 18—Example of a short duration voltage sag caused by a remote fault; this voltage sag caused tripping of a plastics production line

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SARFI indices become a very important consideration for many process industry customers because the indices represent events that impact the reliability of the process. There are typically very few actual interruptions. Therefore, voltage sags represent the most important power quality variation affecting industrial and commercial customers. As shown in Figure 18, a voltage sag caused tripping of industrial process equipment.

The SARFI index that is appropriate for a facility will depend on the sensitivity of the equipment in the

facility to these voltage variations. This information may not be available without extensive monitoring and evaluation of equipment response to actual disturbances. Figure 19, from the EPRI benchmarking project, illustrates how the voltage sag performance is dependent on the minimum voltage level being considered. For instance, the average for the number of voltage sags per year with a minimum voltage less than 70% is about 18 events per year in the United States. However, if equipment could be affected by voltage sag with

a minimum voltage of 90% (very minor voltage sag), then the number of events per year is about 50.

Obviously, the equipment sensitivity is a critical factor in the importance of these disturbances. More

information can be found about different types of voltage sags in IEEE Std 1668-2017 [B36].

types of voltage sags in IEEE Std 1668-2017 [B36] . Figure 19—Average SARFI statistics from nationwide

Figure 19—Average SARFI statistics from nationwide EPRI benchmarking project; these show the average number of voltage sags that can be expected for a distribution system customer in the United States as a function of the voltage sag severity (minimum voltage magnitude)

Another way to use the SARFI index is to count all the voltage sag events that are below a specified compatibility curve. This is referred to as the SARFI-curve approach. For example, SARFI-CBEMA considers voltage sags and interruptions that are below the lower CBEMA curve. SARF-ITIC considers voltage sags and interruptions that are below the lower ITIC curve. SARFI-SEMI considers voltage sags and interruptions that are below the lower SEMI F47 curve. An example is shown in Figure 20 where each

recorded sag is indicated as one point in the magnitude-duration plot (note that “magnitude” is used here as

a

synonym to retained voltage). The SARFI-90 value is 87 in this case; SARFI-CBEMA is 43, SARFI-ITIC

is

26, and SARFI-SEMI is 12.

Time aggregation is important with voltage sag events (and momentary interruption events). Time aggregation avoids counting multiple events that are associated with the same physical event (fault). The procedures for time aggregation and for other approaches for characterizing system voltage sag performance are described in IEEE Std 1564-2014 [B35].

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 20—Scatter plot of voltage sag events superimposed

Figure 20—Scatter plot of voltage sag events superimposed with compatibility curves for calculation of SARFI indices

The average statistics—especially nationwide statistics—are not very useful for an individual facility trying to determine whether investment in power conditioning is needed or economically justified. It is of value to utility for benchmarking of their particular system. Expected voltage sag performance at the individual plant location is needed. Some utilities calculate the expected voltage sag performance throughout its system. Figure 21 is an example of the voltage sag performance (SARFI-70) across all of its substations (Infrastructure Reliability [B39]). The chart shows the three-year average voltage sag performance compared with the voltage sag performance in the last year. This helps identify systems with significant changes that could warrant investigation. The voltage sag performance is also broken down into events caused by distribution faults and events caused by transmission faults because the transmission faults cannot be prevented by maintenance and improvements on the distribution system and must be addressed separately. This information can be provided to any customer to help them understand the power quality that can be expected where they are connected to the system.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 21—Example voltage sag statistics (SARFI-70) at

Figure 21—Example voltage sag statistics (SARFI-70) at utility substations

3.4.3 Transients

Voltage transients can also be an important consideration for the quality of supply. Transients can be caused by lightning during storms or by almost any switching event on the power system. Transients can be classified into two basic categories, impulsive and oscillatory. These terms reflect the waveshape of the current or voltage transient. An impulsive transient is a sudden, non-power frequency change in the steady state condition of the voltage or current that may be unidirectional in polarity (positive or negative with respect to point of initiation on the supply frequency wave). Impulsive transients are normally characterized by their rise and decay times. It is good practice to include surge protection for a facility or at least critical equipment to avoid failures caused by excessive transient voltages.

Conversely, oscillatory transients may affect equipment even with transient protection for high-magnitude (impulsive) transients. For instance, adjustable speed drives can sometimes be affected by capacitor switching transients (Figure 22) because these transients can have enough energy to charge up the direct current (dc) capacitor in the drives to levels that will cause tripping on the dc overvoltage setting. Capacitor switching transients can also cause problems with low-voltage power factor correction equipment, electronic ballasts for fluorescent lighting, and other electronic equipment. Transients like the one in Figure 22 are a normal part of the electric supply. Understanding this can help in developing appropriate specifications for adjustable speed drives and other critical equipment. Usually, the logical mitigation in such cases will be the addition of line reactors or isolation transformers installed for the affected equipment.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 22—Example of a typical transient voltage

Figure 22—Example of a typical transient voltage characteristic that could occur when a substation capacitor bank is energized

Utilities do employ various measures to limit the capacitor switching transient because of capacitor bank switching at the transmission voltage level. These measures may include the use of pre-insertion resistors or inductors in the switching device or even synchronous closing control schemes. However, most utilities do not employ any transient limiting measures for distribution line capacitor banks.

Surge arresters installed by utilities are designed to protect high-voltage equipment by limiting the transient voltage levels on the system. However, the arresters installed at MV and HV are not adequate to protect customers’ facilities from transient activity. IEEE 62 series covers surge protection devices.

3.4.4 Frequency deviations

Frequency is directly related to the rotational speed of the generators in the network. The frequency of the electrical supply is the one variable that is the same value in steady state at every point within an interconnected network. In other words, during steady-state conditions, the all generators are rotating in synchronism. A variation in frequency is determined by the variation of the active power requirements of the customers on the network. As the active power requirements of the network increase or decrease, the frequency of the generators would tend to decrease or increase, respectively. However, generators have automated speed regulators (ASRs), also known as governors, that react to changing load requirements and maintain the system frequency by continuously adjusting the speed of the rotor. This acts to create a continuous balance between the generated power output and the active power requirements on the system. Utilities must maintain a substantial level of spinning reserve to maintain that balance always when power requirements increase.

Frequency is normally very tightly controlled in interconnected utilities. Because of historic dependency of power system synchronized clocks (such as common alarm clocks) on frequency, small deviations in this frequency are accumulated, and this accumulation is periodically balanced back to zero. For example, at all times except during disturbances, the frequency deviation of the voltage in the Western United States has been found not to exceed 0.015 Hz (PacifiCorp, Engineering Handbook [B51]). However, when major disturbances occur on the transmission system, the frequency can temporarily deviate from normal steady- state performance. These deviations are of two types: large generation/load imbalances and major blackouts.

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3.4.4.1 Large generation/load imbalances

When large generators or large loads, sized at several hundred megawatts, suddenly trip offline, the interconnected power system is left with an imbalance of active power. It compensates for this by adjusting its frequency. For example, in the interconnected Western United States power system, this frequency deviation has been measured during such disturbances and found not to exceed 0.10 Hz and to last for no more than a few seconds. Corrective action is taken by generator governors and usually last no more than a few minutes. Such an event occurs somewhere in a large interconnected power system several times per month.

3.4.4.2 Major blackouts

When a large portion of an interconnected power system trips offline, the balance of the system may be left with an enormous active power imbalance. Protection schemes are put in place usually to prevent such a disturbance from blacking out the entire interconnected system. When this happens, the portion of the power system that remains with power can deviate in frequency by as much as 0.75 Hz. This kind of disturbance is rare in developed countries.

3.5 Conclusions

There is a wide range of power quality variations that can be important to a facility engineer. Understanding the power quality that can be expected from the supply system is a critical part of developing the best design for equipment specifications and for the facility protection.

Electrical power is a product that is generated, delivered, and used practically instantaneously. As a result, there are some unique challenges when it comes to quality control. The use of the product, the sine wave of voltage, is ultimately affected by both how it is delivered and how it is used. Understanding the normal variability of the steady-state parameters and the characteristics of disturbances is important when trying to identify power quality issues for particular customers.

In general, equipment should be designed to withstand the normal steady-state power quality variations that can be expected as part of the normal operation of the power system. However, it is unrealistic to expect the equipment to handle all disturbances that occur. Understanding the expected disturbances and how often they can occur is necessary to optimize investments in equipment protection.

Electric utilities must design for electric systems that provide a balance among cost, quality, and reliability of the electricity delivered to the majority of users. Designing for near-perfect power quality is seldom justifiable and rarely necessary. The clauses and subclauses that follow, concerning susceptible loads and end user power conditioning, explain why some customer loads are more susceptible to voltage disturbances than others and the range of measures available to help address the needs of the sensitive equipment.

4. Susceptibility of power system loads

Digital electronic devices, particularly those with a memory, are extremely susceptible to very short- duration power disturbances. These disturbances may result in customer complaints unless adequate ride- through capability is provided. This clause discusses some common devices that can be included in the category of susceptible loads.

4.1 Types of susceptible loads

Minicomputers, electronic cash registers, and data terminals are a few examples of susceptible loads that often fall victim to momentary voltage disturbances. These disturbances can interrupt the operation of susceptible circuitry and cause memory loss, system malfunction, or component failure.

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4.1.1 Computers

It is reasonable to expect that quality computer equipment will generally meet the requirements of the conceptual voltage tolerance curve shown in Figure 23. The ITI curve is actually an envelope that defines the transient and steady-state limits within which the input voltage can vary without either affecting the proper performance of computer equipment or damaging it. Computer power supplies generate harmonic distortion and typically are not very susceptible to it unless the voltage waveform is very distorted. Distortion of the voltage near the zero crossings can cause timing errors.

the voltage near the zero crossings can cause timing errors. Figure 23—ITI (formerly CBEMA) Curve—2000 4.1.2

Figure 23—ITI (formerly CBEMA) Curve—2000

4.1.2 Process control

The microprocessor and microcomputer have fostered the emergence of a new family of commercial and industrial process automation techniques, which are referred to as facility management systems (for commercial buildings) and flexible manufacturing systems (for industrial applications). Commercial facility management systems typically include sensors for input data, remote terminal units, the central processor,

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and man–machine interface devices. The functions managed can include heating, ventilating, and air-

conditioning; security; access control; and energy management. Industrial flexible manufacturing systems

are assemblies of machine tools, cutting tools, and work piece-handling devices employed to process a variety of finished parts.

The previous discussion on computer sensitivity likewise applies to process control. In addition, motor

starters, contactors, relays, and other devices held closed by a coil and magnetic structure are especially susceptible to short-time interruptions and voltage sags. As a guide, a voltage sag to 60% or 70% of rated voltage for 0.5 s will de-energize many of these devices. Many control relays, sealed-in by their own contacts, will drop out if voltage is lost for 0.5 cycles or more (IEEE Std 446-1995 [B26]).

4.1.3 Telecommunications

When considering the susceptibility of telecommunications equipment, a distinction should be made

between common equipment in the public telecommunications network and individual terminal equipment

that

connects to the network. Most of the critical common equipment uses batteries to buffer disturbances

and

interruptions of the electric utility service, so short-term transients normally have little or no effect on

the power supply, but a transient can couple in through the phone or network connections and cause significant damage if unprotected. Also, the individual terminals that connect to the public telecommunication networks often connect directly to the electric utility service and are subjected to disturbances.

ATIS-0600315.2018 [B4], among other things, specifies the susceptibility to interruption, sag, and disturbance for dc-powered network telecommunications equipment power supplies, similar to the ITI curve for ac-powered computer and industrial process equipment. In short, dc power supplies for network telecommunications equipment should have enough capacitance built in to ride through complete loss of dc power input for up to 10 ms.

4.1.4 Electric arc lighting

High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting includes mercury, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lamps used for security and street lighting applications. In the event of a power interruption or voltage sag lasting more than one cycle, HID lamps extinguish and do not restart for several minutes. The exact magnitude of the voltage drop causing this condition depends on the lamp ballast.

4.1.5 Consumer electronics

An ever-increasing variety and number of digital electronics are found in digital video recorders,

microwave ovens, stereos, televisions, and clocks. Some of these have back-up systems (e.g., batteries) that

prevent disruption to timer/clock functions when power is lost for short periods of time. Others do not.

4.1.6 Adjustable speed drives

Adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are used to control the speed, torque, acceleration, and direction of the rotation of a motor. Unlike constant speed systems, the ASD permits the selection of an infinite number of speeds within its operating range. The two basic types of ASDs commonly used today are dc drives and adjustable alternating current (ac) frequency drives.

DC drives utilize a power converter to convert the fixed ac voltage to an adjustable dc output for

controlling a dc motor. Adjustable-frequency ac drives convert three-phase 60 Hz input power to an adjustable frequency source for controlling the speed of squirrel-cage induction motors or other ac motors.

Problems have been documented involving nuisance tripping of some manufacturers’ ac drives because of switching transients associated with capacitors on the customer’s or utility’s system.

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4.2 Ride-through capability

The practice of removing temporary faults on utility systems calls for tripping the circuit breaker (or recloser), reclosing, and repeating these steps a number of times if the initial trip and reclose operation is not successful in clearing the fault.

If reclosing is successful on the initial attempt, then customer loads on the faulted circuit would have

experienced a complete loss of voltage for a duration ranging from approximately 3 cycles to several seconds, depending on the characteristics of the protective device as well as on the reclosing cycle used by the particular utility. For adjacent circuits connected to the same substation bus, a voltage sag is experienced for the duration of the fault; although this sag may last for only a few cycles, the voltage can

be low enough to cause susceptible equipment to reset or ASDs to trip.

Subsequent reclosing attempts commonly involve durations of 15 s or more during which the circuit voltage supply is interrupted. Figure 23 shows that most computer equipment can tolerate a complete loss of voltage for 0.5 cycles (60 Hz basis) or less. Thus, a single reclosing operation would cause this equipment to malfunction.

Momentary power interruptions can result in a wide variety of user equipment problems, ranging in severity from blinking clocks to the shutdown of a factory process. Most of the momentary interruptions result from circuit breakers (or reclosers) tripping and reclosing to clear temporary faults and thus to avoid long-term interruptions.

Power supplies found in susceptible equipment have some inherent ride-through capability. Typical ride-

through capabilities of power supplies range from 10 ms to 25 ms. This time is too short to be of much help

in averting problems associated with utility momentary interruptions; it may, however, be sufficient to

allow the operation of static switches or other high-speed source transfer devices used to assure the supply

of power to susceptible equipment.

A study of electronically controlled consumer electronic equipment (Anderson and Bowes [B2]) indicates

that without battery backup, loss of memory occurs for relatively short interruptions of supply power. Digital clocks, microwave ovens, and videocassette recorders (VCRs) were tested for susceptibility to voltage abnormalities. Although there were significant differences between the models studied, the average

data indicates that 40% of all clocks malfunctioned for a 120-cycle (2 s) interruption, and all malfunctioned

at 1000 cycles. All microwave ovens malfunctioned at 120 cycles; 62% of the VCRs malfunctioned at

120 cycles, and all malfunctioned at 1000 cycles, except two VCRs that had battery backup (these withstood all momentary interruptions). An extension of this study to personal computers and printers (Bowes [B6]) showed that all these devices malfunctioned with a six-cycle interruption, with four computers malfunctioning for interruption durations of one cycle or less.

Based on a survey of 95 companies, 90% of all first recloser operations used by electric utilities occur within 10 s (IEEE Power and Energy Society [B25]).

5. Power quality improvements for end users

Given the rapid growth in the utilization of computers, adjustable speed drives, programmable logic controllers, and other susceptible loads that are vulnerable to misoperation from voltage disturbances, it is useful to consider the range of measures that is available to help address the special electrical needs of this type of equipment. Optimizing power quality is a process of weighing the costs of mitigating actions against the benefits of improved productivity.

As an alternative to modifying their electrical systems, customers may attempt to specify and purchase less susceptible or more tolerant load equipment. IEEE Std 1346-1998 [B32] is an important reference on equipment sensitivity issues. It is also important to assure that equipment ratings match the voltage that is being supplied to the equipment. For example, 220 V equipment is not well served by 208 V.

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5.1 End user wiring and grounding

On the end user side, building wiring problems, such as poor connections, open neutrals, overloads, faults, or locally generated switching transients, need to be considered before the addition of power conditioning. Also, grounding techniques may affect the performance of equipment and, most importantly, may amplify load equipment sensitivity and the adverse effects of voltage disturbances.

5.1.1 Grounding, noise elimination, and circuit design

Before considering power conditioning equipment, it is important that the installation be thoroughly checked to determine whether there are other problems that might adversely affect susceptible equipment. Often it is found that very simple actions, such as the tightening of a loose connection, can correct a problem that is perceived as bad power quality. Obviously, such problems should be addressed before more costly measures are considered. Overloads or bad electrical connections often appear as localized hot spots in energized electrical equipment. Infrared heat scans for location of such hot spots are widely accepted in today’s industry for monitoring the health of electrical equipment. These scans save millions of dollars each year in reduced unscheduled downtime and lower capital costs relating to repair of failed equipment (Holliday and Kay [B17]).

Where appropriate, the susceptible equipment should be fed with a separate “dedicated” circuit, which connects as close as possible to the utility source to minimize effects of other customer loads that could otherwise cause voltage disturbances. This may require the use of extra transformers, circuits, conduit, and equipment. Exposure to overvoltage transients may be limited by appropriate application of low-voltage surge-protection equipment.

Noise problems in susceptible-equipment installations most often result from improper grounding practices. Proper grounding techniques are outside the scope of this guide. Refer to IEEE Std 1100-2005 [B30] for extensive information on this subject.

5.2 Premium power solutions

Premium power solutions are sometimes offered by an electrical utility at an extra cost. These solutions can be managed by the end user seeking to reduce production disruptions from power quality problems such as voltage sags. Often, premium power solutions utilize a third-party solution provider for maintenance, operation, and even capital investment. They typically employ technology (power electronics equipment, devices, circuit configurations, etc.) at 1 kV through 38 kV to mitigate power quality problems upstream of a facility. Generally, these solutions are more attractive if the economics are considered on a long-term model. Some examples of premium power solutions are covered in more detail in the subclauses that follow. IEEE Std 1564-2014 [B35] identifies appropriate voltage sag indices and characteristics on electrical power and supply systems as well as the methods for calculating them. It is called the System Average RMS (Variation) Frequency Index (SARFI). Methods are provided for quantifying the severity of individual voltage sag events (single-event characteristics), for quantifying the performance of multiple events at a specific location (single-site indices), and for quantifying the performance of multiple events for the whole system (system indices). The methods are appropriate for use in 50/60 Hz transmission, distribution, and utilization electric power systems, though there may be applications to systems with other fundamental frequencies.

5.2.1 Static transfer switch (with dual feed)

If a facility has access to two independent utility power feeds, a static line transfer switch can be considered. The capability to switch power rapidly to an alternate supply can address a high percentage of power problems, depending on how separate the two sources are. Static switches, of course, are not effective in the event of a common disturbance, as might be the case for a fault on the utility transmission system.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 24—Static transfer switch A typical static switch

Figure 24—Static transfer switch

A typical static switch power circuit consists of two pairs of thyristors per phase connected as shown in the

upper portion of Figure 24. When the preferred source is of proper voltage, control logic turns on its

thyristors. Power can then flow from the preferred source to the load. The control logic is typically equipped with three “preferred source voltage sensors,” which monitor overvoltage, undervoltage, and loss

of voltage, as shown in the lower portion of Figure 24.

The static switch can automatically transfer susceptible loads when power is suddenly lost on either one of the two synchronized incoming utility lines without disturbance. Total sensing and transfer time is within a quarter of a cycle (<5 ms) and should not affect most susceptible-equipment operations.

Figure 25 illustrates the trip and reclose sequence of a typical substation circuit breaker that would coordinate with the automatic transfer of a typical switch. Deviations outside the preset limits (set points) shown in Figure 24 cause the static switch to transfer to the alternate source. Transfer is prevented, however, if the alternate source voltage is not present.

Upon restoration of preferred voltage above the “return to preferred” level and below the overvoltage level for a timed period, the control logic checks for synchronism of the phase and voltage balance between the preferred and alternate sources and then initiates retransfer to preferred.

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If, during normal operation, a malfunction of the static switch occurs that would otherwise cause a disturbance to the load, automatic transfer and latch to the alternate source takes place to maintain load power continuity.

Properly made static switches are dependable and inherently maintenance free with no periodic exercising requirements to maintain high-speed operation and no contacts to clean.

to maintain high-speed operation and no contacts to clean. Figure 25—Typical substation breaker trip and reclose

Figure 25—Typical substation breaker trip and reclose sequence

5.2.2 Dynamic voltage restorer

Another option for protecting plant intake from voltage sags is the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) that can be applied at the medium voltage level. The DVR is a custom power technology for power quality improvement on distribution circuits.

The DVR works on the principle of supplying the missing voltage as shown in Figure 25. The unit does this utilizing a series connected transformer to the load, through which the power electronics can boost the voltage. The voltage boost obtained is the ratio of the device size to the load. Generally, DVRs have been applied most commonly at 30% to 40% boost.

The basic DVR configuration is illustrated in Figure 26. The system injects a compensation voltage in series with the line by connection of fast switching inverter on the secondary of a transformer in the line. The inverter can create compensation voltages to correct for some transients, as well as voltage sags.

to correct for some transients, as well as voltage sags. Figure 26—One line diagram illustrating DVR

Figure 26—One line diagram illustrating DVR operation

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5.3 End-user power conditioning (within the facility)

On the customer side, equipment operation, circuit design, and power-conditioning measures can be used to mitigate or protect against voltage disturbances. The source of these voltage disturbances may be from the customer as well as from the utility side of the meter.

5.3.1 Overview of power conditioners

Many types of conditioners are available, ranging from the very inexpensive, which protect against only the least significant types of voltage disturbances, to the expensive, which protect against almost all eventualities. Table 6 is a summary and comparison of power conditioners.

Table 6—Power conditioner comparison

Power

conditioner type

Relative

cost

Surge

protection

Sag

or swell

Undervoltage

(sustained)

Overvoltage

(sustained)

Harmonic

distortion

Conducted

noise

Outage ride-

through

(%) a

protection

protection

protection

capability

Surge

<1

X

         

nil

suppressors

Filters

<1

       

SP

X

nil

Low-voltage

               

line reactors

<1

X

nil

Constant

               

voltage

35

X

X

X

A

X

1 cycle

transformers

Motor

               

generators

45

X

X

X

P

X

A

0.3 s a

High-speed

75

X

X

X

X

X

A

60 s

flywheel

Dual feeders

50100

             

b

Static transfer

25

A

X

 

X

   

continuous

Standby UPS

60

A

X

A

X

A

A

15

min

On-line UPS

60

X

X

X

X

X

X

15

min

UPS and

               

engine

100

X

X

X

X

X

X

continuous

generator

NOTE—X = protection provided; SP = special distortion-correction filters are available; A = available or provided; P = very short periods only.

a 1 s with flywheel. b Requires two or more independent sources.

5.3.2 High-reliability power backup systems

In most susceptible-equipment sites, operation of the susceptible equipment without cooling can extend to about 15 min. Beyond that time, even with susceptible-equipment power available, the system should be shut down if both the susceptible equipment and its cooling system are not on backup power. To provide for indefinite interruptions of both, a combination of UPS and engine generator is added.

Figure 27 illustrates such a system. The UPS operates normally, conditioning the power to the susceptible equipment with the engine generator at rest. Upon loss of power, the battery continues to supply the susceptible equipment, while the cooling and lighting loads go out.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 27—Combination UPS and engine generator After a

Figure 27—Combination UPS and engine generator

After a preset period intended to prevent nuisance starts (typically 15 s to 30 s), the engine generator automatically starts and restores power to the cooling and lighting systems and to the UPS. Normal UPS operation resumes when the UPS battery is no longer in service. The presence of the generator permits the use of smaller batteries that may have about 5 min of storage. While operating in this mode, the engine generator may be subjected to sudden load changes, such as the starting of a compressor motor in the air conditioning system. This situation can cause a momentary frequency excursion, because of engine-speed change, until corrected by the governor. The frequency (and/or its rate of change) can exceed the tolerance of the susceptible equipment causing malfunctions. However, with the interposing UPS, the frequency can be maintained within tolerance, eliminating possible problems.

Engine generators increase the cost and maintenance of an installation and should be added only if long interruptions are anticipated and if these losses create a significant problem.

5.3.3 Uninterruptible power supply

UPS systems are an important solution to provide the continuous operation of computer or other susceptible systems when line voltage interruptions last approximately 0.5 s or longer (a common event for utility fault clearing). A UPS can provide continuous regulated power under all normal and abnormal utility power conditions, including interruptions.

UPS systems are typically solid state, although some are currently made using rotating machinery in combination with solid-state conversion. UPS systems have three general configurations, as illustrated in simplified form in Figure 28. Most systems contain a storage battery, though some systems use high-speed flywheels or other technologies for energy storage.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 28—UPS configurations 5.3.3.1 Standby UPS systems A

Figure 28—UPS configurations

5.3.3.1 Standby UPS systems

A standby UPS system includes a rectifier/battery charger, a static inverter, and a static automatic-transfer switch. The normal flow of power is directly from the line to the load through the transfer switch. In some versions, however, a regulator is included on the line side or on the load side of the transfer switch to provide output regulation to susceptible loads. In the event of incoming power loss, the transfer switch is actuated to pick up the inverter output, which delivers phase-synchronized power to susceptible loads, usually resulting in less than a 0.25-cycle interruption.

During ac line failure, a standby UPS supplies susceptible-equipment power from the battery through the inverter.

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5.3.3.2 Online UPS systems

An online UPS system, which includes a larger rectifier/battery charger than the other systems, provides power to the load through the rectifier and inverter. During a line failure, the inverter operates from the battery to provide phase-synchronized power to the susceptible load. In the event of inverter output failure or overload, phase synchronized transfer to the bypass line results in an interruption of less than 0.25 cycles.

5.3.3.3 Rotary UPS systems

Rotary UPSs are gaining in popularity for very large size applications. These units are available, up to 10 000 kVA. Figure 29 is a block diagram of a rotary UPS. It is similar in concept to a conventional M-G set, where the main difference is that a rotary UPS system utilizes a battery bank for energy storage. This enables a rotary UPS to provide a ride though time of several minutes, depending on the battery bank sizing. During normal operation, the motor turns the generator, while the battery bank is charged by a separate dc generator. During a power failure, the dc motor turns the ac generator, using battery power. The transition to and from battery power is accomplished by motor controls without the use of contactors or switches so that the ac generator output is totally uninterrupted. This type of design completely eliminates the rectifier/charger, inverter, and static bypass switch of conventional UPS systems.

and static bypass switch of conventional UPS systems. Figure 29—Rotary UPS 5.3.4 Power distribution units (PDUs)

Figure 29—Rotary UPS

5.3.4 Power distribution units (PDUs)

Many grounding problems for large data processing rooms can be avoided, and safer installations can be provided by the use of properly designed PDUs, usually arranged for installation on a computer room floor close to the loads that they serve (Figure 30).

These units generally contain input isolating (and usually step-down) transformers with electrostatic shielding to minimize the effects of potential line-to-ground noise. They include a main circuit breaker that provides isolation and emergency power-off by push button. The transformers feed panel boards that are equipped with multiple circuit breakers (and sometimes fuses). Each circuit breaker is connected to a properly wired and properly grounded flexible under-floor cable with plug-compatible receptacle for the susceptible equipment it serves (Figure 30 illustrates a typical PDU circuit, several of which might be used in a large installation). PDUs can also be equipped with power monitoring and alarm functions, as well as some simple forms of power conditioning. Note that typical utility distribution transformers are not shielded and, hence, cannot be relied on to provide such shielding in situations where no power distribution unit exists.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 30—Power distribution unit 5.3.5 Voltage sag

Figure 30—Power distribution unit

5.3.5 Voltage sag correctors

As voltage sags are much more common than complete interruptions, voltage sag correctors provide for an important need, particularly in industrial applications. Generally, these devices do not provide backup power to the load; rather, they simply seek to restore the missing voltage. In this way, voltage sag correctors can be smaller and much less expensive than UPS systems.

5.3.5.1 Constant voltage transformers (CVT)

CVTs, aka ferroresonant regulators, consist of a linear and a nonlinear inductor as well as a capacitor in a parallel resonant circuit with the nonlinear inductor (Figure 31).

These elements are generally incorporated into an isolation transformer configuration together with additional filtering to eliminate self-induced harmonics. This filtering can handle a reasonable level of harmonic distortion at the output induced by nonlinear computer load, but excess harmonics can produce overheating of the regulator. The circuit is tuned to the rated output voltage and frequency.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 31—Ferroresonant regulator Ferroresonant regulators

Figure 31—Ferroresonant regulator

Ferroresonant regulators maintain a constant output voltage for a wide range of input voltage, particularly

at a light load. Their inherent current-limiting characteristic, which limits maximum current at full voltage,

can be a limitation when starting motors or computer central processing units. Because of this characteristic, they are generally operated at a considerably underrated condition. Some short-term overvoltages occur at the output ferroresonant regulator upon recovery from an interruption.

The tuned circuit has a small amount of stored energy and will ride through interruptions of about one cycle, provided the interruption is not a fault close to the input, which would drain the stored energy. It will not ride through a 0.5 s interruption typical of the automatic reclosure on a utility circuit; however, many will ride through up to 50% voltage sag for 0.5 s, which would probably be sufficient to handle fault clearing on a nearby circuit. Ferroresonant regulators are large and heavy because of the magnetics involved, but they are simple and reliable.

5.3.5.2 Motor-generator sets

Motor-generator sets consist of electric motors driving ac generators. The load is supplied by the generator and is electrically isolated from the utility supply. Motor-generators can isolate the load from impulses and from voltage sags and swells. For power-line voltage changes of ±20% or more, voltage to the load is maintained at nominal.

A useful feature of the motor-generator is its ability to bridge severe short-term sags or interruptions. The

inertia of the rotating elements permits the motor-generator to span interruptions of up to about 0.3 s. This

is mainly limited by the drop in frequency (speed) as energy is removed. This period can be extended by

adding inertia via a flywheel as shown in Figure 32. This amount of time provides protection for the common case of fault clearing and reclosing on a utility distribution system. Some systems use variable- speed constant frequency or quick-starting engine generator techniques to get more advantage from the flywheel inertia. The cost is considerably higher than conventional motor-generators. The motor-generator set with flywheel is sometimes classified as UPS equipment.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 32—Motor-generator set with flywheel The problems

Figure 32—Motor-generator set with flywheel

The problems with motor-generators are mostly on the output or load side. High generator output impedance can cause substantial voltage sags in response to sudden load changes, such as resulting from large motor-starting current, and response to load changes can be sluggish. Also, unless it is oversized, the drive motor may overheat under long-term, low-line voltage conditions.

Motor-generator efficiency is typically relatively low, so that electrical energy costs over its lifetime may be substantial. Heat dissipation, equipment weight and bulk, and the potential for audible noise are factors that should be considered in motor-generator installations. Essentially silent machines are available at extra cost. Bearings should be inspected and periodically replaced and/or lubricated in many cases, particularly when flywheels are used. Reliability potential, however, is very high.

5.3.5.3 Active voltage conditioner

Active voltage conditioners are low-voltage, inverter-based power conditioners. These devices are designed to provide voltage sag ride through capability to industrial, three-phase equipment. They are often applied to machining centers and extrusion process, to prevent costly shut downs and equipment failures. Smaller units (10 kVA to 200 kVA units) generally depend on electronics, whereas larger units (200 kVA to 10 000 kVA) may employ an injection transformer in a similar manner to the dynamic voltage restorer.

The key specifications for an active voltage conditioner are the efficiency, power rating, allowable voltage sag depth (provided voltage correction), and the duration of the correction. Often these units are sized to provide correction for the most common voltage sags (30% of depth). This sizing realizes that it would take a much more expensive unit to correct for deeper voltage sag events that are not as common. An economic model is usually developed, in conjunction with the annual voltage sag profile of the facility, to determine the optimal sizing and expenditure required.

5.4 Controlling harmonics

In general, electrical and electronic equipment, such as rectifier power supplies, are not greatly affected by small amounts of harmonic distortion. Problems may occur where there is enough harmonic current distortion to affect the supply voltage adversely. High levels of reactive harmonic current injection may overload building wiring and service transformers and may cause abnormal rms voltage or very distorted waveshape.

5.4.1 Harmonics at point of use

IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28] recommends total demand distortion limits at the point of common coupling to other users, including the effect of customer load-induced harmonics. In actual practice, the utility system distortion is usually less than the proposed limits, but the customer load-induced harmonics often cause voltage THD to exceed 5% at the point of use. Also, current distortion in three-phase, four-wire systems

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feeding multiple nonlinear single-phase loads, such as computer power supplies, often creates excessive neutral current. The result may be wiring overloads and fire hazards or damage to the delta-wye supply transformer typically provided.

It is recommended that the harmonic current limits be followed to protect the facility power system, which is probably more vulnerable to adverse harmonic effects than the facility loads.

The following actions help reduce the effects of load-induced waveform distortion (Griffith [B16] provides more detail):

Reduce the impedance of the power source. A larger source transformer (or generator) of the same type will have a lower impedance and will reduce voltage distortion proportionally. This may also be necessary to accommodate the extra heating because of third harmonics (and odd multiples of third) circulating in the delta winding (CBEMA [B8]). This is typically an expensive solution.

Move the symptomatic load to a lower impedance circuit. The best results occur when a dedicated circuit is run from the main service transformer to the load or to a step down transformer adjacent to the load.

Move the harmonic-producing loads to other circuits. The best results occur when the harmonic- producing loads are moved to a circuit that is on a separate power source, thereby providing some degree of electrical isolation.

For the special case of third harmonics and their odd multiples, a properly sized delta-connected transformer will provide a circulating path for these harmonics, reducing their effect upstream from the transformer (toward the power source and other loads common to it). Single-phase rectified input switching power supplies are rich in third harmonic current but contain significant higher-order harmonics.

Provide harmonic filters in lieu of capacitors to control harmonic current flow.

In three-phase systems, harmonics can also be mitigated by special transformer circuitry. One example is the use of a zigzag transformer or a Scott-T or T-connected transformer.

In three-phase systems supplying separate single-phase loads with nonsinusoidal current input, the shared neutral circuit should be increased in current rating to about twice the phase rating (CBEMA [B8]). The capability of the supply transformer should be checked for the nonsinusoidal load by consulting IEEE Std C57.110-2008 [B38].

5.4.2 Harmonic filters

Harmonic filters are designed to control the level of voltage and current distortion generated by all the elements of the equipment to which they are connected, including susceptible equipment, which often generates distortion by itself. Filters consist of active or passive circuit elements. Most such filters in use today are passive and provide a short-circuit path for the harmonics generated by the load using one or more series-tuned traps.

Problems in application include excessive voltage or current resulting from resonance with other elements in the power system and excessive power frequency current drawn by the filter. In addition, because of their low impedance to specific harmonics, they attract currents of the same harmonic if they exist elsewhere on the power system, potentially overloading the filter. For these reasons, such filters are generally applied on an engineered or special basis. However, some filters come with isolating and/or power-factor-correcting circuitry as a standard feature that can mitigate these problems.

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5.5 Surge protective devices (SPDs)

SPDs protect susceptible electronic equipment from surges. These devices usually contain component(s) that provide a voltage-dependent diversion of surge current. Some units also contain passive filter components, such as series inductors and parallel capacitors.

Two of the most common voltage-dependent components that are used in these devices are metal oxide varistors and large junction avalanche diodes that are specifically designed for surge diversion.

Components exhibiting surge-protection characteristics are often integrated into the PDUs, UPSs, power supplies, and power-conditioning equipment. However, these provide a level of surge protection that may not be adequate for all conditions. Additional surge protection may be needed, depending on the severity of the environment.

The proper application of an SPD requires a coordinated approach based on the expected energy deposition into the candidate device at the applied location. Typically, a building service entrance or main panel device would be expected to divert a greater part of the surge current than a device installed at a secondary panel, a receptacle, or within equipment. If two SPDs are installed in cascade, coordination of the operation—that is, energy deposition commensurate with the respective ratings of the two devices— depends on the relative clamping voltages of the devices, on the distance separating them, and on the waveform (postulated in the absence of known specifics about the installation) of the impinging surge (Lai and Martzloff [B42]).

The selection of the appropriate voltage rating is based on the nominal service voltage, including normal and abnormal upward deviations (ANSI C84.1-2016 [B3]) and the maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV) of the SPD. The MCOV rating of the SPD should be selected to be at least 120% of the nominal rms service voltage (Standler [B60] and CIGRE C4.7 [B10]). Specifying the MCOV to be between 150% and 200% of the nominal rms service voltage provides additional protection against degradation of the SPD by swells or relatively low-level transient overvoltages (Martzloff and Leedy [B46]). More information on surge protective devices can be found in UL 1449 [B64] and IEEE C62 series of documents.

5.6 Special considerations for variable frequency drives (VFDs)

5.6.1 Input line reactors

Low-voltage line reactors (inductors) provide an alternative to isolation transformers for attenuating voltage disturbances on susceptible circuits. They have been successfully applied to three-phase ac ASDs to prevent nuisance overvoltage tripping during capacitor switching. The additional series inductance of the reactor reduces the current surge into the ASD, thereby limiting the dc overvoltage.

5.6.2 Effect of VFD inverter switching pulses on motors

VFDs most commonly utilize insulated gate bipolar transistors to invert the dc bus voltage to the variable voltage and frequency required to control the speed of the ac motor. However, the pulse width modulated output of the drive unit also generates a voltage rise (dv/dt) on the output waveform. It is not uncommon for the voltage rise to approach 10 kV/μs.

When the motor is separated from the VFD by more than a critical length of cable, these pulses reflect back upon themselves at the motor, and can be damaging to the motor insulation. The critical length is determined by the pulse rise time (to 50% value) and the travel time of the cable. The velocity of a traveling wave in a cable can be estimated at 1 × 10 8 m/s. With most VFDs, the critical length will be longer than 7.62 m (25 ft).

Inverter duty motors can be employed to address this concern, which is highlighted in IEEE Std 841 -2009 [B29] and NEMA MG 1 [B50]. Also, line terminators can be installed at the motors, or line reactors can be installed on the output of the VFD to address this concern.

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5.7 Special considerations for residential loads

The home office needs for quality power may require better service reliability than that normally supplied by the area electric power supplier (area EPS), because the area EPS service is subjected to the extensive environmental exposures (lightning, wind, tree contact, etc.) as well as harmonics generated by other customers. Depending upon the criticality of the home office business, consideration should be given to the addition of power conditioning equipment, a UPS for short-term momentary disturbances and/or on-site emergency generation to address long time loss of electric service.

5.8 Economic analysis of power conditioning alternatives

Figure 33 illustrates a general approach to power conditioning. The usual approach is to place the power conditioner in front of the susceptible load. Figure 34 shows that this location can be interpreted in several different physical locations: anywhere from inside the plant to out on the utility system. It also shows that the cost of this protection increases as the location moves toward the utility system.

increases as the location moves toward the utility system. Figure 33—Approach to the application of power

Figure 33—Approach to the application of power conditioning equipment

The cost of protecting equipment from disturbances increases dramatically as one progresses out from the critical load locations. For example, a power conditioner that can be used to protect process controls, as opposed to the entire process, is smaller and much more economical. Therefore, it is very important first to understand the process completely before any power conditioning equipment is applied. Protection of an entire plant, for instance, is often very costly and generally not required. A site survey should always be done that characterizes susceptible and critical loads. Many plant loads may not be critical and, therefore, may not need power conditioning equipment.

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Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems Figure 34—Four locations for power conditioning equipment,

Figure 34—Four locations for power conditioning equipment, showing the relative economic cost and complexity

5.8.1 Cost/benefit considerations

Another key factor in the application of power conditioning equipment is cost/benefit. This refers to the economic justification and payback of applying power conditioning equipment. Some customers may have processes very critical in nature, losing a tremendous amount of money every time a power quality event occurs. This can be attributed to production downtime and/or lost product. Some industries are much more vulnerable to power quality variations and, therefore, tend to have a quicker payback when applying power conditioning equipment. This type of cost/benefit analysis should be done as part of any power conditioning application project. Table 7 provides an example of cost/benefit analysis of power quality solutions.

Table 7—Example results from cost/benefit analysis

Power conditioning technology

Cost benefit

Capital cost

Operating

Annual cost

Benefit/cost

cost

ratio

Utility side options

Feeder reactors

$ 375,000

$1,000,000

2%

$ 275,375

1.36

Static switch

$ 375,000

$

600,000

5%

$ 183,823

2.04

DVR

$ 822,500

$3,000,000

10%

$1,082,226

0.76

SSVR

$ 720,000

$3,000,000

10%

$1,074,627

0.67

Customer side options

CVTs

$ 389,000

$

200,000

15%

$

80,705

4.82

UPS protection

$ 903,750

$6,000,000

15%

$2,442,568

0.37

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Annex A

(informative)

Glossary

NOTE—Numbers in parentheses align with definition numbers in The IEEE Standards Dictionary Online. 3

current transformer (CT): (2) (metering) An instrument transformer designed for use in the measurement or control of current.

electromagnetic compatibility (EMC): (1) (supervisory control, data acquisition, and automatic control) (station control and data acquisition) A measure of equipment tolerance to external electromagnetic fields. (2) (control of system electromagnetic compatibility) The ability of a device, equipment, or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment.

electromagnetic disturbance: (1) An electromagnetic phenomenon that may be superimposed on a wanted signal. (2) (overhead power lines) Any electromagnetic phenomenon that may degrade the performance of a device, a piece of equipment, or a system.

equipment grounding conductor: (2) The conductor used to connect the noncurrent-carrying parts of conduits, raceways, and equipment enclosures to the grounding electrode at the service equipment (main panel) or secondary of a separately derived system.

frequency deviation: (5) An increase or decrease in the power frequency from nominal. The duration of a frequency deviation can be from several cycles to several hours.

ground: (3) (A) A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, by which an electric circuit or equipment is connected to the earth, or to some conducting body of relatively large extent that serves in place of the earth. (B) High frequency reference.

NOTE—Grounds are used for establishing and maintaining the potential of the earth (or of the conducting body) or approximately that potential, on conductors connected to it, and for conducting ground currents to and from earth (or the conducting body).

ground loop: (2) A potentially detrimental loop formed when two or more points in an electrical system that are nominally at ground potential are connected by a conducting path such that either or both points are not at the same ground potential.

harmonic: A sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.

NOTE—For example, a component, the frequency of which is twice the fundamental frequency, is called a second harmonic.

harmonic components: The components of the harmonic content expressed in terms of the order and rms (root-mean-square) values of the Fourier series terms describing the periodic function.

harmonic content: (1) The function obtained by subtracting the dc (direct current) and fundamental components from a nonsinusoidal periodic function. (2) The deviation from the sinusoidal form, expressed in terms of the order and magnitude of the Fourier series terms describing the wave. (3) Distortion of a sinusoidal waveform characterized by indication of the magnitude and order of the Fourier series terms describing the wave.

3 Notes in text, tables, and figures of a standard are given for information only and do not contain requirements needed to implement this standard.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

immunity (to a disturbance): The ability of a device, equipment, or system to perform without degradation in the presence of an electromagnetic disturbance.

isolated equipment ground: An isolated equipment grounding conductor run in the same conduit or raceway as the supply conductors. This conductor may be insulated from the metallic raceway and all ground points throughout its length. It originates at an isolated ground-type receptacle or equipment input terminal block and terminates at the point where neutral and ground are bonded at the power source.

isolation: (3) Separation of one section of a system from undesired influences of other sections.

maximum demand: (1) (power operations) The largest of a particular type of demand occurring within a specified period.

momentary: When used as a modifier to quantify the duration of a short duration variation, refers to a time range at the power frequency from 30 cycles to 3 s.

momentary interruption: A type of short duration variation. The complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one or more phase conductors for a time period between 0.5 cycles and 3 s.

noise: (11) Electrical noise is unwanted electrical signals that produce undesirable effects in the circuits of the control systems in which they occur.

nominal voltage: (3) A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 208/120, 480/277, 600).

nonlinear load: A load that draws a nonsinusoidal current wave when supplied by a sinusoidal voltage source.

notch: (2) A switching (or other) disturbance of the normal power voltage waveform, lasting less than a half cycle, which is initially of opposite polarity than the waveform and is thus subtracted from the normal waveform in terms of the peak value of the disturbance voltage. This includes complete loss of voltage for up to a half cycle.

oscillatory transient: A sudden, non-power frequency change in the steady-state condition of voltage or current that may occur on either the positive or negative polarity value.

overvoltage: (9) When used to describe a specific type of long duration variation, refers to a measured voltage having a value greater than the nominal voltage for a period of time greater than 1 min. Typical values are 1.1 pu to 1.2 pu.

potential transformer (PT); also, voltage transformer: (1) (voltage transformer). An instrument transformer that is intended to have its primary winding connected in shunt with a power-supply circuit, the voltage of which is to be measured or controlled.

power disturbance: Any deviation from the nominal value (or from some selected thresholds based on load tolerance) of the input ac power characteristics.

power quality: The concept of powering and grounding electronic equipment in a manner that is suitable to the operation of that equipment and compatible with the premise wiring system and other connected equipment.

pulse: (4) A wave that departs from an initial level for a limited duration of time and ultimately returns to the original level.

sag: (2) A decrease in rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations of 0.5 cycles to 1 min. Typical values are 0.1 pu to 0.9 pu.

shield: (7) (instrumentation cables) (cable systems) A metallic sheath, usually copper or aluminum, applied over the insulation of a conductor or conductors for the purpose of providing means for reducing electrostatic coupling between the conductors so shielded and others which may be susceptible to or which may be generating unwanted (noise) electrostatic fields.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

shielding: (3) The process of applying a conducting barrier between a potentially disturbing noise source and electronic circuitry. Shields are used to protect cables (data and power) and electronic circuits. Shielding may be accomplished by the use of metal barriers, enclosures, or wrappings around source circuits and receiving circuits.

Static series voltage regulator (SSVR): A device that boosts voltage under certain conditions to protect a load on a feeder branch from voltage dips.

sustained: When used to quantify the duration of a voltage interruption, refers to the time frame associated with a long duration variation (i.e., greater than 1 min).

sustained interruption: A type of long duration variation. The complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one of more phase conductors for a time greater than 1 min.

swell: (3) An increase in rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycles to 1 min. Typical values are 1.1 pu to 1.8 pu.

System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI): A commonly used reliability indicator by electric power utilities. It is the average number of interruptions that a customer would experience.

temporary interruption: A type of short duration variation. The complete loss of voltage (<0.1 pu) on one or more phase conductors for a time period between 3 s and 1 min.

total demand distortion (TDD): (1) The total root-sum-square harmonic current distortion, in percent of the maximum demand load current (15 min or 30 min demand).

point of common coupling (PCC): (3) The point at which the electric utility and the customer interface occurs. Typically, this point is the customer side of the utility revenue meter.

total harmonic distortion (THD), also distortion factor (harmonic factor): The ratio of the root-mean- square of the harmonic content to the root-mean-square value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as a percent of the fundamental.

transient: (7) Pertaining to or designating a phenomenon or a quantity that varies between two consecutive steady states during a time interval that is short compared to the time scale of interest. A transient can be a unidirectional impulse of either polarity or a damped oscillatory wave with the first peak occurring in either polarity.

undervoltage: (1) When used to describe a specific type of long duration variation, refers to a measured voltage having a value less than the nominal voltage for a period of time greater than 1 min. Typical values are 0.8 pu to 0.9 pu.

uninterruptible power supply (UPS): An electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails.

voltage distortion: Any deviation from the nominal sine waveform of the ac line voltage.

voltage imbalance, polyphase systems: The ratio of the negative or zero sequence component to the positive sequence component, usually expressed as a percentage. In the United States, it is also commonly measured as the ratio of the maximum deviation to the average of the three phases (ANSI C84.1-2016

[B3]).

voltage regulation: (6) The degree of control or stability of the rms voltage at the load. Often specified in relation to other parameters, such as input-voltage changes, load changes, or temperature changes.

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Annex B

(informative)

Lookup table of standards

Clause

Description

Relevant standard(s)

3.3

Steady State

IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20], EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14]

3.3

Measurement

IEC 61000-4-30: 2015 [B24], IEEE Std 1159-2009 [B31]

3.3.1

Voltage Regulation

ITIC, CBEMA

3.3.1.1

Voltage Regulation Limits

ANSI C84.1-2016 [B3], IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20], EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14]

3.3.2.1

Voltage Imbalance

ANSI C84.1-2016 [B3], IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20], EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14]

3.3.3.1

Voltage Distortion Limits

IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34], IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20], EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14]

3.3.4.1

Flicker

IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34], IEC 61000-4-15:2010 [B23], IEC 61000-2- 2:2002 [B20], IEC 61000-3-7:2008 [B21], EN-50160:2010/A1:2015

[B14]

3.3.4.2

Flicker Planning Limits

IEC 61000-3-7:2008 [B21]

3.3.4.3

Flicker Limits/Assessment

IEC 61000-2-2:2002 [B20], EN 50160:2010/A1:2015 [B14], IEC 61000- 4-15:2010 [B23]

3.3.6

Steady State Power quality

IEC 61000-4-30:2015 [B24]

3.4.1

Reliability Indices

IEEE Std 1366-2012 [B33]

3.4.2

Voltage Sag Indices

IEEE Std 493-2007 [B27], IEEE Std 1564-2014 [B35], IEEE Std 1668

[B36]

4.2.4

Voltage Distortion

IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28]

4.2.5

Voltage Fluctuations

IEEE Std 1453-2015 [B34]

5.1.1

Susceptible Loads—

IEEE Std 446-1995 [B26]

Computers

5.1.2

Susceptible Loads—Process Control

IEEE Std 446-1995 [B26]

6

Equipment Sensitivity

IEEE Std 1346-1998 [B32]

6.1.1

Grounding

IEEE Std 1100-2005 [B30]

6.4.1

Total Demand Distortion

IEEE Std 519-2014 [B28]

6.4.1

Nonsinusoidal Load

IEEE Std C57.110-2008 [B38]

6.5

Surge Protection Devices

ANSI C84.1-2016 [B3], CIGRE C4.7 [B10], UL 1449 [B64], IEEE Std C62 Series

6.6.2

VFD

IEEE Std 841-2009 [B29], NEMA MG 1 [B50]

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IEEE Std 1250-2018 IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems

Annex C

(informative)

Bibliography

[B1] Agamloh, E.B; Peele, Scott; and Grappe, Joe, “A comparative analysis of voltage magnitude deviation and unbalance on standard and premium efficient induction motors,” Conference Record of 2012 Annual IEEE Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference (PPIC), 1721 June 2012. 4

[B2]

equipment,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1062–1065, April 1990.

Anderson, L. M. and Bowes, K. B., “The effects of power-line disturbances on consumer electronic

[B3]

Voltage Ratings (60 Hertz). 5

ANSI C84.1-2016, American National Standard for Electric Power Systems and Equipment—

[B4]

Environment. 6

ATIS 0600315.2018, Voltage Levels for DC-Powered Equipment Used in the Telecommunications

[B5]

Bollen, M. H. J., Understanding Power Quality Problems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.