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University of Management and Technology Lahore School of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering

Semester: Fall 2019 Course: Communication Systems-EE410 Complex Engineering Problem (CEP), Maximum Marks 15/100 Resource Persons: Jameel Ahmad & Faran Awais Butt Emails: {jameel.ahmad,faran.butt}@umt.edu.pk Submission Date: Monday Week 13 ————————————————————————————————–

TABLE I

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOS).

 CLO Description CLO 1 Use theorems such as Parseval/Rayleigh Energy’s theorem and tools such as Fourier transform to represent and analyze signals in time and frequency domain as well as understand the characteristics of distortion-less communication channel. (C4) CLO 2 Identify and differentiate various blocks in Amplitude and Frequency/Phase Modulation/Demodulation. Analyze the working of AM/FM MODEMS using time and frequency domain analysis. (C4) CLO 3 Learn and evaluate performance parameters such as Bandwidth, Power and Signal-to-Noise Ratio of communication receivers. (C6) CLO 4 Design AM and FM transmitter and receiver to achieve the desired performance speciﬁcations. (C6)

TABLE II

PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS) FOR CEP.

 PLO Description PLO 2 Problem Analysis PLO 3 Design and Development of Solutions

TABLE III

ASSESSMENT RUBRIC AND DELIVERABLES (MAX. MARKS:15).

 Assessment Criteria CEP Attribute[1] CLO/PLO Excellent Average Adequate Derivation of Transmitted and received signal in time domain Depth of Analysis & Interdependence 1/2 1 0.5 0.1 Plots of Transmitted Chirp in Time and Frequency domain Depth of Analysis 1/2 1 0.5 0.1 Waveform of Input and output of each block of Radar Depth of Analysis 2/2 2 1 0.5 Beat Frequency Spectrum for single and multiple targets Depth of Analysis 3/2 1 0.5 0.3 Link Budget and SNR Calculation (Excel sheet) for 5.8GHz Radar Interdependence 3/2 2 1.5 0.3 Circuit Level Implementation of 2.4 or 5.8 GHz Radar Depth of Knowledge 4/3 3 1 0.5 2-D Range-velocity Graph Depth of Knowledge 4/3 2 1 0.2 Report and Viva Voce - 3 1.5 0.5

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Objectives of Complex Engineering Problem

Index Terms

I. INTRODUCTION

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beat frequency in the de-chirped signal. To extract this frequency, a de-chirp operation is performed by mixing the received signal with the transmitted signal. After the mixing, the de-chirped signal contains only individual frequency components that correspond to the target range. In addition, even though it is possible to extract the Doppler information from a single sweep, the Doppler shift is often extracted among several sweeps because within one pulse, the Doppler frequency is indistinguishable from the beat frequency.

Fig. 2. Structure of an FMCW radar system.

In Fig.3, the duration in time T it is half of the period of the low frequency modulation waveform f m . Generally the duration in time T it is much greater than the return time of the echo signal t d . The low frequency modulation waveform signal can be Triangle, Sawtooth, Sinusoidal, or other periodic shape signal. In practical applications the frequency of the modulation signal f m could be between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. The basic waveform that the FMCW radar transmits and receives is the saw tooth waveform. The triangular waveform offers some additional advantages that students are expected to know. The ﬁrst sub-ﬁgure in Fig.3 shows a triangular chirp pattern. The received signal is a time-delayed copy of the transmitted signal where the delay, t , is related to the range. Because the signal is always sweeping through a frequency band, at any moment during the sweep, the frequency difference,f b , is a constant between the transmitted signal and the received signal. It is usually called the beat frequencyf b or intermediate frequency IF . Because the sweep is linear, one can derive the time delay from the beat frequency and then translate the delay to the range.

TABLE IV

 Parameter Deﬁnition Value f 0 Operating Frequency (GHz) 77 f V CO Operating Frequency Range (GHz) 75-80GHz Chirp speciﬁcation(B,T) Bandwidth, duration B = 1150MHz, T = 7.33µsec N s Number of Sweeps of Chirp 64 r r range resolution(m) 1 v T Maximum Target Speed (km/h) 120 + sum of last two digits of your student ID

To measure the range and Doppler, an FMCW radar typically performs the following operations:

1) A chirp signal is launched into the free space using a transmit antenna. A chirp signal is an FM-modulated signal of a known stable frequency whose instantaneous frequency varies linearly over a ﬁxed period of time (sweep time) by a modulating signal. 2) The Tx antenna with Gain G t transmits chirp and radiates the signal into space with suitable Transmit power P t .

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Fig. 3. Chirp signal speciﬁcation

3) The signal propagates to the target, gets reﬂected by the target, and travels back to the radar. 4) The receiving antenna with Gain G r collects the signal with received Power P r . 5) The received signal is de-chirped using a mixer resulting in Intermediate frequency IF and passed to ADC and saved in a buffer. 6) Once a certain number of sweeps ﬁll the buffer, the Fourier transform is performed in both range and Doppler to extract the beat frequency as well as the Doppler shift. One can then estimate the range and speed of the target using these results. Range and Doppler can also be shown as an image and gives an intuitive indication of where the target is in the range and speed domain.

ADIsimRF from Analog Devices is an easy-to-use RF signal chain calculator. It calculates signal levels, distortion and noise for signal chains with up to ﬁfty elements. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form and can be plotted vs. input power, gain and frequency. Data can also be exported to Excel. ADIsimRF includes frequency- dependent device models for most of ADI’s RF components along with many DACs and ADCs and some transformers

and ﬁlters from third-party vendors. To assist in device selection, component selection tables are included along with

a Device Selection Wizard. The proposed RF subsystem is bi static radar type which incorporates transmit and receive paths. It is implemented to increase the isolation between the two paths. The transmit path starts with the voltage controlled oscillator (HMC431) which is able to output a 2 dBm signal to sweep in the range of 5.6 to 6 GHz according to modulation voltage signal from the function generator. The swept signal is ampliﬁed by way of a low noise ampliﬁer (HMC320)

which provides a power ampliﬁcation of 13 dBm at the operating frequency. After that the swept signal is divided by way of a splitter (SCN-2-6+) which introduces a 3.5 dBm insertion loss. A portion of the swept signal is coupled to the mixer as reference signal. The ﬁnal transmitted power of the system is 11.5 dBm which is transmitted through

a 14 dBi TX antenna. The received path starts with a series of low noise ampliﬁers (LNA). This ampliﬁed signal

from the RX antenna is inputted to the mixer where it is down converted by mixing with the reference signal. This down converted signal is ampliﬁed at the gain stage and passed through low pass ﬁlter before it is sampled by the PC/ADC/Base band signal processing. The complete system level diagram is shown in Fig 5. Once the transmit power of the radar is realized, Frii’s equations is used to determine the received power. The goal is to design the receiver to detect a 0.3 meter squared target ranging at distances between 5 to 50 meters. With an operating frequency of 5.8 GHz the power received ranges from -52.4 dBm to -92.4 dBm for target ranges from 5 to 50 meters. To reduce the amount of ampliﬁcation required at the baseband gain stage, RF ampliﬁcation is implemented at the RF receiver path with a cascade of three low noise ampliﬁers (HMC320) with each providing a power ampliﬁcation of 13 dBm at a noise ﬁgure of 2.5 dBm. The baseband circuit is designed to amplify the incoming signal and ﬁlter any noise received from the IF frequency of the RF circuit. The link budget table below summarizes

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Fig. 5. Block Diagram of 5.8GHz FMCW System using Analog Devices Components

III. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND STUDENT SUBMISSION

Although FMCW radar systems have been on the horizon for many years, its full potential has not yet been leveraged for emerging applications. Our aim in this CEP is to make use of this radar system for automotive

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 System Variables Variable Units Equation Value Frequency Speed of Light Wavelength f 0 MHz 315 c m/s 299792458 λ m λ = c/f 0 0.951722089 Block Variable Units Equation Value PA Power TX Match Loss TX source TX connector loss TX TX connector loss (remote antenna) TX power TX antenna gain cable loss P PA dBm 10 L MatchT dB P TX dBm 10 L ConT1 dB (from Connector Loss sheet) (from Cable Loss sheet) (from Connector Loss sheet) -0.57 L CabT dB L ConT2 dB P T dBm P T = P TX (C&C Loss) 9.43 G T dBi -15 Effective (Isotropic) Radiated Power EIRP dBm EIRP = P T G T -5.57 Distance Channel Medium Loss Free Space Loss Power at RX Antenna, Free Space Path Factor d m 175 L 0 dB (from Medium Loss sheet) 0 L FS dB L FS = (λ/4πd) 2 -67.27475527 P ChanFS dB P ChanFS = L FS L 0 EIRP -72.84475527 Flat Earth Loss (Includes Ground Bounce) L FE dB (from Ground Multipath sheet) -92.73416576 Multipath Loss L MP dB L Obs-Total dB 0 Obstruction Loss Power at RX Antenna, Flat Earth Path P ChanFE dB P ChanFE = L FE L 0 L MP L Obs EIRP -98.30416576 RX antenna gain RX connector loss RX cable loss RX connector loss (remote antenna) G R dBi -15 -0.57 L ConR1 dB L CabR dB L ConR2 dB P RFS dBm P RFS = P ChanFS G R (C&C Loss) -88.41475527 RX power, Free Space Path RX power, Flat Earth Path P RFE dBm P RFE = P ChanFE G R (C&C Loss) -113.8741658 Receiver Sensitivity Calculations Variable Units Equation Value RX Noise Figure Operating Temperature Effective Noise Temperature Boltzmann's constant Receive Bandwidth Antenna Temperature Noise Power (at RX) Signal to Noise Ratio NF dB 7 290 T 0 K T e K T e = T 0 (NF - 1) 1163.442978 k J/K 1.38E-23 BW RX MHz 0.012 300 T Ant K P n dBm P n = k (T Ant + T e )BW RX SNR RX = P RX /P n -126.1556386 SNR RX dB 12.15563863

Fig. 6. RF System’s Link Budget Calculation Shee.

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Sensitivity of Rx

applications. Students are expected to submit following in their ﬁnal report for Complex Engineering Problem. Each item should be treated as a separate section in the report.

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Determine the expressions for a linear FMCW radar system for items given in table V.

TABLE V

FMCW PARAMETERS

 Parameter Deﬁnition P r Radar Equation P t R Range(m) ∆R Range resolution(m) v r Velocity of the moving Target(m/s)

Design and simulate a generic complete end to end linear FMCW radar system from transmitter to

Important Note: Students must submit CEP report by Monday of Week 13 (the week before lab vivas).

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IV. SUBMISSION RULES AND REGULATIONS

1) 3 students are allowed to make a group. 2) Although team work is encouraged and also carry weight in this assessment, each individual would also be evaluated separately. 3) A complete report has to be submitted by each group.

REFERENCES

[1] E. A. Board, “Manual of accreditation.” Pakistan Engineering Council Islamabad, 2014, pp. 1–63. [2] M. Barjenbruch, D. Kellner, K. Dietmayer, J. Klappstein, and J. Dickmann, “A method for interference cancellation in automotive radar,” in 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), April 2015, pp. 1–4. [3] ——, “A method for interference cancellation in automotive radar,” in 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), April 2015, pp. 1–4. [4] J. Mun, H. Kim, and J. Lee, “A deep learning approach for automotive radar interference mitigation,” in 2018 IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), Aug 2018, pp. 1–5. [5] M. Song, J. Lim, and D. Shin, “The velocity and range detection using the 2d-fft scheme for automotive radars,” in 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, Sep. 2014, pp. 507–510. [6] O. Bas¸arslan and E. Yaldız, “Implementation of fmcw radar for training applications,” in 2017 4th International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ICEEE), April 2017, pp. 304–308.

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FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell

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velocity

range

1
2
3
N
T c
2
each objects A range-FFT row in resolves range on
Chirp index

range

corresponding are ADC stored data as the to chirps rows of a matrix

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A doppler-FFT along
the column resolves
(‘range-bin’) each velocity column in
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Fig. 7. FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell

Fig. 8. Range-Velocity Diagram

 Range Power Received Mixer Power Output Mixer Voltage Output 5m -52.4 dBm -20.4 dBm 60.3 mVpp 50m -92.4 dBm -60.4 dBm 603 uVpp

Component Selection

This section will cover the process involved in selecting components that meet system design specifications detailed in the previous section. The selection process has been divided into RF components and baseband components. The table below summarizes the main components selected in this process.

 Device Model Manufacturer Specification Function Generator XR-2206CP Exar/Jameco Frequency Range: 0.01-1MHz I = 14 mA Voltage Controlled Oscillator HMC431LP4ETR Analog Devices Power Output: 2dBm Vcc = 3V I = 33mA Power Splitter SCN-2-65+ Mini-Circuits Insertion loss: 3.5 dBm Passive Low Noise Amplifier (13 dBm) HMC320MS8GE Analog Devices Noise Figure: 2.5 dBm Power Gain: 13 dBm I = 40 mA Mixer HMC218BMS8GE Analog Devices Conversion Loss: 7 dBm LO Power: + 13 dBm Passive Antenna 5.8GHz 4-Patch Ripafire Gain = 14 dBi Bandwidth: 350 MHz Range: 5.6 – 5.95 GHz Array Gain Stage Amplifier TL972IP Texas Instruments Active Low Pass Filter MAX291CPA+ Maxim Integrated Corner Frequency Range: 0.1 Hz - 25 kHz

HMC431LP4ETR Voltage Controlled Oscillator:

The Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) generators the RF signal transmitted by the radar. The VCO requires many considerations when selecting. For range measurements applications an optimal VCO would have a tuned voltage to oscillate linearly in conjunction to a linear output in the frequency of operation. Constant power output over this range would be ideal. In addition the VCO should have low phase noise. The VCO chosen for the design was the HMC431LP4ETR manufactured by Analog Devices. The graphs below, taken into account for the analysis, are obtained from the datasheet provided by Analog Devices. The expected operating frequency is between 5.6 to 5.95 GHz. To operating in this range the tuning voltage would span between 2 to 6 volts. Based on the sensitivity vs. tuning voltage graph in this range there is a deviation of 50 MHz/Volt. Although this is not perfectly linear it is acceptable for radar applications. The output power remains constant at just above 2 dBm for the entire frequency range.

XR-2206CP Function Generator:

Once a VCO has been selected a function generator must be taken into account. Initially the Teensy 3.1 in conjunction with the MCP4921 DAC was taken into consideration but due to size and power constraints another option was chosen. The XR-2206CP is a monolithic function generator Exar that is able to produce the required triangle waveform to drive the VCO without a microcontroller and digital to analog converter.

HMC320MS8GE Low Noise Amplifier:

The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is required before the splitter and the RF input of the mixer to allow for enough amplification of the signal entering the baseband circuit. When selecting a LNA, it is critical to choose one that provides high power amplification and relatively low noise figure which would reduce the signal to noise ratio introduced during cascading of multiple LNAs. Also an LNA that does not require a complicated bias network would simplify the assembly process. The HMC320MS8GE by Analog Devices was chosen for the radar design which provides the option for configuration with three bias conditions. The graphs below are obtained from the datasheet. To maximize power amplification of each LNA, a high power bias is chosen.

SCN-2-65+ Power Splitter

When selecting a power splitter it is important to pay close attention to insertion losses and a number of other key factors. The selection of the SCN-2-65+ Power Splitter by Mini-Circuits is justified in the following table. For a frequency range for 5500-6500MHz the insertion loss remains low between 3.5 and 3.8 dB. The splitter can provide a large isolation of about 17 dB which is good. Also the splitter had the added benefit of easy soldering and being low on cost.

HMC218BMS8GE Mixer

The ideal mixer would be a double balanced mixer which has the advantages of good port isolation, noise protection and linearity. Fortunately Analog Devices provides the HMC218BMS8GE that meets these specifications in a passive double balanced topology. The graph below shows the conversion loss for a given LO drive of the mixer. With an expected LO drive of about +11dBm for our system design, the conversion loss remains constant at 6.5 dBm under the expected operating frequencies.

TL972IP Amplifier (Gain Stage) and MAX291CPA+ (Low Pass Filter)

The gain stage and active low pass filter in consideration is a modified version from the baseband design implemented in lab 1 for the quarter 1 radar which had a cut off frequency of 15 kHz. Modifications include the cascading of 2 amplifiers (TL972IP) in the gain stage to achieve the required amplification of x40 and an improved dedicated active lowpass filter IC (MAX291CPA+) which can provide a maximally flat passband response as a 8 th order Butterworth filter.