Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

1

University of Management and Technology Lahore School of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering

Design and simulation of a Transmitter-Receiver loop for Frequency Modulated - Continuous wave Radar for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS)

Semester: Fall 2019 Course: Communication Systems-EE410 Complex Engineering Problem (CEP), Maximum Marks 15/100 Resource Persons: Jameel Ahmad & Faran Awais Butt Emails: {jameel.ahmad,faran.butt}@umt.edu.pk Submission Date: Monday Week 13 ————————————————————————————————–

TABLE I

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOS).

CLO

Description

CLO 1

Use theorems such as Parseval/Rayleigh Energy’s theorem and tools such as Fourier transform to represent and analyze signals in time and frequency domain as well as understand the characteristics of distortion-less communication channel. (C4)

CLO 2

Identify and differentiate various blocks in Amplitude and Frequency/Phase Modulation/Demodulation. Analyze the working of AM/FM MODEMS using time and frequency domain analysis. (C4)

CLO 3

Learn and evaluate performance parameters such as Bandwidth, Power and Signal-to-Noise Ratio of communication receivers. (C6)

CLO 4

Design AM and FM transmitter and receiver to achieve the desired performance specifications. (C6)

TABLE II

PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS) FOR CEP.

PLO

Description

PLO 2

Problem Analysis

PLO 3

Design and Development of Solutions

TABLE III

ASSESSMENT RUBRIC AND DELIVERABLES (MAX. MARKS:15).

Assessment Criteria

CEP Attribute[1]

CLO/PLO

Excellent

Average

Adequate

Derivation of Transmitted and received signal in time domain

Depth of Analysis & Interdependence

1/2

1

0.5

0.1

Plots of Transmitted Chirp in Time and Frequency domain

Depth of Analysis

1/2

1

0.5

0.1

Waveform of Input and output of each block of Radar

Depth of Analysis

2/2

2

1

0.5

Beat Frequency Spectrum for single and multiple targets

Depth of Analysis

3/2

1

0.5

0.3

Link Budget and SNR Calculation (Excel sheet) for 5.8GHz Radar

Interdependence

3/2

2

1.5

0.3

Circuit Level Implementation of 2.4 or 5.8 GHz Radar

Depth of Knowledge

4/3

3

1

0.5

2-D Range-velocity Graph

Depth of Knowledge

4/3

2

1

0.2

Report and Viva Voce

 

-

3

1.5

0.5

2

Objectives of Complex Engineering Problem

In the modern era, most automotive manufacturers have adopted radar systems not only for premium cars but for all their vehicles. New security solutions such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) or Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) are now possible. To make self-driving feasible, several sensors such as the camera, LIDAR and RADAR are used. Radar sensors are especially important since, unlike other sensors, they provide exact information about the distance and speed of neighboring vehicles regardless of the weather conditions. The aforementioned systems are normally referred to as ADAS (Advance driver-assistance systems) and include a vast range of applications that aim to help and guide the driver to avoid accidents and dangerous situations: forward collision avoidance, parking sensors or pedestrian protection systems. Illustration of ADAS system is given in Fig. 1 where vehicles seem connected to each other through ADAS. In this Complex Engineering Problem (CEP) for EE410:Communications Systems course, students will go through an in depth analysis of linear FMCW radars by modeling an end-to-end radar system for ADAS related application. Students will also design an FMCW radar system with triangular chirp pattern. Student will also propose a model that can be implemented in the local industry. Simulation setup can be done in MATLAB Simulink or simRF Toolbox or RF Blockset or other software such as Keysight ADS or NI AWR VSS. A Technical Report should be submitted having 10-20 pages, supported with literature review of 3 IEEE journal/Transactions per group. Link budget calculations would also be performed. Bonus points will be given to those students who will do a hardware implementation at circuit level and propose a non-linear chirp pattern design for the proposed framework with its pros and cons. Each group should review 3 research papers from IEEE Conferences or journals from IEEE or Elsevier. As a future work, students can read paper on interference from neighboring vehicles as it is a serious concern [2], [3], [4] in ADAS.

Index Terms

FMCW Radar, ACC, ADAS, Beat Frequency, Cruise Control, Link budget

I. INTRODUCTION

Beat Frequency, Cruise Control, Link budget I. I NTRODUCTION Fig. 1. Radar based ADAS systems Frequency

Fig. 1. Radar based ADAS systems

Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar (FMCW radar) is a special type of radar sensor which radiates continuous transmission power like a simple continuous wave radar (CW Radar). In FMCW radars the frequency modulation spreads the transmitted energy over a large modulation bandwidth B. Large bandwidth helps to detect targets with high resolution. The power spectrum is nearly rectangular over the modulation bandwidth. This makes interception difficult. It is resistant to jamming because it is a deterministic signal and its form is only known to the user. FMCW (sometimes called LFMCW or Linear FMCW) is the most commonly used scheme in automotive radar today. In Linear FMCW: TX signal has frequency changing linearly with time (i.e. chirp). In FMCW Radars, the transmitted frequency is linearly changed during the run time to the target and back to the Radar, and the received signal is shifted by a time delay to the initial signal. By mixing the current transmitted signal with the reflected signal, the frequency difference caused by the run time can be defined. Due to the known modulation parameters of the transmitter, the run time of the signal can be calculated, which is proportional to the distance of the object. For a precise distance measurement, an extremely highly linear modulation of the transmitted frequency is necessary, because each non-linearity of the modulation will decrease the accuracy of the FMCW Radar. An FMCW system is shown in Fig. 2 which consists of a transmitter, a receiver, a mixer and an analog to digital converter (A/D). An FM signal is transmitted and received through antennas, and the transmitted and received signals are multiplied in the time domain(mixing) and processed. An FMCW radar measures the range by examining the

3

beat frequency in the de-chirped signal. To extract this frequency, a de-chirp operation is performed by mixing the received signal with the transmitted signal. After the mixing, the de-chirped signal contains only individual frequency components that correspond to the target range. In addition, even though it is possible to extract the Doppler information from a single sweep, the Doppler shift is often extracted among several sweeps because within one pulse, the Doppler frequency is indistinguishable from the beat frequency.

frequency is indistinguishable from the beat frequency. Fig. 2. Structure of an FMCW radar system. In

Fig. 2. Structure of an FMCW radar system.

In Fig.3, the duration in time T it is half of the period of the low frequency modulation waveform f m . Generally the duration in time T it is much greater than the return time of the echo signal t d . The low frequency modulation waveform signal can be Triangle, Sawtooth, Sinusoidal, or other periodic shape signal. In practical applications the frequency of the modulation signal f m could be between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. The basic waveform that the FMCW radar transmits and receives is the saw tooth waveform. The triangular waveform offers some additional advantages that students are expected to know. The first sub-figure in Fig.3 shows a triangular chirp pattern. The received signal is a time-delayed copy of the transmitted signal where the delay, t , is related to the range. Because the signal is always sweeping through a frequency band, at any moment during the sweep, the frequency difference,f b , is a constant between the transmitted signal and the received signal. It is usually called the beat frequencyf b or intermediate frequency IF . Because the sweep is linear, one can derive the time delay from the beat frequency and then translate the delay to the range.

TABLE IV

FMCW RADAR SYSTEM PARAMETERS.

Parameter

Definition

Value

f

0

Operating Frequency (GHz)

77

f V CO

Operating Frequency Range (GHz)

75-80GHz

Chirp specification(B,T)

Bandwidth, duration

B = 1150MHz, T = 7.33µsec

N

s

Number of Sweeps of Chirp

64

r

r

range resolution(m)

1

v

T

Maximum Target Speed (km/h)

120 + sum of last two digits of your student ID

To measure the range and Doppler, an FMCW radar typically performs the following operations:

1) A chirp signal is launched into the free space using a transmit antenna. A chirp signal is an FM-modulated signal of a known stable frequency whose instantaneous frequency varies linearly over a fixed period of time (sweep time) by a modulating signal. 2) The Tx antenna with Gain G t transmits chirp and radiates the signal into space with suitable Transmit power P t .

4

4 Fig. 3. Chirp signal specification 3) The signal propagates to the target, gets reflected by

Fig. 3. Chirp signal specification

3) The signal propagates to the target, gets reflected by the target, and travels back to the radar. 4) The receiving antenna with Gain G r collects the signal with received Power P r . 5) The received signal is de-chirped using a mixer resulting in Intermediate frequency IF and passed to ADC and saved in a buffer. 6) Once a certain number of sweeps fill the buffer, the Fourier transform is performed in both range and Doppler to extract the beat frequency as well as the Doppler shift. One can then estimate the range and speed of the target using these results. Range and Doppler can also be shown as an image and gives an intuitive indication of where the target is in the range and speed domain.

II. LINK BUDGET CALCULATION FOR 5.8GHZ FMCW PRACTICAL RADAR

ADIsimRF from Analog Devices is an easy-to-use RF signal chain calculator. It calculates signal levels, distortion and noise for signal chains with up to fifty elements. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form and can be plotted vs. input power, gain and frequency. Data can also be exported to Excel. ADIsimRF includes frequency- dependent device models for most of ADI’s RF components along with many DACs and ADCs and some transformers

and filters from third-party vendors. To assist in device selection, component selection tables are included along with

a Device Selection Wizard. The proposed RF subsystem is bi static radar type which incorporates transmit and receive paths. It is implemented to increase the isolation between the two paths. The transmit path starts with the voltage controlled oscillator (HMC431) which is able to output a 2 dBm signal to sweep in the range of 5.6 to 6 GHz according to modulation voltage signal from the function generator. The swept signal is amplified by way of a low noise amplifier (HMC320)

which provides a power amplification of 13 dBm at the operating frequency. After that the swept signal is divided by way of a splitter (SCN-2-6+) which introduces a 3.5 dBm insertion loss. A portion of the swept signal is coupled to the mixer as reference signal. The final transmitted power of the system is 11.5 dBm which is transmitted through

a 14 dBi TX antenna. The received path starts with a series of low noise amplifiers (LNA). This amplified signal

from the RX antenna is inputted to the mixer where it is down converted by mixing with the reference signal. This down converted signal is amplified at the gain stage and passed through low pass filter before it is sampled by the PC/ADC/Base band signal processing. The complete system level diagram is shown in Fig 5. Once the transmit power of the radar is realized, Frii’s equations is used to determine the received power. The goal is to design the receiver to detect a 0.3 meter squared target ranging at distances between 5 to 50 meters. With an operating frequency of 5.8 GHz the power received ranges from -52.4 dBm to -92.4 dBm for target ranges from 5 to 50 meters. To reduce the amount of amplification required at the baseband gain stage, RF amplification is implemented at the RF receiver path with a cascade of three low noise amplifiers (HMC320) with each providing a power amplification of 13 dBm at a noise figure of 2.5 dBm. The baseband circuit is designed to amplify the incoming signal and filter any noise received from the IF frequency of the RF circuit. The link budget table below summarizes

5

the power received, mixer power output and mixer output voltage for targets at 5 and 50 meters. From this the gain required at the gain stage can be determined. For weak signals detected at target ranges as far as 50m, amplification is required for the built in ADC of the PC’s microphone to detect noticeable measurements. For the ADC of the microphone a minimum 25mV peak to peak signal was determined to be sufficient. To detect targets at the maximum range of 50 meters, amplification provided by the gain stage should be x40. Any signal higher than 1.2 volts peak to peak would be limited by the limiter circuit. To characterize the receiver path of the RF subsystem Analog Devices provides ADIsimRF to calculate total gain, noise figure, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and peak to peak output voltage. Students can download ADIsimRF from Analog Devices ( http://adisimrf.download.analog.com/ADISimRF/publish.htm) and use this software for calculating the Link Budget of 5.8GHz FMCW Radar implemented using Analog Devices components listed along with various power levels. The snapshot of ADIsimRF is shown in Fig. 4. The implemented radar is shown in Fig.5. Students can also fill in the Link Budget Sheet as shown in Fig.6 and make it part of their report.

Sheet as shown in Fig.6 and make it part of their report. Fig. 4. Link Budget

Fig. 4. Link Budget of 5.8GHz FMCW Radar System

report. Fig. 4. Link Budget of 5.8GHz FMCW Radar System Fig. 5. Block Diagram of 5.8GHz

Fig. 5. Block Diagram of 5.8GHz FMCW System using Analog Devices Components

III. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND STUDENT SUBMISSION

Although FMCW radar systems have been on the horizon for many years, its full potential has not yet been leveraged for emerging applications. Our aim in this CEP is to make use of this radar system for automotive

6

6 RF System (Link Budget) Calculations System Variables Variable Units Equation Value Frequency Speed of

RF System (Link Budget) Calculations

System Variables

Variable

Units

Equation

Value

Frequency Speed of Light Wavelength

 

f 0

MHz

315

c

m/s

299792458

λ

m

λ = c/f 0

0.951722089

Block

Variable

Units

Equation

Value

PA Power TX Match Loss TX source TX connector loss TX TX connector loss (remote antenna) TX power TX antenna gain

cable loss

P PA

dBm

10

L MatchT

dB

P TX

dBm

10

L ConT1

dB

(from Connector Loss sheet) (from Cable Loss sheet) (from Connector Loss sheet)

-0.57
-0.57

L CabT

dB

L ConT2

dB

P T

dBm

P T = P TX (C&C Loss)

9.43

G T

dBi

-15

Effective (Isotropic) Radiated Power

EIRP

dBm

EIRP = P T G T

-5.57

Distance Channel Medium Loss Free Space Loss Power at RX Antenna, Free Space Path

Factor

d

m

175

L 0

dB

(from Medium Loss sheet)

0

L FS

dB

L FS = (λ/4πd) 2

-67.27475527

P ChanFS

dB

P ChanFS = L FS L 0 EIRP

-72.84475527

Flat Earth

Loss (Includes Ground

Bounce)

L FE

dB

(from Ground Multipath sheet)

-92.73416576

Multipath Loss

L MP

dB

L Obs-Total

dB

0

Obstruction Loss Power at RX Antenna, Flat Earth Path

P ChanFE

dB

P ChanFE = L FE L 0 L MP L Obs EIRP

-98.30416576

RX antenna gain RX connector loss RX cable loss RX connector loss (remote antenna)

G R

dBi

-15 -0.57
-15
-0.57

L ConR1

dB

L CabR

dB

L ConR2

dB

 

P

RFS

dBm

P RFS = P ChanFS G R (C&C Loss)

-88.41475527

RX power, Free Space Path RX power, Flat Earth Path

P

RFE

dBm

P RFE = P ChanFE G R (C&C

Loss)

-113.8741658

Receiver Sensitivity Calculations

Variable

Units

Equation

Value

RX Noise Figure Operating Temperature Effective Noise Temperature Boltzmann's constant Receive Bandwidth Antenna Temperature Noise Power (at RX) Signal to Noise Ratio

 

NF

dB

7 290
7
290

T

0

K

T

e

K

T e = T 0 (NF - 1)

1163.442978

k

J/K

1.38E-23

BW RX

MHz

0.012 300
0.012
300

T Ant

K

P n

dBm

P n = k (T Ant + T e )BW RX SNR RX = P RX /P n

-126.1556386

SNR RX

dB

12.15563863

Fig. 6. RF System’s Link Budget Calculation Shee.

-114
-114

Sensitivity of Rx

applications. Students are expected to submit following in their final report for Complex Engineering Problem. Each item should be treated as a separate section in the report.

7

2)

Determine the expressions for a linear FMCW radar system for items given in table V.

TABLE V

FMCW PARAMETERS

Parameter

Definition

P

r

Radar Equation

P

t

R

Range(m)

R

Range resolution(m)

v

r

Velocity of the moving Target(m/s)

Design and simulate a generic complete end to end linear FMCW radar system from transmitter to

target and then to receiver. Use the parameters given in table IV. You may assume other parameters that are not explicitly mentioned but you should properly mention your assumptions if any. Develop the system model of FMCW Radar in MATLAB. You may take the help from following link of Mathworks https://uk.mathworks.com/help/phased/examples/automotive-adaptive-cruise-control-using-fmcw -technology.html 4) Given the configuration parameters in table IV, simulate and generate Range-Doppler response pattern for linear chirp pattern FMCW using MATLAB. A sample of 2D range-velocity diagram is shown in Fig. 8 [5]. The two-dimensional FFT process gives a 2D range-velocity image (FFT heatmap). Typically, detection of objects is done on this image. After detection, the range and relative speed of the objects are easily calculated (ref. to Fig.7). 5) Repeat step 3 and 4 for triangular chirp pattern. 6) Calculate Link Budget for receiver path for targets at 5 meters and A + 30 meters using ADIsimRF from Analog Devices for 5.8GHz FMCW radar shown in Fig.5. A in this case is the last two digits of your student ID. For example if the last two digits of your ID are 50, it should be 30+ 50=80 meters. 7) Propose circuit level implementation of FMCW radar based ADAS systems for vehicles in Pakistan.You can read paper titled: Implementation of FMCW Radar for Training Applications by Oguz Baarslan and Ercan Yaldlz [6] or the paper titled: S-Band 2.4GHz FMCW Radar by Iulian Rosu and Filip Rosu by visiting (https://qsl.net/va3iul/) for some details how circuit level implementation can be carried out for 2.4GHz radar. This is an optional part but highly recommended if a students want to earn a better grade in EE410. 8) Students are expected to write an abstract/short summary (1-2 page max) of the subject matter by doing a literature review of ”FMCW Radars for ADAS systems”. This should include a ”summary” of three papers, ”critical analysis” of the paper and your ”suggestions” based on your critical analysis. The papers can be either conference papers or journal articles or patents but they should be published within last 5 years. Each group is expected to email us 5 different research papers in this domain. Out of those five papers, we will short list three research articles for each group.

Important Note: Students must submit CEP report by Monday of Week 13 (the week before lab vivas).

3)

IV. SUBMISSION RULES AND REGULATIONS

1) 3 students are allowed to make a group. 2) Although team work is encouraged and also carry weight in this assessment, each individual would also be evaluated separately. 3) A complete report has to be submitted by each group.

REFERENCES

[1] E. A. Board, “Manual of accreditation.” Pakistan Engineering Council Islamabad, 2014, pp. 1–63. [2] M. Barjenbruch, D. Kellner, K. Dietmayer, J. Klappstein, and J. Dickmann, “A method for interference cancellation in automotive radar,” in 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), April 2015, pp. 1–4. [3] ——, “A method for interference cancellation in automotive radar,” in 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), April 2015, pp. 1–4. [4] J. Mun, H. Kim, and J. Lee, “A deep learning approach for automotive radar interference mitigation,” in 2018 IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Aug 2018, pp. 1–5. [5] M. Song, J. Lim, and D. Shin, “The velocity and range detection using the 2d-fft scheme for automotive radars,” in 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, Sep. 2014, pp. 507–510. [6] O. Bas¸arslan and E. Yaldız, “Implementation of fmcw radar for training applications,” in 2017 4th International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ICEEE), April 2017, pp. 304–308.

8

FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell

1
1
velocity
velocity

range

1 2 3 N T c 2 each objects A range-FFT row in resolves range
1
2
3
N
T c
2
each objects A range-FFT row in resolves range on
Chirp index

range

corresponding are ADC stored data as the to chirps rows of a matrix

3 A doppler-FFT along the column resolves (‘range-bin’) each velocity column in 44
3
A doppler-FFT along
the column resolves
(‘range-bin’) each velocity column in
44
resolves (‘range-bin’) each velocity column in 44 Fig. 7. FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell

Fig. 7. FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell

(‘range-bin’) each velocity column in 44 Fig. 7. FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell Fig.

Fig. 8. Range-Velocity Diagram

(‘range-bin’) each velocity column in 44 Fig. 7. FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell Fig.

Appendix-A Information about components used in 5.8GHz FMCW Radar

ADIsimRF receiver path calculation for target at 50 meters

ADIsimRF receiver path calculation for target at 50 meters Range Power Received Mixer Power Output Mixer

Range

Power Received

Mixer Power Output

Mixer Voltage Output

5m

-52.4 dBm

-20.4 dBm

60.3 mVpp

50m

-92.4 dBm

-60.4 dBm

603 uVpp

Component Selection

This section will cover the process involved in selecting components that meet system design specifications detailed in the previous section. The selection process has been divided into RF components and baseband components. The table below summarizes the main components selected in this process.

Device

Model

Manufacturer

Specification

Function Generator

XR-2206CP

Exar/Jameco

Frequency Range:

0.01-1MHz

I

= 14 mA

Voltage Controlled Oscillator

HMC431LP4ETR

Analog Devices

Power Output: 2dBm Vcc = 3V

I

= 33mA

Power Splitter

SCN-2-65+

Mini-Circuits

Insertion loss: 3.5 dBm

Passive

Low Noise Amplifier (13 dBm)

HMC320MS8GE

Analog Devices

Noise Figure: 2.5 dBm Power Gain: 13 dBm

I

= 40 mA

Mixer

HMC218BMS8GE

Analog Devices

Conversion Loss: 7 dBm LO Power: + 13 dBm

Passive

Antenna

5.8GHz 4-Patch

Ripafire

Gain = 14 dBi Bandwidth: 350 MHz Range: 5.6 5.95 GHz

Array

Gain Stage Amplifier

TL972IP

Texas Instruments

 

Active Low Pass Filter

MAX291CPA+

Maxim Integrated

Corner Frequency Range:

0.1 Hz - 25 kHz

HMC431LP4ETR Voltage Controlled Oscillator:

The Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) generators the RF signal transmitted by the radar. The VCO requires many considerations when selecting. For range measurements applications an optimal VCO would have a tuned voltage to oscillate linearly in conjunction to a linear output in the frequency of operation. Constant power output over this range would be ideal. In addition the VCO should have low phase noise. The VCO chosen for the design was the HMC431LP4ETR manufactured by Analog Devices. The graphs below, taken into account for the analysis, are obtained from the datasheet provided by Analog Devices. The expected operating frequency is between 5.6 to 5.95 GHz. To operating in this range the tuning voltage would span between 2 to 6 volts. Based on the sensitivity vs. tuning voltage graph in this range there is a deviation of 50 MHz/Volt. Although this is not perfectly linear it is acceptable for radar applications. The output power remains constant at just above 2 dBm for the entire frequency range.

XR-2206CP Function Generator:

Once a VCO has been selected a function generator must be taken into account. Initially the Teensy 3.1 in conjunction with the MCP4921 DAC was taken into consideration but due to size and power constraints another option was chosen. The XR-2206CP is a monolithic function generator Exar that is able to produce the required triangle waveform to drive the VCO without a microcontroller and digital to analog converter.

HMC320MS8GE Low Noise Amplifier:

The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is required before the splitter and the RF input of the mixer to allow for enough amplification of the signal entering the baseband circuit. When selecting a LNA, it is critical to choose one that provides high power amplification and relatively low noise figure which would reduce the signal to noise ratio introduced during cascading of multiple LNAs. Also an LNA that does not require a complicated bias network would simplify the assembly process. The HMC320MS8GE by Analog Devices was chosen for the radar design which provides the option for configuration with three bias conditions. The graphs below are obtained from the datasheet. To maximize power amplification of each LNA, a high power bias is chosen.

amplification of each LNA, a high power bias is chosen. SCN-2-65+ Power Splitter When selecting a

SCN-2-65+ Power Splitter

LNA, a high power bias is chosen. SCN-2-65+ Power Splitter When selecting a power splitter it

When selecting a power splitter it is important to pay close attention to insertion losses and a number of other key factors. The selection of the SCN-2-65+ Power Splitter by Mini-Circuits is justified in the following table. For a frequency range for 5500-6500MHz the insertion loss remains low between 3.5 and 3.8 dB. The splitter can provide a large isolation of about 17 dB which is good. Also the splitter had the added benefit of easy soldering and being low on cost.

HMC218BMS8GE Mixer The ideal mixer would be a double balanced mixer which has the advantages

HMC218BMS8GE Mixer

The ideal mixer would be a double balanced mixer which has the advantages of good port isolation, noise protection and linearity. Fortunately Analog Devices provides the HMC218BMS8GE that meets these specifications in a passive double balanced topology. The graph below shows the conversion loss for a given LO drive of the mixer. With an expected LO drive of about +11dBm for our system design, the conversion loss remains constant at 6.5 dBm under the expected operating frequencies.

at 6.5 dBm under the expected operating frequencies. TL972IP Amplifier (Gain Stage) and MAX291CPA+ (Low Pass

TL972IP Amplifier (Gain Stage) and MAX291CPA+ (Low Pass Filter)

The gain stage and active low pass filter in consideration is a modified version from the baseband design implemented in lab 1 for the quarter 1 radar which had a cut off frequency of 15 kHz. Modifications include the cascading of 2 amplifiers (TL972IP) in the gain stage to achieve the required amplification of x40 and an improved dedicated active lowpass filter IC (MAX291CPA+) which can provide a maximally flat passband response as a 8 th order Butterworth filter.