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phy trial1 sarawak

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23 visualizzazioni11 paginephy trial1 sarawak

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(40 marks)

samples. For this purpose it may be assumed that the proportion of carbon-14 in the

natural carbon of living wood is everywhere and at all times the same and that it begins to

change only after death. Suppose a piece of timber has been recovered from an

excavation, and from which 10 g of carbon is prepared.

(a) Determine the number of carbon- 14 atoms originally present in the sample, given that

the ratio of carbon 14 to natural carbon is 1.25 x 10-12 [2 marks]

(b) If the activity of the sample is found to be 0.703s-1 and the half-life of carbon-14 is

5760 years, estimate

(i) the number of carbon 14 atoms in the limber, and [2 marks]

1

2. A cannon launches a rocket straight upward with an initial speed equal to half the

escape speed. Assume that the mass of the Earth ME, the mass of rocket m and RE the

radius of the Earth.

(a) Find the initial energy of the rocket in terms of ME, m and RE [3 marks]

(b) How far from the centre of the Earth does this rocket travel before momentarily come

to rest? (Ignore air resistance in the Earth’s atmosphere) [2 marks]

πx

3. The equation of a stationary wave is y = 0.40 sin( ) cos( 80 πt )

4

(a) What is the distance between neighbouring nodes of the stationary wave? [1 mark]

(c) Write down the expression for the velocity and acceleration of the particle

2

at position x = 5.0 m. [3 marks]

2

1 H +12 H →13 H +11H

2

Mass of deuterium, 1 H = 2.014102 u

3

Mass of Tritium, 1 H = 3.016049 u

1

Mass of Hydrogen, 1 H = 1.007825 u

(a) Calculate the energy, in MeV, released from the fusion reaction. [3 marks]

(b) Calculate the energy released from the fusion of 1.0 kg of deuterium. [2 marks]

3

5 A circuit consists of a 126 Ω resistor, a 275 Ωresistor and a 182 µF capacitor, a

switch and a 3.0 V battery all connected in series. Initially the capacitor is unchanged and

the switch is open. At time t=0 the switch is closed

(a) What charge will the capacitor have a long time after the switch is closed?

[2 marks]

(b) At what time the charge on the capacitor be 80% of the value found in part (a)?

[3 marks]

6. The diagram below shows the circuit for a negative feedback inverting amplifier with a

closed loop gain of 10.

4

(c) Calculate the maximum r.m.s. value for a sunusoidal input voltage so that output is

not distorted?

(i) Calculate the ionisation energy in joule for the hydrogen atom? [3 marks]

(ii) From the above equation, write the expression for the energy states En of

radiations with frequencies 2.0 x 1015 Hz and 1.0 x 1015 Hz respectively, the equivalent

stopping potentials are 6.0 V and 2.0 V respectively. Use this information to find

5

(a) the Plank constant

(60 marks)

6

9 (a) Describe how interference pattern is formed by reflection of monochromatic light in a

thin air wedge formed by using two microscopic slides.

[4 marks]

(b) An air wedge is made by placing a wire between 2 pieces of plate glass 10.0 cm long

as shown in the diagram below. An interference pattern is observed looking in the direction

perpendicular to the surface of the plate.

(ii) When the light illuminating the plate is blue λ = 4.75 x10 m , 380 dark bands are

−7

counted in the 10.0 cm. What is the thickness of the wire? [4 marks]

What type of fringe is formed near the wire? [2 marks]

(c) In another air wedge interference, red light of wavelength 750 nm and blue light of

wavelength 450 nm are used. Looking down on the wedge the first place here it appears

purple(both red and blue light meets) is 5.0 mm from the line of contact. Determine the

angle of the air wedge. [4 marks]

The diagram below shows a graph of photocurrent I, passing through a photoelectric cell

against the applied potential difference, V for a given frequency and intensity of light.

(b) (i) Determine the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons emitted in Joule

[2 marks]

(ii) Sketch the graph obtained when the intensity of light is doubled, but its frequency

remains constant. [2 marks]

(iii) Explain the changes that occur in (b) (ii) [3 marks]

(iv) If the work function of the photocathode is 0.40 eV. Determine the frequency of the

light used. [3 marks]

(v) Given that only 10% of the incident photons emit photoelectrons, determine the power

of the incident light. [4 marks]

(i) nucleon number [1 mark]

(ii) proton number [1 mark]

(iii) binding energy [2 marks]

7

(b) The structure of the nucleus was investigated by the experiment shown in the Figure

below.

Alpha particles were fired at a piece of beryllium and an intense radiation was found to be

emitted from the beryllium. When this radiation entered a hydrogen-rich solid, protons

were knocked forward from the solid. The initial reaction in the beryllium is

(i) In the above equation, which symbol is used to represent the alpha particles? [1 mark]

(ii) What information does the symbol give about the alpha particles? [1 mark]

(iii) Suggest, with a reason, which particle is responsible for knocking a proton out of the

solid containing hydrogen atoms. [2 marks]

(iv) The intense radiation was originally thought to be y-rays. Why does the existence of

the knocked-forward protons make this impossible? [2 marks]

(ii) Hence. find the energy equivalence of this mass defect. Express your answer in MeV.

[3 marks]

n1 n2 n 2 − n1

12 (a) (i) Starting from the refraction formula, + = , prove the lens maker’s

u v r

1 n1 n 2 n2 − n1

formula = + = for an optical lens made of material of refractive index n1,

f u v r

and placed in a medium of refractive index n2

8

(ii) Calculate the change in focal length of a biconvex lens of radii of curvature 25 cm,

made of glass of refractive index 1.50 when it is transferred from air into water of refractive

index 1.33.

(b) Light is incident onto a water surface (refractive index 1.33) at a certain angle so that

the reflected light (ray 1 in the figure) is lineally polarized. [2 marks]

(iv) A glass block (refractive index 1.5) with its upper surface flat is immersed into water

as shown in the figure. The reflected light from this surface (ray 2) is also linearly

polarized. Find the angle between the water surface and this glass surface. [6 marks]

13. The graph shows the X-ray spectrum produced by a X-ray tube.

9

(a) Identify the two distinct features of the spectrum and explain how they are

produced. [5 marks]

(b) Copy the graph above (with the labels) and sketch new graphs of the X-ray

spectrum produced when

ii. the potential difference applied to the X-ray tube is decreased.

iii. the target metal is replaced with another element with higher atomic

number. [6 marks]

(c) The inter-planar spacing of a crystal of NaCl is 0.282 nm. It is found that a

first-order Bragg reflection of a monochromatic beam of X-rays occurs at

an angle of 11 ° .

i. What is the wavelength of the X-rays?

ii. At what angle would a second-order reflection occur?

[4 marks]

14 What is the major defect in Rutherford’s model of the atom? How did Bohr overcome

this problem in his model of the atom? [4 marks]

10

(b) Explain the following terms:

(c) The ionization energy of mercury is 10.39 eV. The three longest wavelengths of the

absorption spectrum of mercury are 253.7 nm, 185 nm and 158.5 nm.

(ii) On the above energy level diagram, draw all emission lines that can occur when an

electron is raised to the third level above the ground state [2 marks]

(iii) Disregarding recoil of the mercury atom, determine the minimum speed an electron

must have in order to make an inelastic collision with a mercury atom in its ground state.

[3 marks]

960 PHYSICS

Values of constants

1

4π x 10 −7

Hm −1

≈ (1 ) x10 −9 Fm −1

36π

Magnitude of electronic charge e = 1.60 x 10-19 C

Planck constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s

Unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg

Rest mass of electron me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

Rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg

Molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1

Avogadro constant L, NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1

Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10--23 J

-1

K

Gravitational constant G = 6.67 x 10-11 N

2 -2

m kg

Acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s-2

11

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