Sei sulla pagina 1di 36

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides a description of the whole content in this research. It
covers the background of research, statement of problem, research objective,
research of significance, research scope, conceptual framework and previous
study.
A. Background of Research
There are several genres in literary works, including adventure, romance,
detective, mystery, melodrama and others. Each genre, has a different storyline
depending on the characters played in the genre. Here the researcher will focus on
researching the adventure genre in the Spider-man homecoming 2017 movie. The
genre contained in the Spider-man Homecoming Movie is the adventure genre.
Because in this movie, the story is presented about an adventure hero with all his
strength and courage. Adventure-type movie usually refer to unusual and
dangerous characters. Thus, the character played in this genre is the character of
someone who has great strength that is not possessed by other characters. So, the
characters in this genre can be called hero because of their extraordinary strength.
The characters in the adventure genre also have a task to eradicate and protect the
public from the dangers that attack the city.

Hero ia a character in the adventure genre can be called the main


characters in the story. Because adventure story always present a hero character to
carry out the role of being the strong adventure. Then the main character will
compose an adventure formula in this adventure genre movie. Because the main
character in this movie has compiled an adventure formula using the journey of
the main character to become a hero in order to arrange the adventure formula in a
movie.

Formula are one of the structures that appear in movie of literary works.
Literary formula, according to Cawelti (1976: 5), is a structure of narrative or
dramatic conventions employed in a great number of individual works. Therefore,
adventure formula is a literary work that has a dramatic and entertaining story that

1
is connected with the reader. So, the reader does not need to bother to interpret
what is contained in popular literary stories, because the formula story's is in line
with people's lives. What is interesting to study in the story of the adventure
formula genre is the story of the main character, the story of a hero who
influences the passage of a literary work.

The hero in popular literature is one of the characters who are depicted as
the main character in a story to build a plot that will become a work of fiction.
Because, one of the building elements in fiction is character, in which every
character in a movie is different. Like the characters found in the Spider-man
Homecoming movie, a hero character who is strong, brave and has a mission to
eradicate crime. This hero character is built as the most powerful and ideal
character in a fiction to save other weak characters. So that the hero character has
the speed in thinking to find a solution when they are in trouble and danger.

Cawelti (p.18) formulaic literature creates a very different


sort of identification between audience and protagonist. Its purpose
is not to make me confront motives and experiences in myself that I
might prefer to ignore but to take me out of myself by confirming an
idealized self-image. Thus, the protagonists of formulaic literature
are typically better or more fortunate in some ways than ourselves.
They are heroes who have strength and courage to overcome great
dangers, lovers who find perfectly partners, inquirers of exceptional
brilliance who discover hidden truths, or good, sympathetic people
whose difficulties are resolved by some superior figure.
In fiction, the hero is not always alone in carrying out his mission. but
there is also a group of heroes who overcome the dangers of what happened and
help each other complete its mission. Cawelti (p.39) the central of the adventure
story is that of the hero – individual or group – overcoming obstacles and dangers
and accomplishing some important and moral mission.

Spider-Man: Homecoming is a 2017 American superhero film based on


the Marvel Comics character Spider-Man, co-produced by Columbia Pictures,
Marvel Studios, and Pascal Pictures, and distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing.
It is the second Spider-Man film reboot and the sixteenth film in the Marvel
Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Jon Watts, from a screenplay

2
by the writing teams of Jonathan Goldstein and John Francis Daley, Watts and
Christopher Ford, and Chris McKenna and Erik Sommers. Tom Holland stars as
Peter Parker/Spider-Man, alongside Michael Keaton, Jon Favreau, Zendaya,
Donald Glover, Tyne Daly, Marisa Tomei, and Robert Downey Jr. In Spider-Man:
Homecoming. Peter Parker tries to balance high school life with being Spider-
Man while facing the Vulture.

Spider-man Homecoming 2017 is a movie directed by Jon Watts. This


movie is a remodeled from many other Spider-man movie in the world of cinema.
Actually there are a number of previous versions of Spider-man movie before
Spider-man Homecoming appeared. Among them there are Spider-man movie in
2002, Spider-man in 2004, and 2007. In Spider-man movie here have different
intrinsic elements. Even so, the 2017 Spider-man Homecoming movie is the best-
selling Spider-man movie and best seller among the many Spider-man films.
Because in the Spider-man Homecoming 2017 movie, has a main actor named
Peter Parker with silly action that is very suitable to be used as the role of Spider-
man. So that makes the audience interested to see the action and flock to watch
this movie

B. Statement of Problems
The obkect in this research is a movie literary directed by Jon Watts. The
title is Spider-man Homecoming 2017. The movie tells about a story of hero.
Based on the background of statement above, researcher is going to
determine the research question as follow :
1. How is hero portrayed in “Spiderman Homecoming" movie?
2. How does the hero in “Spiderman Homecoming" movie support adventure
formula?

C. Research Objective
The objectives of the research are mentioned as followings:

1. To explain how hero portrayed as a hero in “Spiderman Homecoming"


movie.

3
2. To examine hero in “Spiderman Homecoming" movie which supported the
adventure formula.
D. Research of Significant

Practically, this research can be a recommendation for material to be


discussed or researched and a reference for future researchers who will examine
similar material. Then, this research is also expected to provide knowledge to
readers in understanding the heroes in the adventure formula. Furthermore,
theoretically, this research is expected to enrich understanding and add theory to
researchers. Further research is expected to strengthen the theory of heroes in the
adventure formula in movie, especially in the Spiderman homecoming movie.

E. Research Scope

In the Spiderman homecoming 2017 movie directed by Jon Watts there is an


adventure genre and formula in it. Adventure formula that refers to a hero
character. Therefore it can illustrate how the plot contained in the story in this
movie.

F. Conceptual Framework

Spiderman homecoming is a movie that directed by Jon Watts. This movie


tells the story of a hero teenage named Peter Parker who is 16 years old and still
occupies high school. He lived with an aunt because his parents passed away. As a
student at school, he works in an avenger company and becomes a super hero who
is useful for his environment.
However, the IronMan as his mentor did not trust the Spider-man teenage
to fight a very strong enemy, so that initially the Spider-man have to obeying the
command of his mentor, he fought the iron man to prove that even though
Spiderman was still a teenager he could defeat a formidable enemy and become a
super hero compared by catching petty criminals and helping people find
addresses.
Until one day, criminals appeared with weapons and super-sophisticated
and very dangerous forces terrorizing the city. Here the Spiderman feels capable

4
and obliged to fight and stop the crime, so he goes down to fight a group of
criminals and the Spider-man loses his fight. Even though he lost, but he always
tried to continue to fight the enemy in some other dangerous attack, until in the
end he was fired for doing something that was forbidden by the mentor iron man.
But one time there is an enemy attack back into the city, and Spiderman tries to
fight the enemy until he defeated it. Here the iron man mentor is interested again
in recruiting Spiderman as an avenger member.
In this movie, there is the genre of adventure and formulas that refer to a
hero character as outlined in a literary work by the author. Therefore, the genre
contained in this film can be described. To analyze the hero adventure formula in
the Spiderman Homecoming 2017 movie, researchers used Cawelti's theory
regarding aspects of adventure formula.
According to Cawelti Adventure is one of genre in popular literature.
An adventure genre is a story about completing a mission or quest.
This genre presents a story about a struggle of man to get what the
goal of the adventures (Cawelti J. G., 1976). Formula is as a concept
of system classification, boundaries or patterns that born from a
particular culture a period of time Hero is an individual or group that
overcoming obstacle and dangers and accomplishing some important
moral mission, passing through the most frightening perils to achieve
some triumph (Cawelti J. G., 1976)
In this study, researcher used a structural approach. Which, structural
theory understands and analyzes a work based on the structure of his own work.
Literary works are seen as independent, autonomous and do not have reality,
authors and readers, (Teeuw, 1984). What is meant in this theory is that a work is
treated objectively and has nothing to do with other external elements.
In the Spiderman Homecoming 2017 movie there is an adventure genre
and formulas in it. And what's interesting in this study is to analyze the hero
characters contained in this movie. Because when discussing the study of
adventure, then what comes to mind is to analyze the character of the hero. Here,

5
the author uses the structuralism approach to analyze heroes in the adventure
formula in the Spiderman Homecoming 2017 movie.
G. Previous Study
To perfect this research. Therefore, prior research is needed. There are
several previous studies related to this research.

The first previous study in this research comes from Irfani Nurrahmah. he
examines Adventure Formula In Pete Docter’s Inside Out (2015) Movie. the
research focuses on the heroine and anti-heroine as the main character give an
influence on the adventure formula in Inside Out (2015) movie. The hero in the
movie has supported the adventure formula by using the journey method. The
main characters become the heroine to support the adventure formula in the
movie.

Therefore, the research has two problems of study. They are: (1) Why the
heroine and the anti-heroine in Inside Out movie can be united? And (2) How
does the heroine in Inside Out movie follow adventure formula? In this study he
used structuralism. Structuralism research examines the patterns of meaning
which emerge from the data and there are often presented in the participant’s own
words. This research will prove the adventure formula theory that is applied in the
movie, based on Cawelty, Campbell, and Gladys.

The second previous study in this research comes from Rohmat. the
examines Hard-Boiled Detective Formula in A Game of Shadows Movie. In this
research, he reviewed a phenomenal movie entitled A Game of Shadows. This
study focuses on the hard-boiled detective formula constructed on the movie. The
background of this study is based on the high interest in popular literary works,
especially in the form of movie. This shows that the existence of a role in popular
literature that managed to attract the attention of the audience. Thus, this study
aims to discover the reasons behind the popularity of A Game of Shadows
movies.

6
In analyzing this movie, the researcher proposes two research questions, as
follow how are the role of main charachters applied in A Game of Shadows movie
and how is the pattern action constructed in A Game of Shadows movie. Both of
these research questions were assessed through an interdisciplinary approach uses
genre approach. In order to this research can be justified he uses genre formula as
base of theory. In the end, researchers found two reasons that made this movie
popular. 1). A Game of Shadows movie implements certain roles of every main
character such as detectives, criminals, victims and people involved in crime to
produce interesting stories in the movie. 2). The action pattern is the key to the
popularity of this movie because it presents an action detective formula filled with
adventures and obstacles to discover the truth. The formula is built through
detectives as heroes, tensions and threats, the setting in the modern city, the role
of female characters, and the change of meaning in the story.

The third previous study in this research comes from Cici Nurdina. the
examines Hero Journey in C.S Lewis’ The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian
(The Return to Narnia) novel. The focus of this research is to describe and analyze
the patterns of heroic or often called hero journey in The Chronicles of Narnia :
Prince Caspian (The Return to of Narnia) novel. In relation to that, this research
also discuss about archetypes of characters to analyzes the other characters that
are close to the hero and to know the real hero. Thus, this research formulated into
two problems. First, hero journey is presented in the novel. Second, archetypes of
characters constructed in the novel.

To analyze both the problem, she uses the theory of hero journey from
Joseph Campbell. Hero journey is a narrative patterns that usually found in fairy
tales, myths and fantasies. This pattern describes the stages through which the
hero from the start of departure until the return of the hero of adventure. In
addition, she also uses the theory of archetypes of characters from Christopher
Vogler. Archetypes of characters is a way to understand the function and purpose
of the characters in the story. Besides, she lists some of the proponents of the
theory that related to focus research.

7
This research is examined using the qualitative research method. This
method is chosen because this research does not use the numbers to get the results
of research. she get the data from the narration in the novel. The data collected
and identified. Then, classify and interpreting to get the conclusion.

The results of this research is known that there are stages through which the hero.
The first is the departure, she found four stages from the five stages. The second
is initiation, she found four stages of six stages. The three return, she found two
stages of six stages. In addition she also find ten stage from twelve stages of hero
journey and eight archetypes of characters using the theory by Christopher
Vogler.

The fourth previous study comes from Mukhlas. he examines the


Characters of Hero and Symbols in the Justice League Movie. The research
focuses on the research analyzes the reason and the process why the characters of
hero are united on the Justice League movie, this case happens because the death
of Superman, alien’s coming, less powerful single hero, and fighting for the
mother boxes. The problem proposed is to identify the reason why characters of
hero are united and to interpret the symbolic meaning appeared in Justice League
movie. in this study he used The theory from Mc Adam and Joseph Campbell for
describing the concept of character of hero in literature become supporting theory
for analyzing. he also serves the symbolic meaning inside of the movie referring
to the theory of Abrams and Joseph M. Boggs. in this study he used The method
of the research is qualitative to analyze the data. The technique of collecting data
is documentation studies. The finding of the research is that the movie uses group
style in describing the characters of hero and put many contextual meaning in the
particular object in the movie.

Therefore, it can be conclude that the research breaks the assumption that
character of hero is an individual and strong enough to save the world. Actually,
making a team of heroic characters in the movie Justice League tells that there are
some reasons of why they are united. Those are because of the death of Superman,

8
Alien’s coming, less-powerful hero and fighting for the mother boxes. By this
team which called by “Justice League” can make the greater power to save the

world and protect the people. Based on the research, it can find out the formula of
distinguishing and interpreting the symbolic meaning in particular object inside of
the movie.

The fifth previous study comes from Muh Irfhan Muktapa.he examines the
Hero Effect in Inferno Movie (A Mystery Genre). Inferno is a mystery genre
movie, this movie shows puzzles that must be expressed. To uncover mystery
requires a strong, smart and knowledgeable character to discover mystery object
such as a hero character. Because of that, he attracted on hero effects as a research
focus, and chose Inferno movie as the object.

This research aims to discover the hero effects in Inferno movie. The
problem are how to determining of hero in Inferno, cause, there are characters in
Inferno that have character like a hero. Therefore, there need to be special
characteristics in determining hero, and to distinguish between hero and pro-
social. This research was taken to formulate the following research questions: (1)
why is Prof Langdon character represented as a hero in Inferno movie? (2) how
are the hero effects in building mystery formula in Inferno movie? This research
uses descriptive qualitative method. The main data of this research are the scene,
dialogue and scene description of Inferno movie. he collects the data by taking
screen shoots of the Inferno. in this research he used The theory Understanding
Heroism theory by Philip Zimbardo.

The results of the research shows that Prof Langdon is hero by 4


characteristics of hero in Zimbardo's theory, and all of characteristics itself,
contained in prof. Langdon character, that are : (1) engaged involuntarily, (2)
conducted in service to one or more people or the community as a whole, (3)
involving a risk to physical comfort, social stature, or quality of life, (4) initiated
without the expectation of material gain. Besides that, there are big influences on

9
Prof. Langdon character in building mystery genre in Inferno movie, such as, (1)
developing plot of mystery genre, (2) determining the plot direction in Inferno.

The sixth previous study comes from Risna Marliana. she examines the
Formula of Children’s Literature and Character Changing of Jonathan Auxier’s
Peter Nimble and His Fantastic Eyes. in this research she focuses on discussion of
the Formula of Children's Literature in the novel Peter Nimble and His Fantastic
Eyes by Jonathan Auxier (2011). The research focuses on about how the
correlation between plot and setting formula of children’s literature are.
Describing what the effects of character changing from main character are. The
interest hero of this research is a childwhich has no big body, poor, and blind. in
this research she used the theories to analyze the Formula of Children's Literature
areCawelti (1976), Nurgiyantoro (2005), and Aminudin (2002). The theories
which include magic, simplicity, and adventure are applied to analize all things in
Formula of Children’s Literature.

Data are taken directly from the novel Peter Nimble and His Fantastic
Eyes. It means that the content of text in the novel is as source of data. she used an
objective approach to analyze the data. Furthermore, in this study she used
descriptive and qualitative analysis method.

The result of the analysis the researcher explains according two points
above there are: first, there are some plots and setting which showed in the
formula of children’s literature. Each chapter has plot and different setting while
doing adventure. Second, the effects of changing character of main character Peter
Nimblewhich turn out to be a good boy and save the lost kingdom and its
inhabitants.

This research founds 40 data. There are 33 data of correlation Formula


Children’s Literature between plot and setting. The effects of character changing
from main character have found 7 data.

10
The seventh previous study comes from Hayati Nufus. she examines The
Representation of Hero as Bearer of Truth in Assassins Creed Renaissance (A
Comparative Study of The Game By Ubisoft and The Novel By Oliver Bowden).

the focuses on this research is The adaptation of literary work to become movies,
drama, or vice versa is common recently. However, the adaptation of the video
game to become a novel like in Assasssins Creed Renaissance is still rare and
unexplored yet. This study focused on finding out the representation of hero as
bearer of truth appeared in the game and its novel version. Literary criticism is
used as a method to do the critical study to assess the elements of the literature by
using comparative literature approach. This study found out that Ezio’s character
as a hero as bearer of truth is represented by his physical apperance and
characteristic. The first, in the video game, the physical appearance of Ezio is
illustrated as a hero who has powers, skills, and special treatments for fighting his
enemies and completing the mission stage. Meanwhile, in the novel, such physical
appearance is used to show the hero to fight the evil and uphold the justice. The
second, the characteristics of Ezio is represented by the core desire, goal, strategy,
trap, fear and gift revealed that Ezio is very ambitious to get a victory in the game,
whereas in the novel, those are the representation of his struggles to make a peace
and welfare.

The eight previous study comes from Thalita Monica Rachma Putri. she
examines The Values of Heroism on the Main Character in James Dashner’s The
Maze Runner. Novel is a prose fiction of considerable length showing characters
in action. Character is the one of novel’s aspect. The Maze Runner novel is an
incredible novel to revolve around a major mystery that is unknown to both
readers and the characters in the novel. It shows a heroic character of the main
character. This research applies two research question as follows; 1) What are the
characteristic of hero on the main character in The Maze Runner novel, 2) What
are the values of heroism do the main character have.

The result showed that Thomas as a heroic character in the beginning of


the story is the new comer people in the Maze, Thomas not seen as a hero.

11
Thomas characterized as an ordinary people and do not have any power. Thomas
learns so many way to escape out of the Maze and successfully save his friends to
escape out of the Maze. The values of heroism of the main character are presented
in James Dashner’s The Maze Runner novel. Thomas as the main character as a
heroic character tried save his friends to escape out the Maze. Thomas as a heroic
character is very courage and able to face and deal with danger. These values of
heroism can be taken out from Thomas for there are influences from his friends
and his environment that can affect Thomas’s life and his journeys. in this
research, she used the qualitative method and structuralism approaches to
research.

The ninth previous study comes from Nova Puspita Dewi. she examine the
Hero in Adventure Story: An Analysis of Adventure Formula in Cressida
Cowell’s How to Train Your Dragon. This research focuses on The hero as main
characters give an influence to the adventure formula in How to Train Your
Dragon novel. Formula is the structure of the narrative. The hero in the novel
have support the adventure formula by use the journey method. The main
characters become the hero to support the adventure formula in the novel.

Therefore, this research has two problems of study. They are: (1) How can
Hiccup as ordinary person portrayed become a hero in “How to Train Your
Dragon” novel? And (2) How does the hero (ordinary person) in “How to Train
Your Dragon” novel support adventure formula? Whereas, in analyzing the
subject of the materials, this research uses qualitative method. Qualitative research
examines the patterns of meaning which emerge from the data and these are often
presented in the participans’s own words. This research will prove the adventure
formula theory that is aplied in the novel, based on Cawelti, Houhrihan, Campbell
and Grenby. The result of this research is the hero in the novel is support the
adventure formula as the part of popular literature. Then heroes are traditionally
male and the hero myth inscribes male dominance and the primacy of male
enterprises. –Hourihan (p.67) women character in that novel just one person
Valhallarama as a mother of Hiccup that show hero as ordinary person still need a

12
mother’s love to give him support and make him comfort. The hero is support the
adventure formula in the novel from the main character. The main characters are
placed as the hero. The hero fight for the dangerous things to rescue Viking tribe
from Green Death –Sea-dragon Gigantimux Maximus. In another side they get
some miracles as a winner of the combat. he are also constructed as hard to die
characters. So, the main character as the heroes in this novel is constructed the
adventure formula by his portrayal.

The tenth previous study comes from Selma Rosanti Aurini. she examines
the Hero’s Archetypes in “Django Unchained” Movie Script by Quentin
Tarantino.The focus on this research is hero’s archetypes contained in “Django
Unchained” movie script by Quentin Tarantino. The research question divided
into; (1.) How the archetypes of the hero character are described in “Django
Unchained” movie script by Quentin Tarantino?, (2.) How the archetypes of hero
journey are portrayed in “Django Unchained” movie script by Quentin
Tarantino?. in this study she used the qualitative research while the method use is
content analysis. For the archetypes of hero in “Django Unchained” movie script
by Quentin Tarantino, the researcher find there are eight archetypes as Hourihan’s
theory. They are hero identity, the purpose of hero journey, the wilderness visited
by hero, a series of difficulties, hero abilities, the hero achieves his goal, the hero
returns home, and the hero is rewarded. Besides, there are also other archetypes
come from Vogler, Jung, and Campbell to support Hourihan’s theory. They
argues that hero is someone who is willing twilling to sacrifice himself to help the
others, the hero always prioritizes society’s needs ahead of his personal needs, the
source of hope, the hero is supposed to win against injustice, the purpose of the
hero is to vanquish the darkness, save the maiden and save the world. While for
archetypes of hero journey in “Django Unchained” movie script by Quentin
Tarantino, she find there are three group stages of archetypes as Campbell’s
theory. These stages are departure, initiation, and return.

The eleventh previous study comes from RATU IKLIMA LISTIYANI.


she examine the Dominic Toretto’s Journey as a Hero in The Fate Of The Furious

13
Movie. Hero is a character that generally occurs in an adventure story.
Meanwhile, hero journey is a stages that passed by the character of a hero in
complete a mission or an adventure. The Fate of the Furious is a movie that tells a
story about Dominic Toretto that going to an adventure or journey to complete the
missions. Therefore, this research mainly explores the Dominic Toretto’s journey
as a hero in The Fate of the Furious movie. This research paper aimed to discusses
the hero representation of Dominic Toretto and the stages of Dominic Toretto’s
journey as a hero in The Fate of the Furious movie. The used data in The Fate of
the Furious movie are the form of picture and dialogue found in the movie. This
research is examined using the qualitative research method and the structuralism
approach. The use of structuralism approaches in study of popular literature aims
to identify, classify and describe the data in accordance with the structural
elements of literature. In analyzing the data, she uses theories from Klevskog
(2017) for the representation of hero and other related theories as supporting from
Cawelty (1976), Campbell (2004), Vogler (2007) and Brunk & Fallaw (2006).
Furthermore, she also uses theory from Campbell (2004) for analyze the stages of
Dominic Toretto’s journey as a hero in the movie. The result of the research
shows that Dominic Toretto is showed the characteristic that represented a hero.
Moreover, she also finds that Dominic Toretto passed the three primary stages of
hero journey. The first is the departure, there are found four from five stages. The
second stage is initiation, there are found five stage and one stage from return
stage. The last is return stage, the writer only found one stages.

14
CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

This chapter discussed related sourches dealing with the aspects that the
study based on. It help to understand the answer of the research question. The
researcher arranges those aspect as follow: Popular Literature, Formula in Popular
Literature: Romance, Mystery and adventure, Analysing Movie as Literature,
Structuralism in Popular Literature and Hero.

A. Popular Literature

Over time, popular literature began to grow rapidly. Popular writings of


literary works are translated as popular literature, although many people do not
agree with that because of the translation of literature in the context of literature
for different connotations. With the development of the society which is becoming
more pragmatic. The word of literature refers to popular literature which can be
easily translated into popular literary terms (Adi, 2011: 19).

A work can be called a popular literary work because of the theme, the
manner of the presentation and the writing follows a general pattern (Adi, 2011:
20). Usually, the themes of popular literature made simple in everyday life. Its
genre is formed by applying some elements of popular fiction such as the ways of
presenting, themes and the writing must follow the public tastes. These elements
are called formulas in popular literature. In general, genres in popular literature
are divided into several types of mystery, melodrama, adventure, romance and
alien beings or states. For each genre have different formulas because the themes
that used in the story are also different.

American popular literature began to grow rapidly and is no longer


considered as trash since the 1960s. Therefore, in the decade of the theories and
methods written to examine this work shows that it is actually a popular literary
genre in popular culture as an artifact that is equal in value to high culture in
researching a culture. Thus, it can be said that as the statement above a literary

15
work called popular among them because of the theme, the way how to presenting
technical language and writing to follow a common pattern that was liked by
readers that became popular not only in America, but also throughout the world,
including Indonesia (Adi, 2011: 19-20). Therefore, popular literature refers to the
element of the story that interesting and entertaining than tell about the
complicated story such as politics, economics , and so on, because it will make the
readers not interesting.

According to Nachbar and Lause (1992) Popular literature is a product of


popular culture. There are three kinds of culture. They are folk culture, elite or
high culture, and popular culture. Folk culture is defined as a culture that is
created and developed through ages among a limited community and
communicated directly from generation to generation. Elite or high culture is a
culture that is created by and for those limited people who have specifications in
interests, training, or knowledge, not common people.

Then popular culture is a culture in form of goods and activities that are
created for and consumed by not by the elite people but common people, the
masses. The stories of Spider-Man Homecoming 2017 belongs to the last category
because it is produced for masses and simply does not belong to folk or high
culture because it is not a story that passed by from generation to generation or
being enjoyed only by specific kind of people.

There are various kinds of popular literature. Can be in drama, essays or


fiction. Fiction is a fabricated work that can take the form of a novel or film. The
limits from popular fictions is Although popular fiction does not occupy an
important place in literary history, popular fiction affects the world of fiction a lot.
This can be seen from the acceptance of readers or viewers in the world which is
seen from the level of sales, adaptation to another form (Adi: 2011: 19). thing that
causes the popular novel work quality to be lower in literary content, among them
because novel coupler is created quickly so that it seems rushed to meet market
demands.

16
Popular literature is created based on trends in people's interests.
According to Adi (2016), she is arguing that the main factors involved in popular
fiction include publishers, distributors and consumers, it is the readers. In the
history, popular literature was originally created as a literary work that written and
also intended for people by the end of the eighteenth century for entertain and for
pleasure (Neuberg, 1977). It is means that popular literature is a literary work that
is intended to entertain and provide pleasure to its readers. Therefore, in the
process on created a popular literature will consider the aspects of market
demands. This is strengthened by the statement Adi (2016), she is arguing that a
product of popular literature is created because many people are enjoyed; also it is
simply understood and accepted by everyone.

B. Formula in Popular Literature


There are formulas in popular literature, including:
a. Mysteri
The fundamental principle of the mystery story is the investigation and
discovery of hidden secrets, the discovery usually leading to some benefit for the
characters with whom the reader identifies. In mystery formula, the problem
always has a desirable and rational solution, for this is to underlying the moral
fantasy expressed in this formulaic archetype (Cawelti, 1976: 43).
b. Romance
The romance story is the only formula in popular literature that makes the
female character is a dominant character in the story. Romance often contained
the elements of adventure, but the dangers function as a mean of challenging and
then cementing the love of relationship (Cawelti, 1976: 41). The romance story is
also an adventure story but an adventure to get the true love done by the main
character. Conflict of the story will focus on the relationship of the main character
to the pairs, in how the relationship exists, then face the various the obstacles and
finally can survive and make the story as true love.
c. Melodrama
The formula of melodrama story in eighteen century is different with
nineteen century, twenty century and contemporary melodrama. According to

17
Cawelti “Melodrama is the fantasy of a world that operated according to our
heart’s desire in contrast to other formula type that are fantasies of particular
actions or states of being the counter some of our deepest tears or concentrate on
particular wishes for victory or love or knowledge” (Cawelty, 45). From the
statement above it can be conclude that, melodrama has different formula with the
classical detective, hardboiled, adventure, and western. It is because melodrama
story has not special character like classical detective story and it has not special
setting such as western story. Melodrama story produce by heart’s desire, counter
of our deepest tear. Because of that melodrama tell the story more realistic than
the other story.
d. Adventure

In Adventure story, there are two characteristics that are the victory of
death and triumph over injustice. Two of the characteristics become the formula
that can push the main character in the story becomes a superhero. Although the
superhero character kicked in the adventure story must be die, in carrying out an
important mission to save the country or even the world.

An adventure is one of genre in popular literature. It is stated that the


adventure genre is about the story of hero as individual or even a group to
overcoming an obstacle and dangers and accomplishing some important moral
mission (Cawelty J. G., 1976). An adventure is a genre that has an extraordinary
challenges and risks stories. In the adventure genre, the story is usually focused on
action and the hero leading his band of man to break away from his enemy is
spite of many difficulties (Maheboob, 2018). This is in line with Adi (2016)
which reveals that the genre of adventure or even the subgenre in its development
has always focused on the physical rather than the intellectual. A genre of
adventure will show a lot of the heroic action of hero side with his ability to be
able to escape and succeed in facing any obstacles in front of him.

In its development, the adventure genre in literary works initially tells of a


hero who fights evil forces with his spiritual power. Such like Beowulf who fights
Grendel, or Mother's Grendel. However, in the present time, as well as literature

18
which later developed along with time and technology formed and invention so
that popular literature emerged. Therefore, the stories in adventure genres also
develop and have a variety of other stories. As explained by Cawelty (1976):

“Thus, tales of knightly adventure, still widely popular in the


nineteenth century, no longer play much of a role in adult
adventure literature. More recent cultural situations –crime and its
pursuit, war, the West, international espionage, sports- have largely
usurped the battle with dragons and the request for the grail.”

There is an invention in the story that has adapted to the situation in the
current period or era. Adventure stories no longer have to portray heroes with
spiritual powers that fight evil forces or even a monster. However, this character
can be anyone; even an ordinary human can become a hero.

“Dalam genre petualangan modern, tokoh utama tidak harus


digambarkan sebagai individu yang harus menjalani inisiasi,
tetapi lebih sering digambarkan sebagai orang berpengalaman
yang berusaha mengatasi kekacauan dan mengembalikannya
pada situasi semula. Ceritanya dimulai ketika suatu bahaya
atau tantangan sedang terjadi sehingga tokoh utama terlibat
dalam usaha untuk mengatasi situasi tersebut.” (Adi, 2016)

“In the modern adventure genre ... the main character does not
have to be described as an individual who must undergo
initiation, but more often described as an experienced person
who tries to overcome the problems and solve a chaotic
situation. The story begins when a danger or challenge is
occurring than require the main character to involved in an
effort to overcome the situation.” (Adi, 2016)

Although, indeed the essence of the adventure stories remains unchanged,


it is to face all kinds of obstacles in order to solve problems.

19
It has been mentioned that each genre has its own formula. The adventure
also has its own formula. Saricks (2009) describe some characteristics of
adventure genres as follows: “1) Pacing is generally brisk, as the hero escapes
from one dangerous episode to the next. Adventure stories often take place within
a short time span, and time/date stamps at the head of chapters often drive the
pace, 2) the story line focuses on action, usually a mission, and the obstacles and
dangers met along the way. Physically adventure and danger are paramount, as the
hero is placed in life-and-death situation from which he must rescue himself and
others. There is generally a happy ending, with the hero safe and order restored, 3)
there is always an identifiable hero, a character who readers like and to whom
they relate. Through inedenuity and skill, he accomplishes his desperate mission,
4) Detailed setting are important. These stories are set “elsewhere” and this
foreignness underlines the sense of danger and obstacles to be overcome. Maps
often accompany these stories. World of art, antiques, antiquities, and book also
provide intriguing backgrounds, 5) In response to the life-threatening situation,
the mood of many adventure stories is dark, menacing, foreboding. In some,
humor lightens the tone, 6) Colorful language and jargon (often military) fill these
tales, and this conversational language invites the reader to participate in the
hero’s exploits.”

An adventure genre is a story about completing a mission or quest. This


genre presents a story about a the struggle of man to get what the goal of the
adventures,

“Perhaps the basic moral fantasy implicit in this type of story is that
of victory of death, though there are also kinds of subsidiary
triumphs available depending on the particular cultural material
employed: the triumph over injustice and the threat of lawlessness
in the western; the saving of nation in the spy history; the
overcoming of fear and the defeat of the enemy in the combat
history.” (Cawelty J. G., 1976)

20
In common with their goals and motives, the hero in the adventure genre
will bring the readers or viewers and listeners into a journey that full of obstacles
and challenges in the completion of their mission.

With the statement above. the formula contained in the spiderman


homecoming 2017 movie is adventure. Because, the structure contained in this
film is similar to the explanation contained in adventure.

C. Analysing Movie as Literature


Movie and novel are two different types, because movie in the form of
audio visual while in the novel its exposure verbal form only, but of both have in
common, according to Jinks (p.4), no one would argue that film and literature are
the same medium or even the same kind of experience. The primary thrust of
literature is linguistic, hence indirect, while the impetus of movie is imagistic and
immediate. And yet, despite the obvious differences separating these two narrative
forms, there are some rather startling resemblances between them.
The researchers of the movie in different academic spheres, although
somewhat similar to movie critics, researchers are more objective in their analysis
because of their task of applying the movie and analyzing it according to the
standard of the applicable method and the analysis can be either intrinsic or
extrinsic analysis. According to Ida (p.57) Extrinsically, researchers can approach
it with a social, cultural, economic and philosophical approach. While intrinsically
research can focus on the movie itself or a variety of movie to see the pattern. In
literary studies, intrinsically investigated movie is essentially the same as novel
intrinsic studies. However, in the movie, the elements are different and also
somewhat different from the novel although with similar patterns.
The most important thing in the movie is the character, because through
the characters it is an idea or theme is dramatized according to Lexemburg (p.141)
claims that everything which is doing by the characters in the story has purpose to
give direction to the reader to get the essence of story. It means that every
characters in movie or novel has important significance to covery of contence the
novel. According to Ida (p.57), as in the popular novel, the main character, who in

21
the literary novel of noble is called the protagonist, commonly called the hero and
when the female protagonist is called heroine. The term hero and heroine used to
refer to the main character of romance though, does not merely refer to adventure
stories whose main character performs heroic acts. However, the use of the term
hero is more popular in genre popular movies of adventure, action, or war.
Analyzing the intrinsic elements in the movie, the characters and views
can be done. However, this analysis can also exclude the camera aspect because
the researcher knows what imaginary form is created in reviewing the movie. In
the movie, the point of view is always the same as the eye of the camera and the
viewer has no other way but to follow the direction of the aimed camera.
According to Ida (p.58), although the perspective in the movie is less than the
novel, the movie can adequately show things from the reality to be shown in the
movie. For example, when someone is sad the camera can zoom in the actor or
actress who is playing the role so that the emotions displayed can be felt by the
audience. The audience will see what is described in movie and hear what is said
in the novel.
Adi (2016) describe some elements in the narrative film as follows:
1. Characterization and Point of View
The first elements in narrative film are characterization and point view.
Adi (2016) explained that the main character (hero) in the film plays an important
role as a story builder. A film is about a narration, there are stories that want to be
conveyed to the audience, there is a main theme as center of the story. Therefore,
through this character (hero), an ideas and themes are dramatized (Adi, 2016).
Besides that, the main character also can be a narrator (though not always
involved in the story). This story (narrator) is known for the term of Point of
View.
The story that telling by the narrator (Can be done by the main character
that involved or not involved in the story, or the third person who is not involved
in the story) is basically referring to the perspective of how the story was
conveyed (Adi, 2016). Since the point of view in written literary works can be

22
seen from the pronoun that are used, then in the film it is can be seen through the
eye camera that shown to the audience.
2. Editing and Narratives Structures
The second elements are editing and narrative structures. Adi (2016) stated:
“Ketika film dibuat, film hanya merupakan potongan-potongan
tanpa makna dan hanya melalui proses yang dikenal dengan
editing atau penyuntinganlah film tersebut dapat terstruktur.
Oleh karena itu, istilah dalam novel yang dipakai untuk
menunjukan jalan cerita dan struktur cerita adalah plot atau
alur atau struktur narasi, dalam film orang dapat menyebutnya
dengan editing.”
“When films are made, films are only meaningless pieces and
only through a process known as editing that the film can be
structured. Therefore, the terms in the novel that are used to
show the storyline and the structure of the story are plot or
narrative structure, in the film it is called as editing.”
An editing is the process of connecting and compiling clip pieces (the
result of shooting) as for it is becomes a film that has a whole story.
The next element is the narrative structure that is intended as a supporter
of the themes raised by the film. It is means that the narrative structure in the film
is as a restraint for the narratives to not extend too far from the theme. This is
exemplified when a narrative film must describe the exploitation of a child by his
parents in a film, with the main theme of the struggle of child in the search for
identity; then there is no need to include too many scenes of violence committed
by adults against these children which is can push away a large portion of the
main theme (Adi, 2016). Therefore, Adi (2016) revealed that the jobs of editor is
to structure the narrative professionally, and making boundaries to support the
theme, also at the same time bring the dramatic scenes that can attract the
audience (Adi, 2016)
3. Language Style

23
Language style in film is used the verbal and non-verbal language. Adi (2016)
explained that in addition to the dramatic element, the use of language was
mentioned as another factor that supporting the theme. The use of language must
be in accordance with the theme and characterization in the film (Adi, 2016). sIn
the time of writing script, it is mentioned that sometimes there is an attention to
the use of language and realize that there is a denotative and connotative meaning
(Adi, 2016). Meanwhile, this meaning does not only occur in verbal cases, but
also non-verbal. This non-verbal language style can be done by directing the
camera to the objects that will be intended as of will direct and shape the
perceptions of the audience (Adi, 2016). For instance, when the camera eyes
highlight a knife on the bed covered in blood, denotatively there is indeed a knife
n the bed, but in the connotative sense it is possible that the knife is a tool that has
been used to kill. That is how the non-verbal language will form the perception of
the audience. This meaning will certainly be different for everyone.
Spiderman Homecoming, there is a single important aspect of a good-story
in the intrinsic elements of movie, namely character in the shown story. Analyzing
the movie “Spiderman Homecoming 2017”, there are many characters served in
this movie. The characters in the movie has a unique characterization that they
should be called as heroic characters. By this characters, the researcher should
focuses on analyzing the hero adventure formula hero of the story in movie,
especially the peter parker characters of hero in the movie
D. Structuralism in Popular Literature

Structuralism in literary criticism is to some extent, a response to modern


literature, which had intentionally investigated the limits of meaning and looked
for stylistic effects in the deviations from all types of conventions of language,
literature, and social practices in the process of defamiliarisation In its focus on
codes and structures, structuralism rejects the notion of literature as simulation of
the world and, as an alternative, analyses its experimentation with the language
and codes of a culture. Literature for structuralist critics is appreciated for its

24
analysis of the structuring procedures by which we organize and realize the
conventional nature of our social world.

According to Saussure in Nurrachman (2018: 13) Saussure's treatment of


the lingustic sign as composed of "signifier" and "signified" and his
characterization of language as a system of differences (each word being
identified by its difference from the other words in the system) flow through the
work of structural and post-stcurtural theorists. Structuralist literary critics, try to
analyze texts as product of a system with a specific grammar that controls its form
and meaning. A reader, who has mastered the grammar that governs the
production of a text and operates within it, can understand the text.

Structural analysis method is a method that focused on the structure of a


literary work itself. Thus, this method does not definitely, concern to the authors
analysis and views, the reader response, the relevant of the real world, it does not
also describe sign as the process of communication.

The structural element that consists in the fact of the story includes plot,
character and characterization and setting are make us sure that this research is the
structural analysis method. The structural analysis method is a method that
focused on the structure of a literary work itself. This method does not, definitely,
concerns to the author"s analysis and views, the reader response, the relevant of
the real world; it does also describe sign as the process of communications.

E. Hero
A hero can be defining as people who success to fighting not only for self
but also for people around. Cawelty (1976) define that a hero is an individual or
group who overcoming obstacle and dangers and accomplishing some important
and moral mission. In broadly, adventure stories are stories about the struggle of
someone in completing a mission. Therefore, the main character or hero in the
adventure story is the main focus of the interest.
Nowadays, the character of hero does not always belong to a character
who has supernatural power. Cawelty (1976) stated that there are two types of

25
heroes: “While the specific characterization of the hero depends on the cultural
motifs and themes that are embodied in any specific adventure formula, there are
in general two primary ways in which the hero can be characterized: as a
superhero with exceptional strength or ability or as one of us” Cawelty does not
doctrine that a character of hero is someone who has super heroic powers.
However, even a character of hero can be someone who is an ordinary person, an
ordinary hero. Moreover, Klevskog describing a hero as someone who an ordinary
person, driving force or higher destiny, need to do the right thing, supposed to
have is strength, has an ability to adapt to his environment, self-sacrificial, and
sometimes also display some flaws and features that are not heroic (Klevskog,
2017).
a. An Ordinary Man
A hero does not always refer to a character that has a super power or
magic in him. This point is concerning toward depicting the daily activities of a
hero who is no different from most other people. This point is strengthened by
Cawelty (1976) that argue the hero is could be as one of us. It is means that,
everyone could be hero concerning their motives that push them to going to a
journey. Since the mission of every hero is different, then every triumph that
wants to achieve is also different (Cawelty J. G., 1976). Adi (2016) explained this
as “Those who are going to a journey or adventure bring the particultural purposes
and motives respectively, to bring a peace, to solve a problem, or even the
personal motives.” In line, Cawelty (1976) also stated that “There are also all
kinds of subsidiary triumphs available depending on the particular cultural
materials employs: the triumph over injustice and the threat of lawlessness in the
western; the saving of nation in the spy story; the overcoming of fear and the
defeat of the enemy in the combat story.” Therefore, since everyone who had a
motive to going to a journey, even an ordinary man who want to get happiness or
they who want catching dream, they are still a hero with a particultural purpose
and motives.
b. A Driving Force or Higher Destiny

26
This point is concern toward a destiny of the life of a hero. Klevskog
(2017) exemplified it with the destiny of Langdon that is to understand and can
translate the ancient code of symbols. The destiny that he got is through an effort,
learning and exploring so that he could master the code of symbol as his destiny.
This is also was explained by Campbell in The hero with A Thousand faces that
the criteria of a hero are: first, who born from a virgin mother; second, who has
exceptional gifts; and third; who has conditional qualities (Fatihatullaily, 2017).
The first criteria that present by Campbell is the hero who born from a
virgin mother. The situation that born from a virgin mother required a hero to live
life as an orphan; he is a child who is destined to face a long period of obscurity
(Campbell, 2004). Campbell (2004) wrote that “This is a time of extreme danger,
impediment, or disgrace. He is thrown inward to his own depths or outward to the
unknown; either way, what he touches is a darkness unexplored.” Explained by
Fatihatullaily (2017), since the hero is usually born from the virgin mother, this
makes the hero will or must seek the existence of the father. Meanwhile, the father
itself means more than father-child relation; it is a symbol of something.
Furthermore, a second criteria is a hero will have an exceptional gift. The
myths agree that an extraordinary capacity is required to face and survived such
experience (Campbell, 2004). Beforehand, explained above that the fate of a child
who born without a father (an orphan-child) will face long obscurity. Therefore,
they are then blessed as “The infancies abound in anecdotes of precocious
strength, cleverness, and wisdom” (Campbell, 2004). The last of criteria is the
hero may have conditional qualities that can help him get through or live his life.
The hero can be a warrior, the hero can be an emperor or a tyrant, the hero can be
a world redeemer, or even can be a saint (Campbell, 2004).
The criteria of a hero that argue by Campbell (2004) showed the destiny of
life of a hero. Campbell categorizes a hero as someone who is destined to born
from a virgin mother that destined him to face a long of obscurity. That destiny of
hero then pushed him to gain an exceptional gift that required facing and survived
from an obscurity. As Klevskog (2017) stated before, the destiny of Robert
Langdon is from an effort, learning and exploring so that he could master the code

27
of symbol as his destiny. Therefore, the higher destiny it is could be gain from the
situational of a hero. However, the higher destiny is one of side that could help
hero to pass the journey.
c. The Need to Do the Right Thing
The need to do the right thing is concern toward behave and habit of a
hero. Klevskog (2017) explained that the hero must do something good, always
help others, always take care of his behavior, and keep to his high moral
standards. A hero is they who going to a journey and face a long obstacles and
obscurities to solve the problems and bring the triumph. Moreover, Segal also said
that hero is the one who “succeed where other would either fail or never try” and a
hero is also the one who “serve their communities” as well as themselves
(Fatihatullaily, 2017). In line, Campbell (2004) also wrote that a hero is a man of
self-achieved submission. A hero is those who struggle for something that not
only give prosper themselves, but also for others. However, the need to do the
right thing is not only concern about behave or habit but also the choice or the
decision.
The choices or decisions given are the results of a good judgment, advice,
and good thinking. In the encyclopedia of psychology, the needs to do the right
thing of behave or even the choice is refer to a definition of wisdom. Staudinger &
Law (2016) quote the definition of wisdom from a dictionary, “Wisdom as insight
and knowledge about oneself and the world ... and sound judgment in the case of
difficult life problems ... Good judgment and advice in difficult and uncertain
matters of life.” Wisdom is an act of the need to do the right thing concerning the
choice or decision. Campbell (2004) also argues that, “The infancies abound in
anecdotes of precocious strength, cleverness, and wisdom.” He explains that
heroes who have faces the long obscurity and obstacles are gain abound of
wisdom. Therefore, a hero has a capability to do the right choice or decided
something.
d. Strength
In generally, strength is always identically with physical. This is not
entirely wrong. However, in the discussion according to Klevskog (2017),

28
strength can refer to other abilities of hero to help him solve problems. Like
Langdon's character, Klevskog (2017) considered Langdon's ability to be able to
remember almost anything is considered as well as strength. As the other
characteristics of hero that expressed by Saricks (2009):
“He is strong, honorable man, committed to his assigned mission. Both
physical and intellectual skills are required: the hero must act to accomplish his
mission, but he must also be able to figure out the puzzles along the way. ...
Whether or not these heroes are the appointed leader of their groups, they are the
ones who display the ingenuity and skill that accomplish the mission and save the
team from disaster.”
The statement above shows the heroes characters that are responsible for
completing the mission and bringing success to himself and to the people around
him. With the abilities they have, the hero must sacrifice himself in the journey of
completing a mission full of obstacles and challenges. Certainly, the characters
and abilities that must be possessed by a hero are characters that are in accordance
with the theme and mission that will be completed.
e. The Ability to Adapt to the Environment
In adventure story, a hero will going to a journey to an unfamiliar world or
a hero will face new things he has never faced. Therefore, a hero must be able to
adapt to all kinds of things he will face on his journey, “... The hero’s natural
leadership ability, combined with intuitive skill at interpreting dangers and
discovering solutions, sets him apart from the other on his team (Saricks, 2009)”
e. Self-Sacrifice
The purpose of a hero's journey is to complete his mission. As revealed by
Cawelty (1976) is to overcome the obstacles and do some moral mission. A hero
will sometimes sacrifice himself to save the people around him from the dangers.
Meanwhile, his safety is after successfully to saving others. At this point, Vogler
(2007) stated:
“A hero is someone who is willing to sacrifice his own needs on behalf of
other, like a shepherd who will sacrifice to protect and serve his flock. At the root

29
the idea of hero is connected with self-sacrifice. (Note that I use the word hero to
describe a central character of protagonist of either sex.”
Therefore, referring to the statements expressed above, the struggle and sacrifice
is one of the life parts of a hero.
f. Heroic Feature of Courage
The going of hero to go to a journey and even without mind the risky or
the danger is showed the courage of a hero. The hero is: “ ... a person to whom
remarkable courage, talent, and other noble, even god likes traits are attribute by
members of community and who thus acquires a lasting place of importance in
that community’s culture” (Brunk & Fallaw, 2006). In Kouzes & Posner (2013)
“... acting courageously ... It’s the disposition that give one the capacity to face
danger without being overcome by fear.” Furthermore, Kouzes & Posner (2013)
argue that:
“... Courage is not an absolute. It’s relative to the situation and the person.
Courage takes many different forms. What requires courage from one person
might seem easy for another. To Greek, courage wasn’t necessarily demonstrated
only by the heroic actions of warrior in battle. It could also be the determined
action of an ordinary citizen in the pursuit of better life.”
Since everyone is having a different perspective, therefore everyone will
also have a different fear and courage. This means that if someone considers
something to be frightening, then for others it might be considered as a normal.
Likewise with someone's courage, what is called courage for someone might be
considered as a "Part of job" by someone else (Kouzes & Posner, 2013).
g. Imperfect Human
A hero it is not a God, he is an ordinary man who also feels emotions like
other people around him. Sometimes the hero has weaknesses that will hinder him
from completing the mission. Therefore, it is a natural being to found a hero with
some flaws and feature that are not heroic things.

30
h. Hero Journey
A Monomyth is a concept that popularized by Joseph Campbell. On his
book entitled The Hero with a Thousand Faces (2004), this concept contains the
stages or phase of hero’s journey in completing a mission.
“In a word: the first work of the hero is to retreat from the world scene of
secondary effects to those causal zones of the psyche where the difficulties really
reside, and there to clarify the difficulties, His second solemn task and deed
therefore (as Toynbee declares and as all the mythologies of mankind indicate) is
to return then to us, transfigured, and teach the lesson he has learned of life
renewed.” (Campbell, 2004)
The statements above explain that generally the entire story or rather all
heroes are having fundamentally stage that he passed. The hero will go to a
foreign world where the danger will be faced. The danger must be faced by the
hero in order to be able to step into the final goal and returning to the initial
situation (his world), to teaching and bringing triumph from his travel experience.
Mostly, Monomyth is a term of the heroic journey that usually found in fantasy or
myth, but the journey of a hero can also be found in the genre adventure story. An
article explained that Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth as widely applied in
traditional form of the quest—folk and fairy tales, myths legends, and other
fantasies—it also can be applied to many different genres or types of stories; a
quest does not have to include swords and monsters; the Monomyth, ageless and
universal, exists anywhere and everywhere (The Hero's Journey). This is because
in the adventure genre, generally delivered about the journey of people who have
a purpose and mission, they will face various kinds of obstacle during the journey
(Romadhonawati, 2016).
In The Hero with a Thousand Face, Campbell (2004) stated that “The
standard path of the mythological heroic adventure is the enlargement of the
formula represented in the rites of passage: separation – initiation - return: which
may be called the nuclear unit of Monomyth.” On the wall, there are seventeen
stages that must be passed by the hero which are divided into three primary
phases; Departure is the phase when the hero has to leave his world towards a new

31
world where the dangers are raised. Most heroes show a reluctance to leave their
home, their friends, and their life to journey on a quest, yet in the end they accept
their destiny (The Hero's Journey). The second primary phase is Initiation; the
hero did and faced a danger journey that was not easy to complete the mission.
The last phase is Return which is the final stage of the hero journey and the return
of hero who discovers a solution and the quest unveiled to hero can return into a
normal life.

32
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHOD
In order to organize the research well the research has formulated the
methodology that will help the researcher to conduct and arrange the research
properly. This chapter deals with research designs, data sources, data collection
techniques and data analysis techniques. This chapter will also explain how data
is collected and analyzed to find the final results of the research.
A. Research Design

The research design is a plan how the research will be doing (Beck, 2003, p.
65). The research design as plan that describes how, when and where data are to
be collected and analyzed. In research design, the research prepared some
procedures or plans that will be used in the research. The purpose of the research
design is to organize the course of the study and order to answers the research
question.

Base on the theory, this research is designed as a literary criticism. Literary


criticism is the overall for studies concerned with defining, classifying, analyzing,
interpreting, and evaluating works of literature (Abrams, 1999, p. 49). Literary
criticism becomes a common way to distinguish, analyze, and explain a literary
work. Literary criticism is categorized in qualitative methods. Literary works
analyzed with literary criticism should be based on theories and sources of data-
oriented on the form of narrative or text then explained in the form of text as well.

This research uses structuralism as the literary approach. Structural literary


analysis in this case on fiction, can done by identifying, learning and describing
about function relation between intrinsic element of fiction has called formula.
One of intrinsic element is about character, another one is such as a plot, setting,
point of view, etc. Structural analysis is aimed to explain the function and relation
between all literary works element and then give the unity, and what the advise
which is given for the aesthetic aim and for all meaning which will find.

33
It also uses descriptive analysis method to underprin the research. The
descriptive analysis method means to describe and analyze the data. Therefore, in
analyzing this research tries to describe the whole data that found in the literary
text.

This study examines of the formula of hero in Spiderman Homecoming


movie which then will be analyzed according to the theories of heroes and hero's
journey in the previous chapter. The main purpose of study is to see whether the
formula of the hero can be found in the object in question. This research on heroes
is included in the study of adventure in the popular literature. the formula of
adventure in this popular study of literature can be analyzed by using structural
concepts. Through this structural concept, a study of the adventure of popular
literature can be analyzed to see the compatibility between the structure of
adventure and the structure in the selected object.

B. Data Source

Data is material used in several studies (Sudaryanto, 1998: 8). Data is part
information, for analysis. Researchers took data to be analyzed from the internet
titled Spider-Man: Homecoming is a 2017 merican superhero film based on the
Marvel Comics character Spider-Man, co-produced by Columbia Pictures and
Marvel Studios, and distributed by Sony Pictures Releasing. It is the second
Spider-Man film reboot and the sixteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe
(MCU). The film is directed by Jon Watts, from a screenplay by the writing teams
of Jonathan Goldstein and John Francis Daley, Watts and Christopher Ford, and
Chris McKenna and Erik Sommers. (Wikipedia contributors. “ Spider-Man:
Homecoming.” Wikipedia, The Free Ensiklopedia. Wikipedia, The Free
Ensiklopedia, 10 July. 2018. Web, 10 July. 2018.).

C. Data Collection Technique

Research data were collected using the steps given

34
a. Downloading

The first step is to collect data by searching for Spiderman films in cinema
channels on the internet then downloading Spiderman Homecoming films: 2017.

b. Watching video

Watch all spiderman homecoming: 2017 films that have been downloaded from
beginning to end as a data collection to understand about what is told in the film
to be analyzed.

c. Coding

Researchers provide codes for each data related to the hero in adventure formula
found in the Spiderman homecoming: 2017 film.

d. Displaying

Displaying is the final step in gathering data. That the data collected is ready to
be analyzed.

D. Data Analysis Technique

In conducting the research there are four steps in analyzing the data as
follows:

a. Watching repeatedly and identify Spiderman Homecoming: 2017 movie


to the research.

b. The researcher classifying the data that support the research questions
particularly in the representation of Peter Parker character and the hero effect in
the build adventure formula which contained in Spiderman Homecoming: 2017
movie.

c. The researcher interpreting the data which got by the result of


classification process which appropriate with research question, and it will be
interpreted by using Understanding Heroism and its categories as stated in the
conceptual framework.

35
d. Conclusion of the data analysis

The researcher will display the result of the analysis and make a
conclusion about the problem that will be analyzed in this research.

E. Organization of Undergraduate Thesis


Chapter I is Introduction, which consists of the background of the study,
statement of the problem, research objective, research significance, and problem
limitation.
Chapter II is Conceptual Framework, which answer the research questions with
presents the kind of Hero in Adventure Formula in Spiderman Homecoming:
2017 Movie.
Chapter III is Research Method, which presents research design, data resource,
data, the technique of collecting data, the technique of analysis data, and
Organization undergraduate thesis.
Chapter IV is Analysis and Discussion, this chapter will discuss the Hero in
Adventure Formula form found in Spiderman Homecoming:2017 movie.
Chapter V presents conclusion and suggestion.

36

Interessi correlati