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University of Management and Technology Lahore School of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
Design and simulation of a TransmitterReceiver loop for Frequency Modulated  Continuous wave Radar for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS)
Semester: Fall 2019 Course: Communication SystemsEE410 Complex Engineering Problem (CEP), Maximum Marks 15/100 Resource Persons: Jameel Ahmad & Faran Awais Butt Emails: {jameel.ahmad,faran.butt}@umt.edu.pk Submission Date: Monday Week 13 ————————————————————————————————–
TABLE I
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOS).
CLO 
Description 
CLO 1 
Use theorems such as Parseval/Rayleigh Energy’s theorem and tools such as Fourier transform to represent and analyze signals in time and frequency domain as well as understand the characteristics of distortionless communication channel. (C4) 
CLO 2 
Identify and differentiate various blocks in Amplitude and Frequency/Phase Modulation/Demodulation. Analyze the working of AM/FM MODEMS using time and frequency domain analysis. (C4) 
CLO 3 
Learn and evaluate performance parameters such as Bandwidth, Power and SignaltoNoise Ratio of communication receivers. (C6) 
CLO 4 
Design AM and FM transmitter and receiver to achieve the desired performance speciﬁcations. (C6) 
TABLE II
PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES (PLOS) FOR CEP.
PLO 
Description 
PLO 2 
Problem Analysis 
PLO 3 
Design and Development of Solutions 
TABLE III
ASSESSMENT RUBRIC AND DELIVERABLES (MAX. MARKS:15).
Assessment Criteria 
CEP Attribute[1] 
CLO/PLO 
Excellent 
Average 
Adequate 
Derivation of Transmitted and received signal in time domain 
Depth of Analysis & Interdependence 
1/2 
1 
0.5 
0.1 
Plots of Transmitted Chirp in Time and Frequency domain 
Depth of Analysis 
1/2 
1 
0.5 
0.1 
Waveform of Input and output of each block of Radar 
Depth of Analysis 
2/2 
2 
1 
0.5 
Beat Frequency Spectrum for single and multiple targets 
Depth of Analysis 
3/2 
1 
0.5 
0.3 
Link Budget and SNR Calculation (Excel sheet) for 5.8GHz Radar 
Interdependence 
3/2 
2 
1.5 
0.3 
Circuit Level Implementation of 2.4 or 5.8 GHz Radar 
Depth of Knowledge 
4/3 
3 
1 
0.5 
2D Rangevelocity Graph 
Depth of Knowledge 
4/3 
2 
1 
0.2 
Report and Viva Voce 
 
3 
1.5 
0.5 
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Objectives of Complex Engineering Problem
In the modern era, most automotive manufacturers have adopted radar systems not only for premium cars but for all their vehicles. New security solutions such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) or Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) are now possible. To make selfdriving feasible, several sensors such as the camera, LIDAR and RADAR are used. Radar sensors are especially important since, unlike other sensors, they provide exact information about the distance and speed of neighboring vehicles regardless of the weather conditions. The aforementioned systems are normally referred to as ADAS (Advance driverassistance systems) and include a vast range of applications that aim to help and guide the driver to avoid accidents and dangerous situations: forward collision avoidance, parking sensors or pedestrian protection systems. Illustration of ADAS system is given in Fig. 1 where vehicles seem connected to each other through ADAS. In this Complex Engineering Problem (CEP) for EE410:Communications Systems course, students will go through an in depth analysis of linear FMCW radars by modeling an endtoend radar system for ADAS related application. Students will also design an FMCW radar system with triangular chirp pattern. Student will also propose a model that can be implemented in the local industry. Simulation setup can be done in MATLAB Simulink or simRF Toolbox or RF Blockset or other software such as Keysight ADS or NI AWR VSS. A Technical Report should be submitted having 1020 pages, supported with literature review of 3 IEEE journal/Transactions per group. Link budget calculations would also be performed. Bonus points will be given to those students who will do a hardware implementation at circuit level and propose a nonlinear chirp pattern design for the proposed framework with its pros and cons. Each group should review 3 research papers from IEEE Conferences or journals from IEEE or Elsevier. As a future work, students can read paper on interference from neighboring vehicles as it is a serious concern [2], [3], [4] in ADAS.
Index Terms
FMCW Radar, ACC, ADAS, Beat Frequency, Cruise Control, Link budget
I. INTRODUCTION
Fig. 1. Radar based ADAS systems
Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave radar (FMCW radar) is a special type of radar sensor which radiates continuous transmission power like a simple continuous wave radar (CW Radar). In FMCW radars the frequency modulation spreads the transmitted energy over a large modulation bandwidth B. Large bandwidth helps to detect targets with high resolution. The power spectrum is nearly rectangular over the modulation bandwidth. This makes interception difﬁcult. It is resistant to jamming because it is a deterministic signal and its form is only known to the user. FMCW (sometimes called LFMCW or Linear FMCW) is the most commonly used scheme in automotive radar today. In Linear FMCW: TX signal has frequency changing linearly with time (i.e. chirp). In FMCW Radars, the transmitted frequency is linearly changed during the run time to the target and back to the Radar, and the received signal is shifted by a time delay to the initial signal. By mixing the current transmitted signal with the reﬂected signal, the frequency difference caused by the run time can be deﬁned. Due to the known modulation parameters of the transmitter, the run time of the signal can be calculated, which is proportional to the distance of the object. For a precise distance measurement, an extremely highly linear modulation of the transmitted frequency is necessary, because each nonlinearity of the modulation will decrease the accuracy of the FMCW Radar. An FMCW system is shown in Fig. 2 which consists of a transmitter, a receiver, a mixer and an analog to digital converter (A/D). An FM signal is transmitted and received through antennas, and the transmitted and received signals are multiplied in the time domain(mixing) and processed. An FMCW radar measures the range by examining the
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beat frequency in the dechirped signal. To extract this frequency, a dechirp operation is performed by mixing the received signal with the transmitted signal. After the mixing, the dechirped signal contains only individual frequency components that correspond to the target range. In addition, even though it is possible to extract the Doppler information from a single sweep, the Doppler shift is often extracted among several sweeps because within one pulse, the Doppler frequency is indistinguishable from the beat frequency.
Fig. 2. Structure of an FMCW radar system.
In Fig.3, the duration in time T it is half of the period of the low frequency modulation waveform f _{m} . Generally the duration in time T it is much greater than the return time of the echo signal t _{d} . The low frequency modulation waveform signal can be Triangle, Sawtooth, Sinusoidal, or other periodic shape signal. In practical applications the frequency of the modulation signal f _{m} could be between 10 Hz and 1 kHz. The basic waveform that the FMCW radar transmits and receives is the saw tooth waveform. The triangular waveform offers some additional advantages that students are expected to know. The ﬁrst subﬁgure in Fig.3 shows a triangular chirp pattern. The received signal is a timedelayed copy of the transmitted signal where the delay, ∆t , is related to the range. Because the signal is always sweeping through a frequency band, at any moment during the sweep, the frequency difference,f _{b} , is a constant between the transmitted signal and the received signal. It is usually called the beat frequencyf _{b} or intermediate frequency IF . Because the sweep is linear, one can derive the time delay from the beat frequency and then translate the delay to the range.
TABLE IV
FMCW RADAR SYSTEM PARAMETERS.
Parameter 
Deﬁnition 
Value 

f 0 
Operating Frequency (GHz) 
77 

f V CO 
Operating Frequency Range (GHz) 
7580GHz 

Chirp speciﬁcation(B,T) 
Bandwidth, duration 
B = 1150MHz, T = 7.33µsec 

N 
s 
Number of Sweeps of Chirp 
64 
r r 
range resolution(m) 
1 

v T 
Maximum Target Speed (km/h) 
120 + sum of last two digits of your student ID 
To measure the range and Doppler, an FMCW radar typically performs the following operations:
1) A chirp signal is launched into the free space using a transmit antenna. A chirp signal is an FMmodulated signal of a known stable frequency whose instantaneous frequency varies linearly over a ﬁxed period of time (sweep time) by a modulating signal. 2) The Tx antenna with Gain G _{t} transmits chirp and radiates the signal into space with suitable Transmit power P _{t} .
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Fig. 3. Chirp signal speciﬁcation
3) The signal propagates to the target, gets reﬂected by the target, and travels back to the radar. 4) The receiving antenna with Gain G _{r} collects the signal with received Power P _{r} . 5) The received signal is dechirped using a mixer resulting in Intermediate frequency IF and passed to ADC and saved in a buffer. 6) Once a certain number of sweeps ﬁll the buffer, the Fourier transform is performed in both range and Doppler to extract the beat frequency as well as the Doppler shift. One can then estimate the range and speed of the target using these results. Range and Doppler can also be shown as an image and gives an intuitive indication of where the target is in the range and speed domain.
II. LINK BUDGET CALCULATION FOR 5.8GHZ FMCW PRACTICAL RADAR
ADIsimRF from Analog Devices is an easytouse RF signal chain calculator. It calculates signal levels, distortion and noise for signal chains with up to ﬁfty elements. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form and can be plotted vs. input power, gain and frequency. Data can also be exported to Excel. ADIsimRF includes frequency dependent device models for most of ADI’s RF components along with many DACs and ADCs and some transformers
and ﬁlters from thirdparty vendors. To assist in device selection, component selection tables are included along with
a Device Selection Wizard. The proposed RF subsystem is bi static radar type which incorporates transmit and receive paths. It is implemented to increase the isolation between the two paths. The transmit path starts with the voltage controlled oscillator (HMC431) which is able to output a 2 dBm signal to sweep in the range of 5.6 to 6 GHz according to modulation voltage signal from the function generator. The swept signal is ampliﬁed by way of a low noise ampliﬁer (HMC320)
which provides a power ampliﬁcation of 13 dBm at the operating frequency. After that the swept signal is divided by way of a splitter (SCN26+) which introduces a 3.5 dBm insertion loss. A portion of the swept signal is coupled to the mixer as reference signal. The ﬁnal transmitted power of the system is 11.5 dBm which is transmitted through
a 14 dBi TX antenna. The received path starts with a series of low noise ampliﬁers (LNA). This ampliﬁed signal
from the RX antenna is inputted to the mixer where it is down converted by mixing with the reference signal. This down converted signal is ampliﬁed at the gain stage and passed through low pass ﬁlter before it is sampled by the PC/ADC/Base band signal processing. The complete system level diagram is shown in Fig 5. Once the transmit power of the radar is realized, Frii’s equations is used to determine the received power. The goal is to design the receiver to detect a 0.3 meter squared target ranging at distances between 5 to 50 meters. With an operating frequency of 5.8 GHz the power received ranges from 52.4 dBm to 92.4 dBm for target ranges from 5 to 50 meters. To reduce the amount of ampliﬁcation required at the baseband gain stage, RF ampliﬁcation is implemented at the RF receiver path with a cascade of three low noise ampliﬁers (HMC320) with each providing a power ampliﬁcation of 13 dBm at a noise ﬁgure of 2.5 dBm. The baseband circuit is designed to amplify the incoming signal and ﬁlter any noise received from the IF frequency of the RF circuit. The link budget table below summarizes
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the power received, mixer power output and mixer output voltage for targets at 5 and 50 meters. From this the gain required at the gain stage can be determined. For weak signals detected at target ranges as far as 50m, ampliﬁcation is required for the built in ADC of the PC’s microphone to detect noticeable measurements. For the ADC of the microphone a minimum 25mV peak to peak signal was determined to be sufﬁcient. To detect targets at the maximum range of 50 meters, ampliﬁcation provided by the gain stage should be x40. Any signal higher than 1.2 volts peak to peak would be limited by the limiter circuit. To characterize the receiver path of the RF subsystem Analog Devices provides ADIsimRF to calculate total gain, noise ﬁgure, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and peak to peak output voltage. Students can download ADIsimRF from Analog Devices ( http://adisimrf.download.analog.com/ADISimRF/publish.htm) and use this software for calculating the Link Budget of 5.8GHz FMCW Radar implemented using Analog Devices components listed along with various power levels. The snapshot of ADIsimRF is shown in Fig. 4. The implemented radar is shown in Fig.5. Students can also ﬁll in the Link Budget Sheet as shown in Fig.6 and make it part of their report.
Fig. 4. Link Budget of 5.8GHz FMCW Radar System
Fig. 5. Block Diagram of 5.8GHz FMCW System using Analog Devices Components
III. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND STUDENT SUBMISSION
Although FMCW radar systems have been on the horizon for many years, its full potential has not yet been leveraged for emerging applications. Our aim in this CEP is to make use of this radar system for automotive
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RF System (Link Budget) Calculations
System Variables 
Variable 
Units 
Equation 
Value 

Frequency Speed of Light Wavelength 
f _{0} 
MHz 
315 

c 
m/s 
299792458 

λ 
m 
λ = c/f _{0} 
0.951722089 

Block 
Variable 
Units 
Equation 
Value 

PA Power TX Match Loss TX source TX connector loss TX TX connector loss (remote antenna) TX power TX antenna gain cable loss 
P _{P}_{A} 
dBm 
10 

L _{M}_{a}_{t}_{c}_{h}_{T} 
dB 

P _{T}_{X} 
dBm 
10 

L _{C}_{o}_{n}_{T}_{1} 
dB 
(from Connector Loss sheet) (from Cable Loss sheet) (from Connector Loss sheet) 
0.57


L _{C}_{a}_{b}_{T} 
dB 

L _{C}_{o}_{n}_{T}_{2} 
dB 

P _{T} 
dBm 
P _{T} = P _{T}_{X} (C&C Loss) 
9.43 

G _{T} 
dBi 
15 

Effective (Isotropic) Radiated Power 
EIRP 
dBm 
EIRP = P _{T} G _{T} 
5.57 

Distance Channel Medium Loss Free Space Loss Power at RX Antenna, Free Space Path Factor 
d 
m 
175 

L _{0} 
dB 
(from Medium Loss sheet) 
0 

L _{F}_{S} 
dB 
L _{F}_{S} = (λ/4πd) ^{2} 
67.27475527 

P _{C}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{F}_{S} 
dB 
P _{C}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{F}_{S} = L _{F}_{S} L _{0} EIRP 
72.84475527 

Flat Earth Loss (Includes Ground 
Bounce) 
L _{F}_{E} 
dB 
(from Ground Multipath sheet) 
92.73416576 

Multipath Loss 
L _{M}_{P} 
dB 

L _{O}_{b}_{s}_{}_{T}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} 
dB 
0 

Obstruction Loss Power at RX Antenna, Flat Earth Path 
P _{C}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{F}_{E} 
dB 
P _{C}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{F}_{E} = L _{F}_{E} L _{0} L _{M}_{P} L _{O}_{b}_{s} EIRP 
98.30416576 

RX antenna gain RX connector loss RX cable loss RX connector loss (remote antenna) 
G _{R} 
dBi 
15
0.57


L _{C}_{o}_{n}_{R}_{1} 
dB 

L _{C}_{a}_{b}_{R} 
dB 

L _{C}_{o}_{n}_{R}_{2} 
dB 

P _{R}_{F}_{S} 
dBm 
P _{R}_{F}_{S} = P _{C}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{F}_{S} G _{R} (C&C Loss) 
88.41475527 

RX power, Free Space Path RX power, Flat Earth Path 
P _{R}_{F}_{E} 
dBm 
P _{R}_{F}_{E} = P _{C}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{F}_{E} G _{R} (C&C 
Loss) 
113.8741658 

Receiver Sensitivity Calculations 
Variable 
Units 
Equation 
Value 

RX Noise Figure Operating Temperature Effective Noise Temperature Boltzmann's constant Receive Bandwidth Antenna Temperature Noise Power (at RX) Signal to Noise Ratio 
NF 
dB 
7
290


T 
_{0} 
K 

T 
_{e} 
K 
T _{e} = T _{0} (NF  1) 
1163.442978 

k 
J/K 
1.38E23 

BW _{R}_{X} 
MHz 
0.012
300


T _{A}_{n}_{t} 
K 

P _{n} 
dBm 
P _{n} = k (T _{A}_{n}_{t} + T _{e} )BW _{R}_{X} SNR _{R}_{X} = P _{R}_{X} /P _{n} 
126.1556386 

SNR _{R}_{X} 
dB 
12.15563863 
Fig. 6. RF System’s Link Budget Calculation Shee.
Sensitivity of Rx
applications. Students are expected to submit following in their ﬁnal report for Complex Engineering Problem. Each item should be treated as a separate section in the report.
1)
Write time domain expression for transmitted linear FMCW signal and received signal.
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2)
Determine the expressions for a linear FMCW radar system for items given in table V.
TABLE V
FMCW PARAMETERS
Parameter 
Deﬁnition 

P 
r 
Radar Equation 
P 
t 

R 
Range(m) 

∆R 
Range resolution(m) 

v 
r 
Velocity of the moving Target(m/s) 
Design and simulate a generic complete end to end linear FMCW radar system from transmitter to
target and then to receiver. Use the parameters given in table IV. You may assume other parameters that are not explicitly mentioned but you should properly mention your assumptions if any. Develop the system model of FMCW Radar in MATLAB. You may take the help from following link of Mathworks https://uk.mathworks.com/help/phased/examples/automotiveadaptivecruisecontrolusingfmcw technology.html 4) Given the conﬁguration parameters in table IV, simulate and generate RangeDoppler response pattern for linear chirp pattern FMCW using MATLAB. A sample of 2D rangevelocity diagram is shown in Fig. 8 [5]. The twodimensional FFT process gives a 2D rangevelocity image (FFT heatmap). Typically, detection of objects is done on this image. After detection, the range and relative speed of the objects are easily calculated (ref. to Fig.7). 5) Repeat step 3 and 4 for triangular chirp pattern. 6) Calculate Link Budget for receiver path for targets at 5 meters and A + 30 meters using ADIsimRF from Analog Devices for 5.8GHz FMCW radar shown in Fig.5. A in this case is the last two digits of your student ID. For example if the last two digits of your ID are 50, it should be 30+ 50=80 meters. 7) Propose circuit level implementation of FMCW radar based ADAS systems for vehicles in Pakistan.You can read paper titled: Implementation of FMCW Radar for Training Applications by Oguz Baarslan and Ercan Yaldlz [6] or the paper titled: SBand 2.4GHz FMCW Radar by Iulian Rosu and Filip Rosu by visiting (https://qsl.net/va3iul/) for some details how circuit level implementation can be carried out for 2.4GHz radar. This is an optional part but highly recommended if a students want to earn a better grade in EE410. 8) Students are expected to write an abstract/short summary (12 page max) of the subject matter by doing a literature review of ”FMCW Radars for ADAS systems”. This should include a ”summary” of three papers, ”critical analysis” of the paper and your ”suggestions” based on your critical analysis. The papers can be either conference papers or journal articles or patents but they should be published within last 5 years. Each group is expected to email us 5 different research papers in this domain. Out of those ﬁve papers, we will short list three research articles for each group.
Important Note: Students must submit CEP report by Monday of Week 13 (the week before lab vivas).
3)
IV. SUBMISSION RULES AND REGULATIONS
1) 3 students are allowed to make a group. 2) Although team work is encouraged and also carry weight in this assessment, each individual would also be evaluated separately. 3) A complete report has to be submitted by each group.
REFERENCES
[1] E. A. Board, “Manual of accreditation.” Pakistan Engineering Council Islamabad, 2014, pp. 1–63. [2] M. Barjenbruch, D. Kellner, K. Dietmayer, J. Klappstein, and J. Dickmann, “A method for interference cancellation in automotive radar,” in 2015 IEEE MTTS International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), April 2015, pp. 1–4. [3] ——, “A method for interference cancellation in automotive radar,” in 2015 IEEE MTTS International Conference on Microwaves for Intelligent Mobility (ICMIM), April 2015, pp. 1–4. [4] J. Mun, H. Kim, and J. Lee, “A deep learning approach for automotive radar interference mitigation,” in 2018 IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTCFall), Aug 2018, pp. 1–5. [5] M. Song, J. Lim, and D. Shin, “The velocity and range detection using the 2dfft scheme for automotive radars,” in 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on Network Infrastructure and Digital Content, Sep. 2014, pp. 507–510. [6] O. Bas¸arslan and E. Yaldız, “Implementation of fmcw radar for training applications,” in 2017 4th International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Engineering (ICEEE), April 2017, pp. 304–308.
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FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell
^{r}^{a}^{n}^{g}^{e}
range
corresponding are ADC stored data as the to chirps rows of a matrix
Fig. 7. FMCW 2D FFT processing in a nutshell
Fig. 8. RangeVelocity Diagram
AppendixA Information about components used in 5.8GHz FMCW Radar
ADIsimRF receiver path calculation for target at 50 meters
Range 
Power Received 
Mixer Power Output 
Mixer Voltage Output 
5m 
52.4 dBm 
20.4 dBm 
60.3 mVpp 
50m 
92.4 dBm 
60.4 dBm 
603 uVpp 
Component Selection
This section will cover the process involved in selecting components that meet system design specifications detailed in the previous section. The selection process has been divided into RF components and baseband components. The table below summarizes the main components selected in this process.
Device 
Model 
Manufacturer 
Specification 

Function Generator 
XR2206CP 
Exar/Jameco 
Frequency Range: 

0.011MHz 

I 
= 14 mA 

Voltage Controlled Oscillator 
HMC431LP4ETR 
Analog Devices 
Power Output: 2dBm Vcc = 3V 

I 
= 33mA 

Power Splitter 
SCN265+ 
MiniCircuits 
Insertion loss: 3.5 dBm 

Passive 

Low Noise Amplifier (13 dBm) 
HMC320MS8GE 
Analog Devices 
Noise Figure: 2.5 dBm Power Gain: 13 dBm 

I 
= 40 mA 

Mixer 
HMC218BMS8GE 
Analog Devices 
Conversion Loss: 7 dBm LO Power: + 13 dBm 

Passive 

Antenna 
5.8GHz 4Patch 
Ripafire 
Gain = 14 dBi Bandwidth: 350 MHz Range: 5.6 – 5.95 GHz 

Array 

Gain Stage Amplifier 
TL972IP 
Texas Instruments 

Active Low Pass Filter 
MAX291CPA+ 
Maxim Integrated 
Corner Frequency Range: 

0.1 Hz  25 kHz 
HMC431LP4ETR Voltage Controlled Oscillator:
The Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) generators the RF signal transmitted by the radar. The VCO requires many considerations when selecting. For range measurements applications an optimal VCO would have a tuned voltage to oscillate linearly in conjunction to a linear output in the frequency of operation. Constant power output over this range would be ideal. In addition the VCO should have low phase noise. The VCO chosen for the design was the HMC431LP4ETR manufactured by Analog Devices. The graphs below, taken into account for the analysis, are obtained from the datasheet provided by Analog Devices. The expected operating frequency is between 5.6 to 5.95 GHz. To operating in this range the tuning voltage would span between 2 to 6 volts. Based on the sensitivity vs. tuning voltage graph in this range there is a deviation of 50 MHz/Volt. Although this is not perfectly linear it is acceptable for radar applications. The output power remains constant at just above 2 dBm for the entire frequency range.
XR2206CP Function Generator:
Once a VCO has been selected a function generator must be taken into account. Initially the Teensy 3.1 in conjunction with the MCP4921 DAC was taken into consideration but due to size and power constraints another option was chosen. The XR2206CP is a monolithic function generator Exar that is able to produce the required triangle waveform to drive the VCO without a microcontroller and digital to analog converter.
HMC320MS8GE Low Noise Amplifier:
The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is required before the splitter and the RF input of the mixer to allow for enough amplification of the signal entering the baseband circuit. When selecting a LNA, it is critical to choose one that provides high power amplification and relatively low noise figure which would reduce the signal to noise ratio introduced during cascading of multiple LNAs. Also an LNA that does not require a complicated bias network would simplify the assembly process. The HMC320MS8GE by Analog Devices was chosen for the radar design which provides the option for configuration with three bias conditions. The graphs below are obtained from the datasheet. To maximize power amplification of each LNA, a high power bias is chosen.
SCN265+ Power Splitter
When selecting a power splitter it is important to pay close attention to insertion losses and a number of other key factors. The selection of the SCN265+ Power Splitter by MiniCircuits is justified in the following table. For a frequency range for 55006500MHz the insertion loss remains low between 3.5 and 3.8 dB. The splitter can provide a large isolation of about 17 dB which is good. Also the splitter had the added benefit of easy soldering and being low on cost.
HMC218BMS8GE Mixer
The ideal mixer would be a double balanced mixer which has the advantages of good port isolation, noise protection and linearity. Fortunately Analog Devices provides the HMC218BMS8GE that meets these specifications in a passive double balanced topology. The graph below shows the conversion loss for a given LO drive of the mixer. With an expected LO drive of about +11dBm for our system design, the conversion loss remains constant at 6.5 dBm under the expected operating frequencies.
TL972IP Amplifier (Gain Stage) and MAX291CPA+ (Low Pass Filter)
The gain stage and active low pass filter in consideration is a modified version from the baseband design implemented in lab 1 for the quarter 1 radar which had a cut off frequency of 15 kHz. Modifications include the cascading of 2 amplifiers (TL972IP) in the gain stage to achieve the required amplification of x40 and an improved dedicated active lowpass filter IC (MAX291CPA+) which can provide a maximally flat passband response as a 8 ^{t}^{h} order Butterworth filter.
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