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Muscle Origin Insertion Action Nerve

Gluteal Groups
Gluteus Maximus ilium, sacrum, iliotibial tract & Extend Hip Inferior Gluteal
coccyx, lumbar fascia gluteal tuberosity
Gluteus Medius iliac crest, between Greater trochanter Abduct hip, stabilise Superior gluteal
posterior & anterior pelvis
gluteal lines
Gluteus Minimus Ilium between Greater trochanter Abduct hip Superior gluteal
inferior & anterior
gluteal lines
Tensor Fascia Iliac crest, Anterior Iliotibial tract which Flex hip, tense fascia Superior gluteal
Latae (TFL) superior iliac spine inserts lateral tibial latae which supports
(ASIS) condyle knee laterally
Hip Flexors
Iliacus Iliac fossa Lesser trochanter Hip flexion Femoral
Psoas Major T12-L5 bodies Lesser trochanter Hip flexion Lumbar plexus

Anterior Thigh Muscles (Quadriceps Femoris & Sartorius)

Anterior Inferior iliac Tibial insertion via extends knee & flex Femoral
Rectus Femoris spine upper patella ligament hip
Vastus Shaft of femur Tibial insertion via Extends Knee Femoral
intermedius patella ligament
Vastus lateralis Greater trochanter, Tibial insertion via Extends Knee Femoral
shaft of femur patella ligament
Vastus Medialis Linea aspera, shaft Tibial insertion via Extends Knee Femoral
of femur patella ligament
Sartorius Anterior Superior Medial tibia nearknee flexion, hip Femoral
Iliac Spine tibial tuberosityflexion, abduction &
lateral extension
Medial Thigh Muscles (Adductors)
Adductor Magnus Inferior ramus pubis Linea aspera, Adduct hip Obturator &
Ischial tuberosity adductor tubercle sciatic
Adductor Longus & Pubis Linea aspera of adduct hip Obturator &
Brevis femur sciatic
Pectineus Superior ramus, linea aspera of adduct hip femoral
pubis femur
Gracilis pubis medial, proximal Adduct, medially obturator
tibia rotate hip and flex
Posterior Thigh Muscles
Biceps femoris long head – ischial Head of fibula extend hip, flex knee Long head –
tuberosity tibial nerve
short head – linea short head –
aspera common fibular
Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Semimembranosus ischial tuberosity Medial tuberosity Extend hip, flex knee sciatic (tibial
Semitendinosus ischial tuberosity proximal, medial extend hip, flex knee sciatic nerve
tibia (tibial portion)
Posterior Compartment of the Leg (Superficial) – Plantarflexion of ankle, extension of toes
Gastrocnemius Lateral Head- lateral Calcaneus via ankle plantarflexion, tibial
condyle femur calaneal tendon knee flexion
Medial head- medial
condyle femur
Soleus Upper tibia, upper Calcaneus via Ankle Plantarflexion Tibial
fibula calcaneal tendon
Plantaris Inferior femur Calcaneus via Plantarflexion, knee Tibial
calcaneal tendon flexion (not strong)
Posterior Compartment of leg (Deep)
Popliteus lateral condyle posterior proximal flex knee, medial Tibial (L4-S1)
femur & lateral tibia rotation of tibia
Tibialis Posterior interosseus navicular, plantarflex ankle, Tibial
membrane, tibia, cuneiforms, cuboid, invert foot, arch
fibula metatarsals 2-4 support
Flexor Hallucis fibula, interosseus hallux Flex hallux, arch Tibial
Longus membrane support
Flexor Digitorum posterior tibia lateral 4 toes flex toes 2-5, Tibial
Longus plantarflexion, (arch
Anterior Compartment of the Leg – Dorsiflexion of ankle, extension of toes
Tibilais Anterior Superior/lateral, medial cunieform, dorsiflex ankle, Deep fibular
(Superficial) interosseus 1st metatarsal invert foot
Extensor Tibia – lateral, Fibula toes 2-5 dorsiflex ankle, Deep Fibular
Digitorum Longus – superior medial, extend toes 2-5
Extensor Hallucis Fibula –anterior, base, distal phalanx Dorsiflex ankle, Deep Fibular
Longus interosseus hallux Extend hallux
Fibularis Fibula & Interosseus 5th metatarsal Dorsiflex ankle, evert Deep Fibular
(Peroneus) Tertius membrane foot
Lateral compartment-evertors
Fibularis longus upper fibula 5th metatarsal & foot eversion superficial
medial cuneiform Fibula
Fibularis Brevis Inferior Lateral 5th Base Metatarsal Foot Eversion superficial
Fibula Fibula
Plantar Muscles:
1st layer
Flexor digitorum calcaneus, plantar toes 2-5 Flex lateral toes 2-5 Medial plantar
brevis aponeurosis
Origin Insertion Action Nerve
Abductor digiti Tuberosity of Lateral side, base Abduct 5th toe Lateral plantar
minimi calcaneus, plantar proximal phalanx 5th
aponeurosis toe
Abductor hallucis calcaneus, plantar Hallux Abduct & flex hallux Medial plantar
Plantar Muscles2nd layer
Lumbricals Tendons Flexor extensor expansion Flex Medial and
Digitorum Longus toes 2-5 metatarsophalangeal lateral plantar
joints, extend
Quadratus plantae Plantar surface flexor digitorum Assist & align flexor lateral plantar
(Flexor calcaneum longus tendon digitorum longus
Plantar Muscles – 3rd layer
Adductor Hallucis Transverse head: metatarsophalangeal may provide deep lateral
metatarsophalangeal joint 1 transverse arch plantar(S2,3)
joint 2-4 support, adduct
Oblique head: base hallux
metatarsals 2-4
Flexor Hallucis cuboid & lateral proximal phalanx, flex Medial plantar
Brevis cuneiform hallux metatarsophalangeal
joint hallux
Flexor Digiti Minim Base 5th metatarsal Base proximal Flex Lateral plantar
phalanx of 5th toe metatarsophalangeal
joint 5th toe
Plantar – 4th layer
Plantar Interossei metatarsals 3-5 proximal phalanges PAD (2nd Toe is the Lateral Plantar
3-5 reference point) Nerve
Dorsal Intrinsic Muscles
Dorsal Interossei metatarsal shafts proximal phalanges abduct toes Lateral Plantar
2-4 Nerve

Extensor Hallucis Calcaneus hallux base proximal extend Deep fibular

Brevis phalanx metatarsophalangeal
Extensor Calcaneus toes 2–4 (middle extend toes 2-4 Deep fibular
Digitorum Brevis phalanx)