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Human endocrine system


The hypothalamus


The pituitary gland


The pineal gland


Thyroid gland


Parathyroid gland




Adrenal gland







v Hormones of : heart , kidney and gastrointestinal tract


Mechanism of hormone action



organism involve coordinated functioning of various organs and organ systems which enable it to respond to various external and internal stimuli. The functions of individual cells, tissues and organ systems in one part of the body are related to the activities of the other parts of the body and this requires a form of communication among them.

Animals in general, have two different, but related systems of internal communication: (1) a somewhat slower system called the endocrine system and (2) a very fast acting nervous system. The nervous system consisting of specialised cells called neurons, conducts electrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another. These impulses are generally of brief duration and the nervous responses are usually brief. The endocrine system consists of specialised glands called endocrine glands which secrete the chemical substances called hormones. The hormones released into the blood stream or other body fluids reach every cell through the circulatory system and elicit a response in distantly located organs and tissues of the organism. Usually the response to a hormonal stimulus is a change in the metabolism of cells and these changes may persist for long periods of time.


crine glands are glands of the endo m that secrete their products, horm tly into the blood rather than throu The major glands of the endo m include the pineal gland, pitu , pancreas, ovaries, testes, th , parathyroid gland, hypothalamu nal glands. The hypothalamus ary gland are neuroendocrine orga crine glands lack ducts and are h d ductless glands . secretions are called as hormones.

e endocrine glands and hormone oducing diffused tissues/cells located in ferent parts of our body constitute the docrine system

glands and hormone oducing diffused tissues/cells located in ferent parts of our body constitute the docrine

after childbirth. It also affects sex ho levels from ovaries in women and fr testes (testicles) in men, as well as fe

Growth hormone (GH) - stimulates

in childhood and is important for ma a healthy body composition and we in adults. In adults, GH is important f maintaining muscle mass and bone also affects fat distribution in the bo

Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) - stimul

production of cortisol by the adrena small glands that sit on top of the ki Cortisol, a "stress hormone," is vital t survival. It helps maintain blood pre and blood glucose (sugar) levels, an produced in larger amounts when w under stressespecially after illness

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates the thyroid gland to prod thyroid hormones, which regulate th metabolism, energy balance, growth nervous system activity

Luteinizing hormone (LH) - stimulate

testosterone production in men and release (ovulation) in women

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) -

vasopressin, regulates water balance in t body. It conserves body water by reducin the amount of water lost in urine Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, and ma also help labor to progress.

in breastfeeding women, and ma also help labor to progress . Pituitary Tumors The most frequent

Pituitary Tumors

The most frequent type of pituitary disord is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors a fairly common in adults. They are not bra tumors and are almost always benign (th

is, not cancer). In fact, cancerous tumors o this sort are extremely rare. There are two types of tumorssecretory

Secretory tumors prod

and non-secretory.

in the body is cause tumor

Hypo-secretion- too

the body can be cau tumor, which interfe gland’s ability to pr Hypo-secretion:can or radiation of a tu

Tumor mass effects

pineal gland is located deep in the br n area called the epithalamus, where halves

pineal gland is located deep in the br n area called the epithalamus, where halves of the brain join. In humans, t tuated in the middle of the brain; it sit oove just above the thalamus, which rea that co-ordinates a variety of tions related to our senses. The pinea d contains high levels of calcium and sed by radiographers to mark the dle of the brain in X-ray images.

The pinea d contains high levels of calcium and sed by radiographers to mark the dle

The pineal gland is best known for the secretion of the hormone melatonin, which is released into the blood and possibly also into the brain fluid, known as cerebrospinal fluid. The body's daily (circadian) clock controls the production of pineal melatonin, so melatonin is commonly used in human research to understand the body's biological time. There is a rhythm to the biology of the pineal gland. It varies with changes in day length and this is why the pineal gland is sometimes referred to as both an endocrine clock and an endocrine calendar.

Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland is an important part of the body's circadian timing system and can synchronize daily rhythms. There is considerable research that shows that without the pineal gland and its secretion of melatonin, animals are unable to adapt physiologically to seasonal changes.


The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland in your neck. It makes two hormones that are secreted into the blood: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones are necessary for all the cells in your body to work normally.

Thyroid disorders are very common and tend mainly to occur in women, although anybody - men, teenagers, children and babies, too -



1.Hypothyroidism (under-activ

enough thyroxine is produced needs.

2.Hyperthyroidism (overactive

much thyroxine is produced f needs. Hypothyroidism is the most co disorder.

Controlling of thyroid gland:

The parathyroids produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH raises the blood calcium level by:

breaking down the bone (where most of the bodys calcium is stored) and causing calcium release increasing the bodys ability to absorb calcium from food increasing the kidneys ability to hold on to calcium that would otherwise be lost in the urine. Normal parathyroid glands work like the thermostat in your home to keep blood calcium levels in a very tightly controlled range. When the blood calcium level is too low, PTH is released to bring the calcium level back up to normal. When the calcium level is normal or gets a little too high, normal parathyroids will stop releasing PTH. Proper calcium balance is crucial to the normal functioning of the heart, nervous system, kidneys, and bones. The parathyroid glands are important in tightly controlling calcium levels in the bloodstream. Because of this, calcium levels are generally very stable. This is important to ensure the nervous system and the body’s muscles can work properly, and also that bones remain strong.

The main target organs where parathyroid hormone exerts its effects are the bones and the kidneys. When calcium levels are low,

the bloodstream. These hormones affect many parts of the human body. The human body has two adrenal glands and one sits on top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland weighs 4–5 g in an adult. Adrenals are first detected at 6 weeks' gestation.They are also known as Suprarenal gland. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct parts: the outer part called the adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands secrete different hormones which act as 'chemical messengers'. These hormones travel in the bloodstream and act on various body tissues to enable them to function correctly. All adrenocortical hormones are steroid compounds made from cholesterol. The adrenal cortex produces three hormones:

Mineralocorticoids: the most important of which is aldosterone. This hormone helps to maintain the body’s salt and water levels which, in turn, regulates blood pressure. Without aldosterone, the kidney loses excessive amounts of salt (sodium) and, consequently, water, leading to severe dehydration and low blood pressure.

Glucocorticoids: predominantly cortisol. This hormone is involved in the response to illness and also helps to regulate body metabolism. Cortisol stimulates glucose production

helping the body to free up the necessary ingredients from storage (fat and muscle) to make glucose. Cortisol also has significant anti-inflammatory effects.

•Adrenal androgens: male sex hormones mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone. All have weak effects, but play a role in early development of the male sex organs in childhood, and female body hair during puberty. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, primarily affects release of glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens by the adrenal gland and, to a much lesser extent, also stimulates aldosterone release.

The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines:

Catecholamines include adrenaline, noradrenaline and small amounts of dopamine these hormones are responsible for all the physiological characteristics of the stress response, the so called 'fight or flight' response.


The pancreas is a long flattened gland located deep in the belly (abdomen). Because the pancreas isn’t seen or felt in our day to day lives, most people don't know as much about the pancreas as they do about other

whether it is needed or not. For example, if the tumor is made of insulin-producing cells, it is called an insulinoma. This is where too much insulin is produced when it is not required. This also happens with glucagon- producing cells, or a glucagonoma, which produces too much glucagon. These and other hormone-producing tumors in the pancreas are very rare, but endocrinology specialists have important parts to play in diagnosing patients with these tumors and contributing to their management and treatment.

The digestive cells of the pancreas can be involved in the condition known as pancreatitis. This is a very painful and serious condition caused by digestive enzymes 'leaking' into the pancreas itself and damaging the delicate tissues in and around it.

It is also possible for a tumor to develop in the part of the pancreas that produces the digestive juices that are released into the bowel. This condition is called pancreatic cancer.


Testis, plural testes, also called testicle, in animals, the organ that produces sperm, the male reproductive cell, and androgens, the male hormones. In humans the testes occur as a pair of oval-shaped organs. They are

all the eggs that she will ever have.This is estimated to be around two million, but by the time a girl reaches puberty, this number has decreased to about 400,000 eggs stored in her ovaries. From puberty to the menopause, only about 400–500 eggs will reach maturity, be released from the ovary (in a process called ovulation) and be capable of being fertilized in the fallopian tubes/uterine tube/oviduct of the female reproductive tract.

The ovarian phases of a 28-day menstrual cycle. Ovulation occurs mid-cycle. The ovarian phases of a 28-day menstrual cycle. Ovulation occurs mid-cycle.

In the ovary, all eggs are initially enclosed in a single layer of cells known as a follicle, which supports the egg. Over time, these eggs begin to mature so that one is released from the ovary in each menstrual cycle. As the eggs mature, the cells in the follicle rapidly divide and the follicle becomes progressively larger. Many follicles lose the ability to function during this process, which can take several months, but one dominates in each menstrual cycle and the egg it contains is released at ovulation. The major hormones secreted by the ovaries are estrogen and progesterone, both important hormones in the menstrual cycle. Estrogen production dominates in the first half of the menstrual cycle before ovulation,

Erythropoietin (EPO), is another peptide hormone secreted by a non - endocrine tissue, kidney. It

Erythropoietin (EPO), is another peptide hormone secreted by a non-endocrine tissue, kidney. It is also known as hemopoietin. Erythropoietin secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney which functions by triggering the RBC production in the bone marrow, especially when the oxygen level in the blood reduces. The formation of RBC is called erythropoiesis.


when the oxygen level in the blood reduces. The formation of RBC is called erythropoiesis. GASTROINTESTINAL


Insulin, Glucagon, Pituitary hormones, Hypothalamic hormones. •.Steroids: Cortisol, Testosterone, Progesterone, Estrogen. •.Iodothyronines: Thyroid hormones. •Amino acid derivatives: Epinephrine.


The hormones are chemical substances provide chemical co-ordination, integration and regulation in human body. They regulate metabolism, growth and development of our organs. The pituitary gland is divided into three major parts called as pars distalis, pars intermedia and pars nervosa. The pituitary hormones regulate the growth and development of somatic tissues and activities of peripheral endocrine gland. The hormone thyrocalcitonin regulates the calcium levels in our blood. Hormone thymosin play a major role in differentiation of T-lymphocytes, which provide cell mediated immunity. •Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine that increase alertness, sweating, heartrate, cardiac output, strength of contraction, proteolysis and lipolysis. Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis resulting in hyperglycemia. The testes secrete androgens, stimulate the development, maturation and functions of male accessory organs. The ovary secretes estrogen and progesterone. The gastrointestinal tract secretes gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin and gastric inhibitory peptide.