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Transmission

Transmission
• Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical
energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical
substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement
are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local
wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is
typically referred to as electric power distribution.
Overhead Transmission

• High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation. The


conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into
several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands. Copper was
sometimes used for overhead transmission, but aluminum is lighter,
yields only marginally reduced performance and costs much less.
Underground Transmission

• Electric power can also be transmitted by underground power


cables instead of overhead power lines. Underground cables take up
less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, and are
less affected by bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and
excavation are much higher than overhead construction. Faults in
buried transmission lines take longer to locate and repair.
Transmission structures
three-phase “live” wires

to house

500,000 230,000 138,000 69,000 7–13,000


long-distance neighborhood

Winter 2012 UCSD: Physics 121; 2012 6


Existing
Transmission
Network of NTDC

• 500/220 kV Transformers (14,850 MVA)

• 220/132 kV Transformers (18,044 MVA)

• 500 kV Lines (5,078 km)

• 220 kV Lines (7,947 km)


Distribution
Electric Power Distribution
• Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric
power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual
consumers.
• Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and
lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between
2 kV and 35 kV with the use of transformers.
• Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power
to distribution transformers located near the customer's premises.
Electric Power Distribution
• Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization
voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment or household
appliances.
• Often several customers are supplied from one transformer
through secondary distribution lines.
• Commercial and residential customers are connected to the
secondary distribution lines through service drops.
• Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be
connected directly to the primary distribution level or
the subtransmission level.
Utilization of Electric
Power
Types of load
There are mainly 7 types of load
1.Residential or domestic load (light, fans, heaters,
refrigerator, air condition, T.V, electric cooker, and
small motor for pumping the water
2.Commercial load (lighting for shops, fans, appliances
used in commercial advertisements, restaurants, etc)
3. Industrial load
(i) cottage industries up to 5 KW
(ii) Small scale industries ,up to 25 kW
(iii) Medium scale industries ,25 – 100 kW
(iv) Large scale industries ,100 – 500 kW
(v) Heavy industries, 500kW
4.Government load Separate type of load when it has
separate Feeder and special working condition (
defense factories, mines etc)
5. Municipal load (street lighting, municipal
corporation, water supply ,drainage etc)
6.Irrigation load: Water supplying for field as required
for crops
7. Traction load: Motors, railways tracks etc
Consumption Pattern Jul-2012 - Jun 2013
Others
Agricultural 0.54%
11.61%

Industrial Domestic
29.50% 51.18%

Commercial
7.17%

14
Load curve
• Load Curve: The curve or graph which showing the
load demand of a consumers against time in hours of
the day is known as load curve.
• If it is plotted for 24 hours or a single day, it is known
as daily load curve.
• If it is considered for whole years, it is known as
annual load curve
• The load on a power station is never constant; it
varies from time to time.
References:
• https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_load_power_plant
• PH 0101,Unit-5,Lecture -1,SRM university.
• File_43110
• NTDC Power System
• “Electric System” MIT ,Carlos Silva, October 28st 2009
• AC Electricity, UCSD: Physics 121; 2012
• How%20Does%20Power%20Generation_Transmission_Distribution%20Wo
rk_%20_%20The%20Nigerian%20Eagle.html
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_transmission#Overhead_tra
nsmission
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_distribution