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Think

 53:  Food  Talks


Dan  Jurafsky  &  Yoshiko  Matsumoto

How  to  Read  a  Menu

Tuesday,  May  9,  2017


How  to  do  “Linguistics  of  the  everyday”

Do  social  science  by  studying  


aspects  of  everyday  life
Computational  social  science  if  the  
datasets  are  big
Goal  for  today
Understand  the  methods  that  we  used  
for  studying  menus
With  the  idea  that  some  of  you  will  
want  to  study  something  like  menus  (or  
other  texts)  for  your  final  projects
How  do  menus  reflect  socio-­‐economic  
differences?

What  linguistic  differences  are  reflected  in  cheap  


versus  expensive  menus?
Menus  as  reflections  of  attitudes  toward  socio-­‐
economic  class
Online  menus  from  6562  restaurants
◦650,000  menu  items    
◦5,000,000  words
◦ allmenus.com,  yelp.com
Datasets

http://www.allmenus.com/
Yelp  Challenge  Dataset
Johnny   bacon  lettuce  and  tomato  crisp  thick  bacon  fresh  lettuce  tomato  
Rockets fast  food bos $$ and  mayonnaise  on  your  choice  of  bread 5.49
chicken  club  sandwich  grilled  marinated  chicken  breast  with  thick  
Johnny   bacon  fresh  lettuce  tomato  and  mayonnaise  on  triple  decker  
Rockets fast  food bos $$ sourdough 6.59
Johnny   egg  salad  sandwich  made  from  scratch  just  like  mom's  served  with  
Rockets fast  food bos $$ fresh  lettuce  and  mayonnaise  on  your  choice  of  bread 4.59
Johnny   chili  size  served  open  faced  with  our  exclusive  all  meat  chilli  and  
Rockets fast  food bos $$ topped  with  fresh  grated  cheddar  cheese  and  chopped  onions 6.39
Thai  Chef  &   sweet  corn  soup  delicious  creamy  corn  soup  with  minced  chicken  
Sushi  Bar sushi dc $$ finished  with  egg 4.25
Thai  Chef  &   chu  chee  shrimp  grilled  shrimps  topped  with  chef's  spicy  chu  chee  
Sushi  Bar sushi dc $$ sauce  served  with  steamed  vegetables 15.95
Quince italian sf $$$$ wild  nettle  tomato  fondue  of  fontine  val  d'anoca 9
woodside farm  jerusalem artichoke  soup  homemade  pancakes  
Quince italian sf $$$$ and  thyme 8
composed  cheese  plates  chef  s  selection  of  three  served  with  
warm  cranberry  nut  bread  and  house  made  accompaniments  
L'Impero italian nyc $$$$ supplement  with  prix  fixe  menu 14
the  works  x  large  sink  your  teeth  into  this  pizza  loaded  with  a  
mouthwatering  combination  of  pepperoni  ham  spicy  italian  
Papa  John's   sausage  fresh  sliced  onions  green  peppers  gourmet  baby  
Pizza pizza nyc $ portabella  mushrooms  and  ripe  black  olives 18.99
Joe's  
Shanghai chinese nyc $$ prawns  w  exotic  sea  scallop  sauce 20.95
How  to  test  hypotheses
1. Form  hypotheses  about  interesting  classes  
of  words  – create  word  lists
2. Count  to  see  which  restaurants  these  
words  are  associated  with
3. Confirm  the  hypotheses  by  running  
statistics
◦ Linear  regression
◦ Logistic  regression
◦ Ordinal  logit  regression
Choice
Robin  Lakoff (2006).  Identity  a  la  carte:  you  are  what  you  eat.  In  De  Fina,  Schiffrin,  and  
Bamberg  (eds),  Discourse  and  Identity.  Cambridge.

Cheap  restaurants  focus  on  diner  


choice
Expensive  restaurants  don’t
caviar

Expensive  restaurant   (cru) golden eye snapper

amberjack

menu: abalone
herring

trout roe

sea urchin

Robin  Lakoff (2006).  Identity  a  la  carte:  


cardoon
you  are  what  you  eat.  In  De  Fina,  
Schiffrin,  and  Bamberg  (eds),  Discourse   brassicas
and  Identity.  Cambridge.
toffee

wood pigeon

winter citrus

black walnut

ice cream

tea
Cheap  restaurant  menu
small plates & snacks
specialties glamburgers ® *

cheesecakes and desserts desserts & beverages STUFFED MUSHROOMS 4.95 GREEK SALAD 4.95
All Served with French Fries or Green Salad
Sweet Potato Fries 1.00 extra

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Herbs in a Wine Sauce
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Charbroiled on a Toasted Brioche Bun with Lettuce, Charbroiled with Cheddar Cheese, Tomato and
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CHEESE 11.95
Warm Flatbread B.B.Q. CHICKEN PIZZA
Tossed in Our Vinaigrette12.50
LOW CARB CHEESECAKE HOT FUDGE SUNDAE 6.95
Fresh Tomato, Mozzarella, Fontina and Parmesan Smoked Gouda, Red Onion and Cilantro
Tomato, Onion, Pickles and Mayonnaise Grilled Onions on Sourdough French or Wheat Loaf
Smooth and Creamy with a Graham-Walnut Crust The Best Hot Fudge Anywhere. Topped with Whipped Cream and Almonds BEETS WITH GOAT CHEESE 4.95 ENDIVE SALAD 5.95
WHITEFresh PIZZA 11.95
Beets, Apples, Baby Arugula, HAWAIIAN
Belgian Endive, PIZZA 12.50
Radicchio, Glazed Pecans, CLASSIC BURGER* 11.50 KOBE BURGER* 13.50
LOW CARB CHEESECAKE WITH STRAWBERRIES GODIVA® CHOCOLATE BROWNIE SUNDAE 7.95
Our own Fabulous Godiva Chocolate Brownie, Mozzarella, Fontina, Pecans
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Vinaigrette
Ricotta Blue Cheese
Canadian Bacon, Ham, and Vinaigrette
Fresh Pineapple, A Gigantic Chop House Hamburger. Served with a American Style Kobe Beef with
Graham-Walnut Crust with Fresh Strawberries and Whipped Cream Slice of Grilled Red Onion, Lettuce and Tomato Sauteed Mushrooms and Onions
Vanilla Ice Cream, Hot Fudge, Whipped Cream and Toasted Almonds Cheeses with Spinach and Garlic Red Onion, Tomato and Mozzarella
WILD BLUEBERRY WHITE CHOCOLATE CHEESECAKE ™
CHARRED SHISHITO PEPPERS 5.95
BOWL OF ICE CREAM 4.95 ROASTED VEGETABLES AND
Mildly Spicy GOAT
Asian PeppersCHEESE PIZZA
Seasoned with Salt 12.95 WILD MUSHROOM BURGER* 11.50 SMOKEHOUSE B.B.Q. BURGER* 11.50
Original Cheesecake Swirled with Wild Blueberries. Topped with White Chocolate Mousse
Our Great Glamburger Challenge Winner! Smoked Bacon and Melted Cheddar with
KEY LIME CHEESECAKE C R E A M Y M I L K S H A K E S Roasted Eggplant, Red and Yellow Peppers, Grilled Onion, Artichokes,
CHICKEN SAMOSAS
Kalamata Olives,4.95 ARUGULA SALAD
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Our Classic Creamy Shakes SPICYDipping
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CARAMEL PECAN TURTLE CHEESECAKE Served with Cilantro Sauce Parmesan, Lemon and Olive Oil
Pecan Brownie and Caramel-Fudge Swirl Cheesecake, Topped with Caramel Turtle Pecans and Chocolate PEANUT BUTTER, BANANA & HONEY 6.95 Italian Sausage, Prosciutto, Pepperoni, Spicy Salami, Caramelized Onions and Tomato GREEN CHILE CHEESEBURGER* 11.50 MONTEREY CHEESEBURGER* 11.50
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salads
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sandwiches cheesecakes
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Dulce de Leche, Caramel, Malt and Oreo Cookies Blended with THEwith
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Ranch Dressing PIZZA 12.95
with Marinara Sauce and Mayonnaise with Lots of Blue Cheese Melted Cheddar, Cole Slaw, Pickles and Mayonnaise
BROWNIE SUNDAE CHEESECAKE Vanilla Ice Cream Vanilla Ice Cream Pepperoni, Sausage, Peppers, Onions, Mushrooms, Mozzarella and Tomato.
All Served with French Fries or Green Salad
Walnut-Brownie Cheesecake and White Chocolate Mousse Covered with Hot Fudge and Almonds Kalamata Olives 3.95
on Request
BUTTER PECAN SHAKE 7.95 STRAWBERRY CHEESECAKE SHAKE HAND BATTERED ONION
7.95 RINGS CRISPY ARTICHOKE HEARTS 4.95 FARMHOUSE CHEESEBURGER* 11.50
Sweet Potato Fries 1.00 extra To Place Your Take and
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(650) 473-9622
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CHARGRILLED COULOTTE
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CAPPUCCINO 4.50 Topped with Glazed
DOUBLEFresh ESPRESSO
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A Delicious Blend of Crab, Artichokes and Cheese Raw Tuna with Avocado and
Grilled Onions, Pickles and Secret Sauce
A La Mode 1.50Sirloin with
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U.S.D.A. Prime Butter Double Espresso and Foamy Steamed Milk
HERSHEY ®’S CHOCOLATE BAR RENEE’S
CHEESECAKE SPECIAL 10.95
Served Warm with Grilled Sourdough Bread
LUNCH SALADS 9.95
Soy-Ginger Sesame Sauce
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Carrots, of a Fresh
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and Steamed Milk Vinaigrette VIETNAMESESalad Sandwich,
TACOS 5.95 Salads:DYNAMITE
Cobb, Chinese Chicken, Luau,
SHRIMP 6.95
LINDA’S FUDGECHICKEN
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HOT CARAMEL APPLE CIDER ULTIMATE RED HOT VELVET CAKE ™

Housemade
Layers of Rich Chocolate with
Cake Roasted Almonds, Lettuce,Richest Chocolate
Our Deepest, Freshly Roasted Turkey Breast, Bacon,
Cake with
3.95 FACTORY CHOCOLATE 3.95Asian
with a Small
Buns with Roasted
Caesar Salad 1.00 extra
Pork, Marinated Tossed with
Layers of Red Velvet Cake and Cheesecake Covered in Cream Cucumbers,
Cheese 12.95
Frosting. Carrots
Finished and Onion
with White with Chiles,
Chocolate Our Spicy Dynamite Sauce FRIED SHRIMP PLATTER 14.95
GRILLED PORK CHOP 18.95 TOMATO BASIL PASTA * * *
and Fudge
Served on
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Lightly Breaded
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CARROT CAKE with6.95
Housemade Apple Sauce, Mashed
WARM CRISPMayonnaise
APPLE Potatoes and on White Toast
6.95Vegetable STRAWBERRYRomaine FRUIT SMOOTHIE 5.95 TROPICAL SMOOTHIE withYour 5.95
Choice of: Crusted Chicken Romano, A Cup of Soup, Small Green Salad, VEGGIE BURGER 9.95
Reese’sLettuce, Grilled
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Original Cheese,
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Layers Dried
of Delicious
CHICKEN Cranberries,
Fudge Cake and
BELLAGIO
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CRISPY 13.95 6.95
Deliciously Moist Layers of Carrot Cake and Our Delicious Crispy Nutty Topping and Strawberries, Orange andFETTUCCINI
Pineapple Juices,ALFREDO Mango, Passion PASTA
Fruit, Pineapple and CARBONARA 13.95 NEW ORLEANS SHRIMP CHICKEN
A Delicious 14.95“Burger”MADEIRA
Made with Brown 17.50Rice, Farro, Black Beans, Fresh Beets and Onion.
appetizers appetizers
Raisins, Pears, Fresh Orange Chicken Piccata or Orange Chicken Crab Cakes. ServedSourdough Bread and Butter
Sauceand AllPecans Tossed with Vinaigrette Bite-Sized
Our Famous Cream Cheese Icing Vanilla Ice Cream Coconut and Banana All Blended 30th
with
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Garlic Fontina Breast
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CHOCOLATE GRILLEDTOWER CHICKEN
TRUFFLE AND
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5.95 of Our
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16.50
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a ToppedTruffle
Chocolate
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5.95
withLUNCH
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Sauce. with Fresh
Served with Asparagus
White Rice and Melted Mozzarella Cheese. Covered with
STEAK DIANE* 19.95 TEMPURA SHRIMP STUFFED PEPPERS 6.95
Grilled Chicken Breast with Avocado, Bacon, Tomato, Melted Swiss and Herb Mayonnaise Crushed Peaches and Juice All Blended Mango, Tropical Juices and a Hint A Smaller
with Chicken 16.95
of Coconut Version of Our Pizzas with a Small Green Salad Fresh Mushroom Madeira SPICY
Sauce CRISPY
and Served CHICKEN
with Mashed SANDWICH
Potatoes 11.50
Layers and Layers of Fudge Cake with Chocolate Truffle Cream and Chocolate Mousse
Medallions of Certified Angus Beef ® Steak Covered with Black Peppercorns and GODIVA
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12.95 Puree WHITE CHICKEN
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Peppers Stuffedarewith
11.95
Perfect for Sharing
Shrimp and Tempura All of Our Appetizers are Perfect for Sharing
with Ice and Swirled with Raspberry Blended with Ice and
Flourless Godiva Chocolate Cake, Topped with Godiva
Swirled with Raspberry
Chocolate Cheesecake Fried aUntil
and Chocolate
Small Caesar
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Mousse
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Served 1.00 extraChili Sauce
with Sweet-Hot SHRIMP FRANCHESE 14.95 Crispy Chicken Breast Covered with Melted Cheese and Your Choice of
a Rich Mushroom Wine LEMONCELLO
Sauce. Served CREAM with Mashed TORTE Potatoes6.95

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A PerfectFOUR Blend CHEESE
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LUNCH PASTA 7.95 to Fresh
10.95
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Layers of Vanilla Cake and Lemon Mascarpone Cream Topped with Streusel with a Tossed
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Steamed CHICKEN
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from:in the Classic Tradition.
Pan-Fried Topped with
with Pasta
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and Served with Strawberries and Whipped Cream
Parmesan Cheeses, Creamy Cheesecake
Marinara Sauce and Swirled with White
Fresh Basil Chocolate
Roasted Eggplant, and Raspberry
Peppers, Artichoke, Kalamata Breast of Chicken Coated withCream,
B.B.Q. Salsa, Avocado
PULLED
a Romano-Parmesan PORK and Salsa Verde
SANDWICH
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Warm Fry-Bread Stuffed with Grilled Chicken, Avocado, Lettuce, Pasta Marinara, Grilled Onions,
Fettuccini Pickles
Alfredo,and Ketchup
Pasta MeatServed
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Four Soy-Ginger Sesame
Pasta Sauce
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TIRAMISU 6.95 with *Chicken * *
16.95 CHICKEN
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ENCHILADAS
MARGHERITA
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Served with
Slow Roasted
19.95
NACHOS PorkPasta in a Light Tomato Sauce
Covered
9.95 with Our B.B.Q. CRISPY Sauce on a Brioche8.95
TAQUITOS Bun. Served with Cole Slaw
Tomato, Red Onion and Mayonnaise FRESH BANANA CREAM CHEESECAKE
HIBACHI STEAK*
Italian Custard Made with Mascarpone, Whipped Cream, Lady Fingers, Marsala and 19.95 FRESHLY BREWED COFFEE 2.95 Evelyn’s
Covered with
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Basil Sauce
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Paris
Vinci,
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Bistro-Style! Sauteed CrispWhole
with TortillaCloves
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of withWhite
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Certified Coffee
AngusLiqueur. Beef Hanger®
Topped with Steak Whippedwith Shiitake
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Banana CHINESE
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PASTA WITH MEAT SAUCERoasted CHICKEN
Sustainably
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withCoffee
Bavarian PASTA 13.95
Cream and
Served Louisiana
Fresh
MARINARA
AVOCADO Chicken,
Sliced
with Black Beans, Bananas
EGGROLLS Spicy
Cilantro
10.95 RiceChicken Chipotle or Thai
9.95and Corn Salsa QUESADILLA Chicken Pasta9.95 Fresh Basil and Tomato. Guacamole, SourAngel
Cream,HairJalapeños GRILLED
and Salsa TURKEY
Corn Tortillas BURGER
and Fried Crisp. 11.95
Served with
Served with ORANGE PastaCHICKEN 16.95
Bean Sprouts, Wasabi Mashed Potatoes and SANDWICH
Tempura 7.50 Asparagus Sliced Chicken
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2.95 Almonds,
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with Melted CHEESE with Spicy Chicken Combined
11.95 with Fresh Mushrooms,
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Sour Cream andSalsa
Spices.
FRESH STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE
CUBAN 11.95 ADAM’S
Meat Sauce PEANUT
Simmered BUTTER
with CUP FUDGE with RIPPLE
Tomato Sauce and
LUNCH Fresh FAVORITES 10.95
Bean Sprouts, Orange
Tomatoes, and Sesame
Garlic Seeds.
andCaramel, Tossed
Herbs TEAS in2.95 SpecialSALISBURY
OurButterfingers Fontina,
Cilantro
Chinese PlumCHOPPED
Parmesan
Fried Crisp STEAK*
andWrapper.
in a Dressing Romano Cheeses, 13.95
Served GreenPecans,
Onions Arugula and Garnished
and Chiles. Caramelized Onion
with Deep Fried Pieces of Chicken BreastServed Covered in aGrilled
with Sweet and SpicyLettuce
Onions, Orangeand Sauce.
Tomato
Our Own Shortcake Topped with Vanilla Pork,Ice Cream, Ham,Fresh SwissStrawberries and WhippedMustardCream BLACK, Creamy Cheesecake
GREEN Swirled
OR TROPICAL with ICED Peanut Butter, ® andA Reese’s
Smaller Peanut
Portion Butter Cups
of Some of Your Favorites. Your Salsa
Choice Sour CreamSHRIMP AND CHICKEN
andof: CRISPY GUMBO 16.95
® ®

Slow Roasted Cheese, Pickles, and Mayonnaise Certified Angus Beefwith a Tamarind-Cashew
Chopped Garlic Crumbs
Steak CombinedDipping
and HerbsSauce
with Guacamole,
Onions, Mushrooms and Garlic CRAB Served
WONTONS with White9.95Rice and FIRECRACKER
Vegetables SALMON* 11.95
CHRIS’ OUTRAGEOUS CHOCOLATE on a Grilled andCAKE 7.50 Famous Factory Meatloaf, Shepherd’s Pie or Fish
with & Chips 11.95
Chicken Shrimp, Chicken, Andouille Sausage, CrabmeatTomatoes, Peppers, OnionsGreenand GRILLED
Pressed™ Cuban-Style Roll FIJI NATURAL ARTESIAN WHITE WATER 3.95LOUISIANA
CHOCOLATE FRESH CARAMEL CHICKEN
ORANGE JUICE PASTA
MACADAMIA
Served 15.95
with Mashed
3.95 NUT CHEESECAKE
Potatoes, Mushroom Gravy and Fresh Green Beans THE
Blended with INCREDIBLE
Cream Cheese, Spiced FreshEGGPLANT
Salmon Rolled SANDWICH
in Spinach and 11.95
A Cheesecake Factory Original - Layers STEAK* of Moist Chocolate Cake, Chewy Brownie, Garlic Simmered in a Spicy Cajun Style Broth Onion, with
WaterCream. Topped
Chestnuts withChili
and Grilled
Sweet Steamed
Sauce White Rice Roasted
Fried in a Crisp Red
Wrapper. ServedRed
withOnion,
GRILLED RIB-EYE 24.95 SAN PELLEGRINO WhiteWATER Parmesan
Chocolate Chunk
3.95 Crusted
Cheesecake
LUAU
FRESH Chicken
Swirled
SALADwithServed
LEMONADE OverNuts
Macadamia
13.95
Pasta
3.95 with
and on a BlondLUNCH
Mushrooms,
Caramel Brownie CrustSALMON1 13.50 Fried CRISPY
Crisp in CHICKEN
Wonton Wrappers
Japanese
COSTOLETTA
Eggplant,
a 16.95
Sweet Hot
Peppers,
Chili Sauce
Toasted Coconut-Pecan Frosting and Creamy Chocolate Chip Coconut Cheesecake Peppers and Onions in a Spicy New Orleans STUFFED
FRIED Sauce CHICKEN
MACARONI ANDYour TORTILLAS
CHEESE of: 13.95
Choice 9.50 FRIED CALAMARI 10.50 Melted Mozzarella and Garlic Aioli on Our Toasted Bun
Served with French Fries and Onion Rings SOFT DRINKSGrilled Chicken LEMON
2.95 Breast Layered RASPBERRY
STRAWBERRYwith Mixed CREAM CHEESECAKE
Greens, Cucumbers,
LEMONADE 4.50 Green Onions, JAMAICAN BLACK PEPPER SHRIMP
Chicken Breast Lightly Breaded17.95and Sauteed to a Crisp Golden Brown.
BOWL OF FRESH CHICKEN STRAWBERRIES PARMESAN SANDWICH 6.50 11.95 Corn
Crispy Tortillas
Herb Crumb Stuffed
Coated
Crusted with
Macaroni
Filet Spicy
andChicken,
of Salmon*, Cheese Covered
Salmon*with
MisoBalls. Fried Light
or Simply GrilledandSalmon*
Crisp
GUACAMOLE MADE-TO-ORDER 10.50
Tender Chicken Lightly
As always, refillsRaspberry-Vanilla
and Yellow Cake,
are complimentary
Red Peppers,Creamy
GreenPASTA
Lemon
Beans,DACarrots,
VINCIRaspberry
Cheesecake, Mango16.95 Lady Fingers
©2011 TCF Co. LLC
Meltedand Crisp
Served
Cheese, aand
Wontons
over
Green Lemon
Creamy
Onion, Mousse
Marinara
Tomatillo Sauce
Sauce andServed with Garlic Dip and Cocktail
Cilantro. Sauteed
SauceShrimp with a Very Spicy Jamaican
Served Black Pepper
with Lemon Sauce, GRILLED
Tomato, PORTABELLA
Sauce. Potatoes
Mashed ON Lime.
and Fresh Asparagus A BUN 11.95
The Hershey’s Trademark Coated
and Trade Dressin Parmesan
are used under license Breadcrumbs, Roasted Peppers, Tomato Sauce RASPBERRY LEMONADE 4.50 Ripe Avocado, Onion, Chiles, Cilantro and Fresh
with Sauteed
MacadamiaChicken,
Nuts Mushrooms
and LECHE
SesameandSeeds.
OnionsTossed
inServed
a Delicious
inwith Madeira
OurGrilled Corn
Vinaigrette Wine Sauce
Cakes, Black Beans, Salsa and Sour Cream Served with Rice, Black Beans, Plantains and Cool A Mango
Giant SalsaPortabella
Fresh Chips, Salsa with Melted Cheese, Grilled Red Onion,
and Melted
Snickers is a Registered Trademark of Mars, Incorporated, The REESE’SCheese
Trademarkon a Freshly
and Trade Grilled
Dress are used under licenseFrench Roll
Splenda is a Registered Trademark of McNeil Nutritionals, LLC, Oreo is a Registered Trademark of KF Holdings, Inc.,
DULCE DE
COLD APPLE
CARAMEL
CIDER 3.50
CHEESECAKE Served with Tortilla and Sour Cream
PETITE FILET* 24.95 FILET MIGNON*
Butterfinger is a Registered Trademark of Societé des Produits Nestle S.A., Kahlua is a Registered Trademark of The Kahlua Company
29.95 Tossed with Penne Pasta and Parmesan
Caramel Cheesecake Topped with Caramel Mousse on a Vanilla Crust HOT SPINACH AND CHEESE DIP 10.95
with Chicken 15.95 with Chicken and Shrimp 17.95
Lettuce, Tomato and Spicy Mayonnaise
CAJUN Spinach,
CHICKEN “LITTLES” 13.95 CHICKEN PICCATA
BUFFALO WINGS16.95 9.95
A Smaller Version of Our Filet Mignon 14 CHICKEN Our Most Tender Steak FETTUCCINI 15
WITH
CHOCOLATE CHICKENCOCONUT AND SUN-DRIED
CREAM TOMATOES
BonelessCHEESECAKE
Breast of Chicken Pieces,15.95
Spiced,
with Breaded4 Chips
Artichoke Hearts, Shallots, Garlic and a Mixture of Cheeses
and and
FriedSalsa.
Crisp. BAR-B-QUE SALMON* Sauteed
Fried Wings Chicken
Covered Breast
in Hotwith
15.95 SauceLemon Sauce,
and Served Mushrooms
with Blue Cheese5 and Capers.
Dressing and Celery Sticks
CoconutGRILLED CHICKEN TOSTADA SALAD a13.95
BLACKENED SANDWICH Served Bubbly Hot Tortilla Enough for Two
Served with French Fries and Onion Rings Served with French Fries and Onion11.95 Rings In a Sun-Dried
Cheesecake Topped Tomato Sauce
with Coconut with
CreamGarlic, Cream
Custard, alland
Served Parmesan
on withChocolate
Mashed Cheese
Macaroon
Potatoes andCrust
Fresh Corn Succotash Glazed with Sweet and Spicy B.B.Q. Sauce
Buffalo
Served Chicken
with Angel HairStrips
Pasta 8.95
Grilled with Melted Fontina Cheese, Lettuce, Tomato, Red Onion and Spicy Mayonnaise Crisp Corn Tortillas Topped with Grilled Marinated Chicken Breast and Black Beans
©2011 TCF Co. LLC ©2011 TCF Co. LLC
FARFALLE WITH TIRAMISU
CHICKEN CHEESECAKE
AND ROASTED Served with Mashed Potatoes, Corn
©2011 TCF Co. LLC
Succotash and Crispy Onion Strings
©2011 TCF Co. LLC

Piled High with Mixed Greens, Fresh Corn, Green OnionsGARLIC Cilantro16.95
andSHEPHERD’S TEX
PIE MEX EGGROLLS
14.50 9.95 VIETNAMESE SHRIMP SUMMER ROLLS 9.95
Our Wonderful
Bow-Tie Cheesecake
Pasta, and Tiramisu
Chicken, Combined
Mushrooms, Tomato, into one Amazing
Pancetta, Dessert!
PeasSpicy Chicken, Corn, Black Beans, Peppers,inOnions and DelicateSPICY
Rice Paper Rolled Around
CASHEW Asparagus, Shiitake
CHICKEN 16.95Mushrooms, Carrots,
All Tossed in Our Vinaigrette and Garnished with Avocado Cream,
Ground Beef, Salsa and
Mushrooms, Sour Cream
Carrots, Peas, Zucchini and Onions a FRESH GRILLED SALMON* 18.95
Rice Noodles, Green Onion, Cilantro and Shrimp – Served Chilled
and Caramelized Onions in aMOUSSE
Roasted Garlic-Parmesan Creamwith
Sauce
S I DThinly
E SlicedDGrilled
I Steak
S H E S
CALIFORNIA CHEESESTEAK 11.95 Melted Cheese.Potato-Parmesan
Served with Avocado Cream and Salsa A Very Spicy Mandarin-Style Dish
CHOCOLATE CHEESECAKE
Delicious Sauce Covered a Mashed Cheese Crust
Served with Potato with
and Green
Vegetable
Covered with Sauteed Mushrooms, Onions, OnionsPOPCORN
and RoastedSHRIMP
Cashews. Served
10.95over Rice
Silky Chocolate Cheesecake
GARLICTopped with a Layer of13.50
NOODLES Belgian Chocolate Mousse
BAJA CHICKEN TACOS
Peppers and Cheese on a Toasted Roll
BARBEQUE RANCH
Spaghettini, Fresh VANILLA CHICKEN
Asparagus, Shiitake
BEAN SALADOven-Roasted
Mushrooms,
CHEESECAKE 14.50 12.95
SOUTHERN
Tomatoes FRIEDFISH TACOS
CHICKEN 13.95 9.95
SLIDERS HERB CRUSTED FILET OFShrimp Deep-Fried in a Spiced Batter. Served with Cocktail Sauce and Aioli
SALMON* 19.95
French Fries 3.95 Green Beans 3.95 and Parmesan inCheese,
aCucumber
Delicious
Soft Corn
Garlic
Tortillas Filled with Spicy Chicken, Soft Corn Tortillas Filled with Grilled or Crispy
SauceOnions, Crispy Fried Chicken Breast on Mini-Buns Served with Lettuce, Tomato and Pickles
Fresh Salmon with a Delicious Lemon Sauce, Asparagus and ROASTED
Mashed Potatoes
Avocado, Tomato, GrilledBean
Creamy Vanilla Corn, Black Beans,
Cheesecake, Topped with and
Vanilla
Avocado, Romaine
Mousse
Tomato, andall Tossed
Whipped with
CilantroCream
Tempura Fish, Avocado, Tomato, Onions, Cilantro LEMON-HERB CRABCAKES CHICKEN12.95 16.95
with Chicken
Our Barbeque Ranch Dressing. Topped 16.50
with Lots of Crispy
and Crema. with Shrimp
Fried
Served™withOnion
17.50
Strings
Black Beans andfor
RiceCrunch
and Crema. Served with Black Beans and Rice Served
Fresh All Natural Free-Range withChicken
Half MustardServed
and Tartar
withSauce
Mashed Potatoes,
Sweet Potato Fries 5.95 GRILLED SHRIMP
Corn&Succotash
BACON CLUB4.95
13.95 CHOCOLATE TUXEDO CREAM CHEESECAKE BUFFALO BLASTS
®
9.95 MISO SALMON* 19.95 Topped with a Light Lemon Garlic-Herb Sauce
Carrots and Watercress.
Charbroiled Shrimp, Bacon, Lettuce and Tomato with Our Special Dressing SPICY
Layers of Our Fudge Cake,CHICKEN CHIPOTLE
Chocolate Cheesecake, PASTA
Vanilla Mascarpone15.95
Mousse
Chicken, andand
Cheese
CARAMEL CHICKEN
Chocolate
Our Spicy Buffalo
13.95 Sauce all Stuffed Fresh
in a Miso
Spiced Marinated
Wrapper Salmon Served with Snow Peas, White Rice and a Delicious Miso Sauce
Penne Pasta, Honey Glazed Chicken, Asparagus, Red and Yellow
KAHLUA COCOA COFFEE CHEESECAKE and Peppers,
Fried until Peas,
Crisp. Served with Celery Sticks and Blue Cheese Dressing A P P E T I Z E R S A L A D S
Mashed Potatoes 4.95 Sauteed Spinach 4.95 SANTA FE SALAD Garlic and14.50
®
Onion in a Spicy Chipotle
Crispy Battered Pieces of Chicken in a Spicy Vietnamese Caramel Sauce with Mushrooms,
COBB Cream
SALAD 14.50
Green Parmesan
A Rich Brownie, Topped with Kahlua Cheesecake, Creamy Beans, Onions,
Chocolate Red
Mousse
Sauce
Chile
and Peppers,Ganache
Chocolate Garlic and Ginger. Served with Rice WASABI CRUSTED AHI TUNA* TERIYAKI
TOSSED
21.95 CHICKEN
GREEN SALAD 16.50 6.95
CRABCAKE SANDWICH 14.50 Marinated Chicken, Fresh Corn, Black Beans, Chicken Breast, Avocado, Blue Cheese, Chicken Choice of Dressing
THAI CHICKEN PASTA 15.95 BISTRO SHRIMP PASTA 17.95 FRESH ARTICHOKE Spicy
FIRE-ROASTED 9.95Wasabi Crusted Fresh Rare Ahi Served withBreast Charbroiled
Julienne with
Vegetables, Teriyaki
Miso SauceSauce, Served with Steamed Rice
and Rice
Fresh Broccoli 3.95 Fresh
With Lettuce, Tomato Asparagus
and Tartar Sauce on Our6.50
Brioche Bun Cheese, Tortilla Strips, PINEAPPLE
Tomato and Mixed UPSIDE-DOWN
Greens Bacon,CHEESECAKE
Tomato,
FACTORYEgg and Mixed
BURRITO Greens
GRANDE 13.95
Linguini Cheesecake
Pineapple with SauteedBetween
Chicken, Julienne
Two Crispy
Layers of Moist Battered
Buttery Shrimp,
Pineapple FreshFresh Artichoke
Mushrooms,
Upside-Down Cake
Fire-Roasted and Served with a CAESAR SALAD 8.95
with a Spicy Peanut-Cilantro Vinaigrette Tossed in Our Vinaigrette
Carrots, Green Onion and a Spicy Peanut Sauce. ATomato
Monster Burrito with Chicken, Cheese, Cilantro Rice, Onions
Spicy Vinaigrette and Garlic Dipand Peppers.
(Seasonal)
and Arugula Tossed with Spaghettini The Almost Traditional Recipe with Croutons, Parmesan Cheese and Our Special Caesar Dressing
Macaroni & Cheese 6.95 CHOCOLATE RASPBERRYServed with Guacamole,
TRUFFLE ® Sour Cream, Salsa and Black Beans F A C T O R Y C O M BCHICKEN I N AAND T BISCUITS
I O N 16.50 S with Chicken 11.95
Topped with Fresh Bean Sprouts and a Basil-Garlic-Lemon Cream Sauce Breast of Chicken Served over Mashed Potatoes with
GRILLED CHEESE 7.95 Layers of Chocolate Cake, Chocolate-Raspberry Swirl Cheesecake, Chocolate Mousse
SPICY AHI and Chocolate
TEMPURA ROLL* Ganache
11.95 AHI CARPACCIO* 11.95 Served with Mashed Potatoes
CHICKEN DI PANA 13.95 Shortcake Biscuits, Mushrooms, Peas and Carrots. Covered 8.95
with Country Gravy
HERB CRUSTED
SHRIMP SALMON SALAD*
WITH ANGEL HAIR 16.50
16.95 BOSTON HOUSE SALAD
Sauteed Snow PeasServed on Egg Bread with Your Choice of Cheese
& Vegetables 4.95 DUTCH
Large ShrimpAPPLE
Sauteed CARAMEL
with Lightly
Fresh
STREUSEL
Lemon,Breaded
Garlic
Raw Ahi Tuna with Green Onion, Spicy
Sauteed
Thin Slices of Raw Ahi Tuna, Wasabi Pesto,
Chicken Breast Served over a White Wine Butter Sauce
and Herbs SHRIMP SCAMPI ANDBoston Lettuce DIANE*
STEAK Tossed with Chopped
19.95Bacon, Egg, Blue Cheese, Croutons and Ranch Dressing
Our Wonderful Fresh Herb
Our Original Crusted Salmon
Cheesecake, Served Chilled on TopSoyof Baby
Sauce, Lettuces,
Ginger Tomato
and Garlic. Wrapped in Nori Creamy Avocado and Togarashi Aioli
and Top of Baked
on Vegetables.
Angel Apples,
Hair
Tossed
Caramel
Pasta
in Ourwith and Brown
Tomato
Balsamic SauceSugar Cinnamon
withFlash
and Fresh
Vinaigrette and Mashed
Basil Walnut
Fried Streusel
Potatoes
Tempura and Broccoli
Style
* * * CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIE-DOUGH CHEESECAKE CHICKEN MADEIRA ANDCHICKEN
STEAK DIANE* MARSALAB.L.T. ANDSALAD
19.95 MUSHROOMS8.95 17.95
CAJUN JAMBALAYA PASTA MEATLOAF
16.95 Crisp Iceberg Lettuce
Chicken Covered
Breast with Fresh
Sauteed with Tomato, Bacon, Chopped
Fresh Mushrooms in a Egg and Blue Cheese.
SOLELY FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE, AN 18% GRATUITY IS ADDED TO ALL FAMOUS FACTORY 14.95 CRISPY SPICY BEEF 15.95
Creamy Cheesecake Loaded with Our Chocolate Chip Cookie-Dough with Walnuts Served with Our Bacon Dressing
PARTIES OF 6 OR MORE. TIPS ARE ALWAYS DISCRETIONARY. THANK YOU! Our most popular
Servedpasta dish! Potatoes, Gravy, THAICrispy
with Mashed LETTUCE
Fried WRAPS Sauteed withSTEAK DIANE* AND HERB CRUSTED
12.95
Slices of Steak SALMON*
Rich Marsala Wine Sauce. 19.95
Served over Bow Tie Pasta
ALL SUBSTITUTIONS CHARGED A LA CARTE 12 SEARED TUNA
Shrimp and 13
TATAKI
Chicken SALAD*
Grilled
Sauteed with Onions
Tomato, 16.50
and
OnionsCorn
andSuccotash
Peppers Create Your
Green Own Thai
Beans, Lettuce
Shiitake Rolls!
Mushrooms, Onions, FRENCH COUNTRY SALAD 8.95
in aand
Fresh Ahi Lightly Seared VeryServed
Spicy Cajun
Rare Sauce.
Satay Chicken Strips, Carrots,
All on TopTomato
with Avocado, of Fresh Linguini
and Mixed Spicy
Greens
Bean Sprouts,
Carrots Coconut
and Sesame Curry
Seeds in aNoodles Sauce.SHRIMP
and Lettuce
Sweet-Spicy Leaves with SCAMPI AND CHICKEN MADEIRA 19.95
Mixed Greens, Grilled Asparagus, Fresh Beets, Goat Cheese, Candied Pecans and Vinaigrette
NO CHECKS PLEASE Three Delicious Thai Sauces – Peanut, Sweet Red Chili and Tamarind-Cashew BANG-BANG CHICKEN AND SHRIMP 17.95
(Full-size portion
Tossed with Wasabi only)
Vinaigrette Served with White Rice
NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR LOST OR STOLEN ARTICLES
WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE SERVICE TO ANYONE
©2011 TCF Co. LLC ©2011 TCF Co. LLC
HERB CRUSTED SALMON*AFRESH AND SHRIMP
Spicy Thai Dish SCAMPI
with the
VEGETABLE SALAD 9.95Flavors of19.95
Curry, Peanut, Chile
FACTORY CHOPPEDand Coconut.
SALAD 10.50
7.95FISH Or Any CombinationSauteed
Asparagus, Green withAbove
of the
Beans, Vegetables and Served
Tomato, Cucumber, over Steamed
Roasted White Rice
A Delicious Blend of Chopped
SALES TAX WILL BE ADDED TO THE RETAIL PRICE ON ALL TAXABLE ITEMS
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE.
Lunch-Sized Portions are Available until 5:00 P.M. & CHIPS
to 14.95 SOUP OF16.50
THE DAY 4.95 / 6.95
Beets, Apple, Edamame, Radicchio, Romaine and Romaine, Grilled Chicken, Tomato,
Hand Battered and Fried Crisp. Served with Cole Slaw,
White Cheddar All Chopped with Pomegranate Vinaigrette Avocado, Corn, Bacon, Blue Cheese
10 11 French Fries and Tartar Sauce
with Chicken 12.95 and Apple with Our Vinaigrette
8 9
©2011 TCF Co. LLC ©2011 TCF Co. LLC
6 ©2011 TCF Co. LLC 2 ©2011 TCF Co. LLC
7 3
©2011 TCF Co. LLC ©2011 TCF Co. LLC ©2011 TCF Co. LLC ©2011 TCF Co. LLC
Measuring  more  subtle  aspects  of  
choice
• Baby  lamp  chops  grilled  to  your  liking
• Marinated  flak  steak  with  eggs  your  way
• Quiche  with  your  choice  of  either house  
salad  or a  cup  of  soup
• Biscuits  and  gravy  with  eggs  anyway  you  
like’em
Measuring  more  subtle  aspects  of  
choice
• choice,  choose,  any,  add,  or,  specify,  substitutions,  
specifications,  options,  pick,  your  way,  your  own,  your  
liking,  your  style,  your  favorite,  you  like,  you  want,  you  
request,  way  you,  you  may,  select  your,  select  from,  you  
select,  select  one,  select  any,  select  or,  select  a,  select  
up,  select  two

• chef's  selection,  chef's  selections,  chef's  daily  selection,  


chef's  daily  preparation,  chef's  choice,  chef's  selected,  
chef's  assortment,  tasting  menu,  omakase,  kaiseki,  
courses,  prix  fixe
More  subtle  aspects  of  choice:  
who  is  the  menu  talking  about?
Cheap  restaurants:
“you”
“your  way/style”
“you  like/want”  
Expensive:
“chefs  choice”
“chef’s  selection”
Even  more  subtle  differences
Let’s  look  at  adjectives
There  were  1065  adjectives  in  
the  datasets
165  sensory  adjectives  
◦ Chunky,  crispy,  crunchy,  doughy,  fluffy,  rich,  smolky,  tangy,  
zesty
176  participial  adjectives
◦ Grilled,  mixed,  sliced,  steamed,  baked,  smoked,
55  extreme  positive  sentiment  words
◦ Amazing,  awesome,  exciting,  extraordinary,  incredible,  
legendary,  perfect
15  delicious  words
◦ Delicious,  delectable,  scrumptious,  luscious,  tasty,  
gourmet,  savory
Finding  adjectives
Aloo  Paratha:  Mashed  potatoes  
flavored  with  tangy  spices  and  herbs
Paneer  do  Pyaza Roll:  Homemade  
cottage  cheese  and  grilled  onions
Masala  Aloo  Roll:  Pan  fried  spiced  
potatoes  and  herbs
Finding  adjectives  automatically:
Part-­‐of-­‐Speech  tagging
https://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tagger.shtml

Aloo_NNP Paratha_NNP :_:  Mashed_JJ potatoes_NNS


flavored_VBN with_IN tangy_JJ spices_NNS and_CC
herbs_NNS
Paneer_NN do_VBP Pyaza_NNP Roll_NNP :_:  Homemade_JJ
cottage_NN cheese_NN and_CC grilled_JJ onions_NNS
Masala_NNP Aloo_NNP Roll_NNP :_:  Pan_NN fried_VBD
spiced_JJ potatoes_NNS and_CC herbs_NNS

JJ  =  Adjective
NNP  =  Proper  Noun
NN  =  Noun
VBD  =  Preterite
VBN  =  Past  Participle
Cheap  restaurants  use  vague  "tasty"  words  

Delicious,  gourmet,  flavorful,

The  delicious taste


delicious outdoor  grill  flavor
gourmet veggie  special
flavorful entrées
flavorful ancho-­‐chile

For  every  vague  adjective  the  average  price  of  a  dish  drops  2%
Cheap  restaurants  use  vague  "positive"  words  

Amazing,  great,  fantastic

our  amazing signature  subs


Amazing Spicy  Chicken  
Casserole
our  fantastic house  made  
dressing
unbelievably  great tasting
Middle  priced  restaurants  use  sensory  adjectives
zesty,  rich,  golden  brown,  crispy,  creamy

Crispy white-­‐meat  tenders  served    


with  a  creamy Creole  sauce  
rich,  creamy spinach  artichoke  dip
Creamy,  homemade  fettuccine  
alfredo
zesty chili  pepper  cream  sauce
How  do  we  know  this  is  true?
Control  variables
name  category  city  restdollars numitems
provenance  traditional  generous  participle  positive  
delicious  choice  adj sensoryadj length  wordlen
1  Tiffin  Etc.  indian philadelphia 2.0  24  0.0833  0.4167  
0.0000  1.2500  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  2.0417  0.5000  
12.4583  6.5806
2  City  Pie  pizza  nyc 1.0  47  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.1915  
0.0426  0.0000  0.2128  1.2766  0.2553  8.8085  6.2053
3  Wayo sushi  bars  sf  2.0  57  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  
0.0526  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000  0.3509  0.0877  3.5439  
5.7928
Linear  regression
After  controlling  for  the  city,  the  total  
number  of  words,  the  average  
wordlength,  the  number  of  items  on  
the  menu…,
do  cheap  restaurants  have  more  
"delicious"  words  than  expensive  
restaurants?
Thinking  about  linear  
regression
Could  I  predict  the  number  of  dollar  
signs  from  the  number  of  "delicious  
words"?
Linear  Regression
Predicting  Housing  Prices

Example  from  Freakonomics  (Levitt  and  Dubner  


2005)
◦ Vague  Adjectives:  Fantastic,  cute,  or  charming

Can  we  predict  price  from  #  of  adjs?


Linear  Regression
Muliple Linear  Regression
Predicting  values:

In  general:

◦ Let’s  pretend  an  extra  "intercept  feature"  f0  with  value  1

Multiple  Linear  Regression


Linear  regression  predicting  $  
from  language,  using  "R"

lm(formula
=
restdollars
~
city + category + logwordlen +
loglength + lognumitems +
adjectives + largeportions+
choice+ provenance+ traditional)
Why  Expensive  Menus  are  short
Why  say  food  is  “fresh”?
◦ Because  Grice
H.  Paul  Grice,  Philosopher  of  Language
Known  for  his  “Cooperative  Principles”
4  Maxims  of  language
Grice’s  “Cooperative  Principle"
Make  your  conversational  contribution  
such  as  is  required,  at  the  stage  at  
which  it  occurs,  by  the  accepted  
purpose  or  direction  of  the  talk  
exchanged  in  which  you  are  engaged."
Grice’s  Maxims
I.  Quantity
A.  Be  informative
B.  Don’t  give  more  information  than  is  required
II.  Quality
A.  Don’t  lie  or  mislead
B.  Don’t  make  statements  unless  there  is  adequate  evidence
III.  Relation
A.  Be  relevant
IV.  Manner
A.  Avoid  obscurity
B.  Avoid  ambiguity
C.  Be  succinct
D.  Be  orderly
Grice  “Logic  and  Conversation
These  Maxims  sound  obvious
But  they  are  useful  in  two  ways:
1)  Sometimes  what  seems  to  violate  a  Maxim  actually  
doesn’t,  and  the  listener  has  to  figure  something  out
2)  Sometimes  they  are  violated  (“flouted”).  When  that  
happens,  listeners  search  for  an  explanation  for  the  
violation

Both  of  these  let  us  imply things  without  saying  them
And  these  explain  how  speakers  can  mislead  without  
technically  lying
Maxim  of  Relevance
Make  your   Relevance:
contribution  relevant
A:  Where’s  Bill?
B:  There’s  a  yellow  VW  
outside  Sue’s  house.
Flouting  Relevance
A:  How  did  you  like  my  
lecture?
B:  Nice  weather  we’re  
having!
Relevance  and  ketchup
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xbYD7
9_g98
Maxim  of  Quantity
Make  your  contribution  
neither  more  nor  less  than  is   Flouting  Quantity:  
required. [Letter  of  
a.  Make  your  contribution  as   Recommendation]:
informative  as  is  required  
for  the  current  purposes  of   “Dear  Madam,  Mr.  X's  
the  exchange. handwriting  is  excellent,  
and  his  attendance  at  class  
b.  Do  not  make  your  
contribution  more   has  been  regular.  
informative  than  required Yours  Sincerely”
Maxim  of  Quantity
Make  your  contribution   Violating  Quantity:  
neither  more  nor  less  than  is  
required. A:  How  did  Harry  fare  in  
a.  Make  your  contribution  as  
court  the  other  day?
informative  as  is  required   B:  Oh  he  got  a  fine
for  the  current  purposes  of  
the  exchange.
b.  Do  not  make  your   If  it  turned  out  Harry  also  
contribution  more   got  a  life  sentence,  then  B  
informative  than  required is  guilty  of  misleading  A,  
even  though  what  he  says  
is  technically  true
Maxim  of  Manner
Be  perspicuous Flouting  Manner:
a. Avoid  obscurity  of   a.  "Miss  X  sang  `Home  on  
expression the  Range'
b.  "Miss  X  produced  a  series  
b. Avoid  ambiguity   of  sounds  that  corresponded  
c. Be  brief  (avoid   closely  with  the  score  of  
unnecessary   `Home  on  the  Range'.  
prolixity)
d. Be  orderly
Maxim  of  Quality
Try  to  make  your   Flouting  Quality:
contribution  one  that  
Bouncer:  Are  you  21?
is  true
a. Do  not  say  what   Student:  I’m  35.
you  believe  to  be   Bouncer:    Oh,  right,  and  
false I’m  99.
b. Do  not  say  that  for  
which  you  lack  
adequate  evidence
Why  Expensive  Menus  are  short
Why  say  food  is  “fresh”?
Maxim  of  Quantity
◦ Don’t  say  more  than  you  need
Maxim  of  Relation
◦ Be  relevant
There  must  be  a  purpose  to  say  “fresh”
Why  Expensive  Menus  are  short
Why  say  food  is  “fresh”?
◦ Maxims  of  Quantity  and  Relevance:
◦ The  hearer  needs  to  know  it’s  fresh
◦ I  am  trying  to  communicate  the  freshness  of  my  food

Why  would  you  need  to  know?


◦ Because  you  don’t  already  know  if  it’s  fresh
◦ i.e.  you  aren’t  sure  if  it’s  fresh
Expensive  restaurants  want  you  to  assume food  
is  fresh
Grice  in  action:  real  on  menus
$
◦ chocolate  chip  pancakes  served  with  real  whipped  cream
◦ home  made  meatloaf  served  with  real  mashed  potatoes
◦ lettuce,  tomato,  Russian  dressing  and  real  bacon  bits
$$
◦ California  roll:  real  crab and  avocado
◦ blueberry  whole  grain  pancakes  with  real  maple  syrup

"real"  not  on  expensive  menus!


Menus  as  a  window  onto  
history
• New  York  Public  Library’s  Buttolph collection
• 45,000  menus  dating  from  the  1840s  to  the  
present,
• More  than  half  collected  by  Miss  Frank  E.  Buttolph
(1850-­‐1924)

http://menus.nypl.org/menus/decade/1850s
When  does  “real”  first  became  
common  on  menus?
From  the  New  York  Public  Library’s  Buttolph collection:
real  butter 1960s
real  whipped  cream   1970s
real  bacon 1990s
Why  then?
1950:  Margarine  tax  repealed  and  sales  of  margarine  skyrocket
1960s:  First  popular  artificial  whipped  cream  introduced
1970:  First  popular  artificial  bacon  introduced

The  word  ”real”  on  menus  is  a  marker  of  the  


rise  of  “artificial”  food!
Remember  from  last  week
Words  promising  more  food
hearty,  enormous,  plenty,  loads,  lots,  
hefty,  gigantic,  generous,  generously,  
largest,  heaping,  refills,  bottomless,  
unlimited,  huge,  big,  bigger,  biggest,  
ginormous,  mega,  largest,  and  more,  
with  more,  tons  of,  king  sized,  texas
sized
Plenty
Baked  Meat  Lasagna  with  our  hearty meat  sauce
Tuna  Supreme:  A  generous scoop  of  tuna  
Plenty  in  steakhouses
Big Shoulders:  and  you  thought  our  petite  porterhouse  
was  big!  this  is  a  full  forty  ounces!  that's  eight  ounces  
short  of  three  pounds!  are  you  up  to  the  challenge?
Factor  that  increases  price  of  a  dish:
Use  rare  words
◦ tonnarelli,  bastilla,  persillade
Use  long  words:
◦ decaffeinated,  accompaniments,  
complements,  exquisitely
cheap  restaurants:
◦ decaf not  decaffeinated,  sides not  
accompaniments.  

Silverstein,  Michael.  2003.  “Indexical  Order  and  the  Dialectics  of  Sociolinguistic  
Life.”  Language  and  Communication  23:  193–229.
Factors  predicting  higher  prices
Each  additional  average  letter  =  18  cents
Digression:
Rare  words  are  also  longer  words
“Accompaniments”  vs
“Sides”
https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?
content=accompaniments,sides&year_star
t=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=15&smo
othing=3&share=&direct_url=t1%3B,acco
mpaniments%3B,c0%3B.t1%3B,sides%3B,c
0
Word  length  is  inversely  
correlated  with  frequency
Short  words  are  frequent
Frequent  words  are  short
This  fact  was  discovered  in  the  8th
century
Sibawayh:  Founder  of  Arabic  grammar  and  Arabic  
linguistics
◦ Author  of  the  Kitāb,  “ The  Book”,  a  900-­‐page  treatise  
on  Arabic  grammar  
(+morphology/phonology/phonetics)
~752  CE,  born,  probably  Shiraz
◦ Ethnic  Persian,  non-­‐native  speaker  of  Arabic
~762  CE,  arrives  in  Basra  to  study  religious  law
◦ Makes  a  serious  grammatical  error  in  public
◦ Is  shamed  in  public
◦ Decides  to  study  linguistics  instead
Sibawayh and  word  frequency
A.  A.  Al-­‐Nassir.    1993.  Sibawayh the  Phonologist.  Kegan  Paul.
M.  G.  Carter.  2004.    Sibawayhi.  Oxford:  I.  B.  Tauris

“Frequency  of  usage”  (katra al-­‐isti’māl)  is  a  major  


cause  of  language  changing  over  time
◦ Some  words  get  shorter  over  time
◦ Because  they  “occurs  more  frequently”
Rediscovered  by  European  and  American  linguists  
◦ 1100  years  later  in  the  late  19th century
100  words  overrepresented  
on  $$$$  menus
28  of  the  100  words  were  from  high-­‐status  
foreign  cuisines:
French (les,  de,  le,  fois,  gras,  crème,  mousse,  
tarte,  pommes)
Italian (e,  con,  risotto,  pancetta,  burrata,  
polenta,  parmigiano)  
Japanese (tempura,  uni,  wagyu,  sushi,  yuzu,  
sashimi,  miso,  shabu,  kobe,  ponzu,  wasabi,  
ninja,  and  sake)
This  has  been  true  for  over  
100  years
New  York  Public  Library’s  Buttolph Collection
2858  menus  from  1892-­‐1921
One  difference:  trickle-­‐down  in  status
(Veblen,  Simmel)
1910:  
◦gourmet:  only  fancy  restaurants
“braised  lamb  gourmet”  Waldorf  Astoria  
"tomato  gourmet  salad"  Hotel  Manhattan
2010:  
◦gourmet:  only  cheap  restaurants
"gourmet  large  pepperoni"  delivery  pizza
There's  more  in  menus:
How  healthy  food  is  framed
Bradley  P.  Turnwald,  Dan  Jurafsky,  Alana  Conner,  and  Alia  J.  Crum.  2017.  Reading  Between  the  Menu  
Lines:  Are  Restaurants’  Descriptions  of  “Healthy”  Foods  Unappealing?   Health  Psychology.

As  obesity  rates  continue  to  climb,  blame  has  fallen  on  


the  high-­‐calorie  meals  at  chain  restaurants  
Many  chain  restaurants  have  responded  by  adding  
“healthy  choices”  sections
But  how  do  they  describe  the  food  on  these  healthy  
menus?
The  data
Menus  from  26    casual-­‐dining  chain  
restaurants  with  healthy  submenus
◦ e.g.,  Applebee's,  Olive  Garden,  IHOP,  Red  Lobster
Every  word  on  healthy  and  standard  menu  
items  coded  for  presence  in  22  lexicons.
Which  kinds  of  words  occurred  less  often  in  
the  Healthy  menus?
Restaurant 2015 Sales Rank Total Sales (billions $)
Applebee's 10 4.6 L
Panera Bread 11 4.3 M
Olive Garden 16 3.8 L
Chili's 17 3.6 M
Buffalo Wild Wings 19 3.2 F
IHOP 23 2.9 U
Denny's 25 2.5 M
Outback Steakhouse 26 2.5 C
Red Lobster 28 2.4 M
Cracker Barrel 30 2.1 L
Texas Roadhouse 33 1.9 L
Cheesecake Factory 35 1.8 P
TGI Friday's 36 1.8 U
Longhorn Steakhouse 39 1.5 D
Red Robin 41 1.4 S
Ruby Tuesday's 45 1.2 D
Waffle House 46 1.1 M
What  does  "overused"  mean?
likelihood  ratio:  does  “fun”  occur  more  (by  
%)  in  menu  A  or  B?

%  of  words  in  menu  A  that  are  "fun"

%  of  words  in  menu  B  that  are  "fun"


Words  under-­‐used  on  "Healthy"  menu
Theme Example  words
Exciting crazy,  spellbinding,  action,  adventure,  blasts,  
Fun fun,  dippable,  bites,  skewered,  stacker,  tanglers
Traditional   countryside,  housemade,  classic,  traditional,  famous,
Regional Philly,  California,  Maine,  New  Orleans,  Hawaiian
Texture   crispy,  creamy,  crunchy,  flaky,  gooey,  velvety  
Provocative dangerous,  dirty,  naked,  temptation,  sinful,  envy
Spicy  hot buffalo,  mesquite,  chipotle,  fiery,  firecracker,  burnin’  
Artisan artisan,  handcrafted,  hand-­‐prepared,  premium,  
Taste sweet,  sour,  salty,  tangy,  flavorful,  delicious
Indulgent bliss,  indulge,  richest,  succulent,  decadent  
Words  over-­‐used  on  "Healthy"  menu
Theme Example  words
Foreign Asian,  Italian,  French,  Tuscan,  Thai,  
Mexican
Fresh fresh,  freshly
Simple simple,  dry,  mild,  plain,  mildly,  simply
Macronutrients carb,  fiber,  fat,  grain,  protein,  whole  wheat
Thinness light,  lighter,  enlightened,  skinnylicious,  
lighten,  lites
Deprivation fat  free,  low-­‐fat,  sugar-­‐free,  no  sugar  
added,  low  carb,  reduced-­‐fat  
Nutritious wholesome,  nutritional,  fit,  healthy  
Conclusion
• Major  chain  restaurants  describe  their  
healthiest  choices  as  less  appealing
• But  we  know  people  prioritize  taste  and  
indulgence  over  health
• Important  for  society:    We  need  to  
improve  how  menus  present  healthy  
dishes  to  make  them  as  appealing  as  
standard  items  
How  to  read  a  menu:  Look  for  the  
words  that  aren't  there
Luxury  advertising  is  “modest”,  no  mention  
of  “real”  or  “fresh”  or  “delicious”  or  
"generous  portions"
Menus  boasting  of  “real”  foods  are  a  tool  to  
find  the  rise  of  “fake”  food  
(even  though  advertisers  never  use  the  word  “fake”)
Healthy  menus  avoid  words  indicating  "fun",  
"spicy",  "exciting",  "tasty",  "indulgent"
How  to  read  a  menu:
What's  on  expensive  menus
Long  words
Fancy  words
High-­‐status  foreign  words
Summary:  The  linguistics  of  
everyday  life
Everyday  objects  like  menus  are  a  window  
onto  culture.
Many  such  artifacts  are  covered  in  words!
Even  very  simple  linguistic  and  statistical    
techniques  can  be  useful!
Menus  make  excellent  final  projects!!