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Section A : Answer all questions

(40 marks)

1 Carbon-14 can be used to measure the approximate age of archaeological wood

samples. For this purpose it may be assumed that the proportion of carbon-14 in the
natural carbon of living wood is everywhere and at all times the same and that it begins to
change only after death. Suppose a piece of timber has been recovered from an
excavation, and from which 10 g of carbon is prepared.

(a) Determine the number of carbon- 14 atoms originally present in the sample, given that
the ratio of carbon 14 to natural carbon is 1.25 x 10-12 [2 marks]

(b) If the activity of the sample is found to be 0.703s-1 and the half-life of carbon-14 is
5760 years, estimate
(i) the number of carbon 14 atoms in the limber, and [2 marks]

(ii) the age of the sample in years, [2 marks]

2. A cannon launches a rocket straight upward with an initial speed equal to half the
escape speed. Assume that the mass of the Earth ME, the mass of rocket m and RE the
radius of the Earth.

(a) Find the initial energy of the rocket in terms of ME, m and RE [3 marks]

(b) How far from the centre of the Earth does this rocket travel before momentarily come
to rest? (Ignore air resistance in the Earth’s atmosphere) [2 marks]

3. The equation of a stationary wave is y = 0.40 sin( ) cos( 80 πt )

(a) What is the distance between neighbouring nodes of the stationary wave? [1 mark]

(b) What is the frequency of the vibration of its particles? [1 mark]

(c) Write down the expression for the velocity and acceleration of the particle
at position x = 5.0 m. [3 marks]

4. A fusion reaction is represented by the following equation

1 H +12 H →13 H +11H

Mass of deuterium, 1 H = 2.014102 u

Mass of Tritium, 1 H = 3.016049 u

Mass of Hydrogen, 1 H = 1.007825 u

(a) Calculate the energy, in MeV, released from the fusion reaction. [3 marks]

(b) Calculate the energy released from the fusion of 1.0 kg of deuterium. [2 marks]

5 A circuit consists of a 126 Ω resistor, a 275 Ωresistor and a 182 µF capacitor, a
switch and a 3.0 V battery all connected in series. Initially the capacitor is unchanged and
the switch is open. At time t=0 the switch is closed

(a) What charge will the capacitor have a long time after the switch is closed?
[2 marks]

(b) At what time the charge on the capacitor be 80% of the value found in part (a)?
[3 marks]

6. The diagram below shows the circuit for a negative feedback inverting amplifier with a
closed loop gain of 10.

(a) Why is this known as an inverting amplifier? [1 mark]

(b) What is the value of the resistor R? [1 mark]

(c) Calculate the maximum r.m.s. value for a sunusoidal input voltage so that output is
not distorted?

7. The Bohr energy states En for the hydrogen atom is given by

(i) Calculate the ionisation energy in joule for the hydrogen atom? [3 marks]

(ii) From the above equation, write the expression for the energy states En of

helium ion [3 marks]

8. In a photoelectric experiment on a clean metal surface illuminated with monochromatic

radiations with frequencies 2.0 x 1015 Hz and 1.0 x 1015 Hz respectively, the equivalent
stopping potentials are 6.0 V and 2.0 V respectively. Use this information to find

(a) the Plank constant

(b) the work function of the metal surface

(c) the cut-off frequency (threshold)

Section B : Answer ANY four questions

(60 marks)

9 (a) Describe how interference pattern is formed by reflection of monochromatic light in a
thin air wedge formed by using two microscopic slides.
[4 marks]
(b) An air wedge is made by placing a wire between 2 pieces of plate glass 10.0 cm long
as shown in the diagram below. An interference pattern is observed looking in the direction
perpendicular to the surface of the plate.

(i) Sketch the interference pattern formed [1 mark]

(ii) When the light illuminating the plate is blue λ = 4.75 x10 m , 380 dark bands are

counted in the 10.0 cm. What is the thickness of the wire? [4 marks]
What type of fringe is formed near the wire? [2 marks]

(c) In another air wedge interference, red light of wavelength 750 nm and blue light of
wavelength 450 nm are used. Looking down on the wedge the first place here it appears
purple(both red and blue light meets) is 5.0 mm from the line of contact. Determine the
angle of the air wedge. [4 marks]

10 (a) What is photon? [1 mark]

The diagram below shows a graph of photocurrent I, passing through a photoelectric cell
against the applied potential difference, V for a given frequency and intensity of light.

(b) (i) Determine the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons emitted in Joule
[2 marks]
(ii) Sketch the graph obtained when the intensity of light is doubled, but its frequency
remains constant. [2 marks]
(iii) Explain the changes that occur in (b) (ii) [3 marks]
(iv) If the work function of the photocathode is 0.40 eV. Determine the frequency of the
light used. [3 marks]

(v) Given that only 10% of the incident photons emit photoelectrons, determine the power
of the incident light. [4 marks]

11 (a) Give the meaning of each of the following terms.

(i) nucleon number [1 mark]
(ii) proton number [1 mark]
(iii) binding energy [2 marks]

(b) The structure of the nucleus was investigated by the experiment shown in the Figure

Alpha particles were fired at a piece of beryllium and an intense radiation was found to be
emitted from the beryllium. When this radiation entered a hydrogen-rich solid, protons
were knocked forward from the solid. The initial reaction in the beryllium is

(i) In the above equation, which symbol is used to represent the alpha particles? [1 mark]
(ii) What information does the symbol give about the alpha particles? [1 mark]
(iii) Suggest, with a reason, which particle is responsible for knocking a proton out of the
solid containing hydrogen atoms. [2 marks]
(iv) The intense radiation was originally thought to be y-rays. Why does the existence of
the knocked-forward protons make this impossible? [2 marks]

(c) The masses of the particles in part (b) arc as follows.

(i) Calculate the mass defect. in kilogram, in the reaction. [2 marks]

(ii) Hence. find the energy equivalence of this mass defect. Express your answer in MeV.
[3 marks]

n1 n2 n 2 − n1
12 (a) (i) Starting from the refraction formula, + = , prove the lens maker’s
u v r
1 n1 n 2 n2 − n1
formula = + = for an optical lens made of material of refractive index n1,
f u v r
and placed in a medium of refractive index n2

(ii) Calculate the change in focal length of a biconvex lens of radii of curvature 25 cm,
made of glass of refractive index 1.50 when it is transferred from air into water of refractive
index 1.33.

(b) Light is incident onto a water surface (refractive index 1.33) at a certain angle so that
the reflected light (ray 1 in the figure) is lineally polarized. [2 marks]

(iii) What is the angle of incidence? [3 marks]

(iv) A glass block (refractive index 1.5) with its upper surface flat is immersed into water
as shown in the figure. The reflected light from this surface (ray 2) is also linearly
polarized. Find the angle between the water surface and this glass surface. [6 marks]

13. The graph shows the X-ray spectrum produced by a X-ray tube.

(a) Identify the two distinct features of the spectrum and explain how they are
produced. [5 marks]

(b) Copy the graph above (with the labels) and sketch new graphs of the X-ray
spectrum produced when

i. the current in the tube is increased

ii. the potential difference applied to the X-ray tube is decreased.
iii. the target metal is replaced with another element with higher atomic
number. [6 marks]

(c) The inter-planar spacing of a crystal of NaCl is 0.282 nm. It is found that a
first-order Bragg reflection of a monochromatic beam of X-rays occurs at
an angle of 11 ° .
i. What is the wavelength of the X-rays?
ii. At what angle would a second-order reflection occur?
[4 marks]

14 What is the major defect in Rutherford’s model of the atom? How did Bohr overcome
this problem in his model of the atom? [4 marks]

(b) Explain the following terms:

(i) Ground state

(ii) Ionization energy [2 marks]

(c) The ionization energy of mercury is 10.39 eV. The three longest wavelengths of the
absorption spectrum of mercury are 253.7 nm, 185 nm and 158.5 nm.

(i) Construct an energy level diagram for mercury [4 marks]

(ii) On the above energy level diagram, draw all emission lines that can occur when an
electron is raised to the third level above the ground state [2 marks]

(iii) Disregarding recoil of the mercury atom, determine the minimum speed an electron
must have in order to make an inelastic collision with a mercury atom in its ground state.
[3 marks]


Values of constants

Speed of light in free space c = 3.00 x 108 m s-


Permeability of free space µ0 =

4π x 10 −7
Hm −1

Permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.85 x 10-12 F m-1

≈ (1 ) x10 −9 Fm −1
Magnitude of electronic charge e = 1.60 x 10-19 C
Planck constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s
Unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg
Rest mass of electron me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
Rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg
Molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1
Avogadro constant L, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1
Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10--23 J
Gravitational constant G = 6.67 x 10-11 N
2 -2
m kg
Acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s-2