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eRAN

Modulation Schemes Feature


Parameter Description

Issue Draft A
Date 2019-01-05

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.


Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2019. All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective
holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
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representations of any kind, either express or implied.

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


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Email: support@huawei.com

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description Contents

Contents

1 Change History.............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 eRAN15.1 Draft A (2019-01-05)................................................................................................................................... 1

2 About This Document.................................................................................................................. 3


2.1 General Statements......................................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Applicable RAT.............................................................................................................................................................. 4
2.3 Features in This Document.............................................................................................................................................4
2.4 Feature Differences Between FDD and TDD.................................................................................................................5

3 Overview......................................................................................................................................... 6
3.1 Related Concepts............................................................................................................................................................ 8
3.2 DL TBS Index Optimization.......................................................................................................................................... 9

4 Basic Modulation Schemes........................................................................................................11


4.1 Principles...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Network Analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 11
4.2.1 Benefits...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
4.2.2 Impacts.......................................................................................................................................................................11
4.3 Requirements................................................................................................................................................................ 11
4.3.1 Licenses..................................................................................................................................................................... 12
4.3.2 Software.....................................................................................................................................................................12
4.3.3 Hardware................................................................................................................................................................... 12
4.3.4 Others.........................................................................................................................................................................12
4.4 Operation and Maintenance..........................................................................................................................................12
4.4.1 Data Configuration.................................................................................................................................................... 12
4.4.1.1 Data Preparation..................................................................................................................................................... 12
4.4.1.2 Using MML Commands......................................................................................................................................... 13
4.4.1.3 Using the CME....................................................................................................................................................... 13
4.4.2 Activation Verification.............................................................................................................................................. 13
4.4.3 Network Monitoring.................................................................................................................................................. 13

5 UL 64QAM.................................................................................................................................... 14
5.1 Principles...................................................................................................................................................................... 14
5.2 Network Analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 14
5.2.1 Benefits...................................................................................................................................................................... 14
5.2.2 Impacts.......................................................................................................................................................................14

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description Contents

5.3 Requirements................................................................................................................................................................ 15
5.3.1 Licenses..................................................................................................................................................................... 15
5.3.2 Software.....................................................................................................................................................................16
5.3.3 Hardware................................................................................................................................................................... 16
5.3.4 Others.........................................................................................................................................................................16
5.4 Operation and Maintenance..........................................................................................................................................16
5.4.1 Data Configuration.................................................................................................................................................... 16
5.4.1.1 Data Preparation..................................................................................................................................................... 16
5.4.1.2 Using MML Commands......................................................................................................................................... 17
5.4.1.3 Using the CME....................................................................................................................................................... 17
5.4.2 Activation Verification.............................................................................................................................................. 17
5.4.3 Network Monitoring.................................................................................................................................................. 17

6 DL 256QAM.................................................................................................................................. 18
6.1 Principles...................................................................................................................................................................... 18
6.1.1 CQI Table Setting...................................................................................................................................................... 18
6.1.2 DL 256QAM-related Scheduling Process................................................................................................................. 18
6.2 Network Analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 20
6.2.1 Benefits...................................................................................................................................................................... 20
6.2.2 Impacts.......................................................................................................................................................................21
6.3 Requirements................................................................................................................................................................ 23
6.3.1 Licenses..................................................................................................................................................................... 23
6.3.2 Software.....................................................................................................................................................................24
6.3.3 Hardware................................................................................................................................................................... 24
6.3.4 Others.........................................................................................................................................................................25
6.4 Operation and Maintenance..........................................................................................................................................25
6.4.1 Data Configuration (FDD).........................................................................................................................................25
6.4.1.1 Data Preparation..................................................................................................................................................... 25
6.4.1.2 Using MML Commands......................................................................................................................................... 26
6.4.1.3 Using the CME....................................................................................................................................................... 26
6.4.2 Data Configuration (TDD)........................................................................................................................................ 26
6.4.2.1 Data Preparation..................................................................................................................................................... 27
6.4.2.2 Using MML Commands......................................................................................................................................... 27
6.4.2.3 Using the CME....................................................................................................................................................... 28
6.4.3 Activation Verification.............................................................................................................................................. 28
6.4.4 Network Monitoring.................................................................................................................................................. 29

7 UL 256QAM (TDD)..................................................................................................................... 31
7.1 Principles...................................................................................................................................................................... 31
7.1.1 MCS Table Setting.....................................................................................................................................................31
7.1.2 UL 256QAM-related Scheduling Process................................................................................................................. 31
7.2 Network Analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 33
7.2.1 Benefits...................................................................................................................................................................... 33
7.2.2 Impacts.......................................................................................................................................................................33

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description Contents

7.3 Requirements................................................................................................................................................................ 34
7.3.1 Licenses..................................................................................................................................................................... 34
7.3.2 Software.....................................................................................................................................................................34
7.3.3 Hardware................................................................................................................................................................... 34
7.3.4 Others.........................................................................................................................................................................35
7.4 Operation and Maintenance..........................................................................................................................................35
7.4.1 Data Configuration.................................................................................................................................................... 35
7.4.1.1 Data Preparation..................................................................................................................................................... 35
7.4.1.2 Using MML Commands......................................................................................................................................... 35
7.4.1.3 Using the CME....................................................................................................................................................... 36
7.4.2 Activation Verification.............................................................................................................................................. 36
7.4.3 Network Monitoring.................................................................................................................................................. 36

8 Parameters..................................................................................................................................... 37
9 Counters........................................................................................................................................ 38
10 Glossary....................................................................................................................................... 39
11 Reference Documents............................................................................................................... 40

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 1 Change History

1 Change History

This chapter describes changes not included in the "Parameters", "Counters", "Glossary", and
"Reference Documents" chapters. These changes include:
l Technical changes
Changes in functions and their corresponding parameters
l Editorial changes
Improvements or revisions to the documentation

1.1 eRAN15.1 Draft A (2019-01-05)


This issue introduces the following changes to eRAN13.1 03 (2018-06-30).

Technical Changes
Change Description Parameter Change RAT Base Station Model

Added an adaptive CQI Added the value FDD l 3900 and 5900 series
table selection policy CQI_BASED_ADAPTI TDD base stations
(based on CQI) for DL VE_CONFIG to the l DBS3900 LampSite
256QAM. For details, parameter and DBS5900
see 6.1 Principles. CellDlschAlgo.Dl256Qa LampSite
mCqiTblCfgStrategy.
l BTS3912E
l BTS3911E

Added UL 256QAM. For Added parameters: TDD 3900 and 5900 series
details, see 7 UL l PUSCHCfg.Ul256Qa base stations
256QAM (TDD). mAlgoSwitch
l PUSCHCfg.Ul256Qa
mMcsTblCfgStrategy
l PUSCHCfg.Ul256Qa
mMcsTblAdpPeriod

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 1 Change History

Editorial Changes
Revised descriptions in this document.

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 2 About This Document

2 About This Document

2.1 General Statements


Purpose
This document is intended to acquaint readers with:
l The technical principles of features and their related parameters
l The scenarios where these features are used, the benefits they provide, and the impact
they have on networks and functions
l Requirements of the operating environment that must be met before feature activation
l Parameter configuration required for feature activation, verification of feature activation,
and monitoring of feature performance
NOTE

This document only provides guidance for feature activation. Feature deployment and feature
gains depend on the specifics of the network scenario where the feature is deployed. To achieve
the desired gains, contact Huawei professional service engineers.

Software Interfaces
Any parameters, alarms, counters, or managed objects (MOs) described in this document
apply only to the corresponding software release. For future software releases, refer to the
corresponding updated product documentation.

Trial Features
Trial features are features that are not yet ready for full commercial release for certain
reasons. For example, the industry chain (terminals/CN) may not be sufficiently compatible.
However, these features can still be used for testing purposes or commercial network trials.
Anyone who desires to use the trial features shall contact Huawei and enter into a
memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Huawei prior to an official application of such
trial features. Trial features are not for sale in the current version but customers may try them
for free.
Customers acknowledge and undertake that trial features may have a certain degree of risk
due to absence of commercial testing. Before using them, customers shall fully understand not

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 2 About This Document

only the expected benefits of such trial features but also the possible impact they may exert on
the network. In addition, customers acknowledge and undertake that since trial features are
free, Huawei is not liable for any trial feature malfunctions or any losses incurred by using the
trial features. Huawei does not promise that problems with trial features will be resolved in
the current version. Huawei reserves the rights to convert trial features into commercial
features in later R/C versions. If trial features are converted into commercial features in a later
version, customers shall pay a licensing fee to obtain the relevant licenses prior to using the
said commercial features. If a customer fails to purchase such a license, the trial feature(s)
will be invalidated automatically when the product is upgraded.

Feature Differences Between RATs


The feature difference section only describes differences in switches or principles.
Unless otherwise stated, descriptions in this document apply to all RATs. If a description does
not apply to all RATs, the specific RAT that it does apply to will be stated.
For example, in the statement "TDD cells are compatible with enhanced MU-MIMO", "TDD
cells" indicates that this function cannot be used in non-TDD cells.

2.2 Applicable RAT


This document applies to FDD/TDD.

2.3 Features in This Document


This document describes the following FDD features.

Feature ID Feature Name Section

LBFD-001005 Modulation: DL/UL 4 Basic Modulation Schemes


QPSK, DL/UL
16QAM, DL 64QAM

LOFD-001006 UL 64QAM 5 UL 64QAM

LEOFD-110301 DL 256QAM 6 DL 256QAM

This document describes the following TDD features.

Feature ID Feature Name Section

TDLBFD-001005 Modulation: DL/UL 4 Basic Modulation Schemes


QPSK, DL/UL
16QAM, DL 64QAM

TDLOFD-001006 UL 64QAM 5 UL 64QAM

TDLEOFD-110515 DL 256QAM 6 DL 256QAM

TDLEOFD-151605 UL 256QAM 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 2 About This Document

2.4 Feature Differences Between FDD and TDD


FDD FDD TDD TDD Difference Section
Feature Feature Feature Feature
ID Name ID Name

LBFD-001 Modulation TDLBF Modulation: None 4 Basic


005 : DL/UL D-00100 DL/UL Modulation
QPSK, 5 QPSK, Schemes
DL/UL DL/UL
16QAM, 16QAM, DL
DL 64QAM
64QAM

LOFD-001 UL TDLOF UL 64QAM None 5 UL 64QAM


006 64QAM D-00100
6

LEOFD-11 DL TDLEOF DL 256QAM None 6 DL 256QAM


0301 256QAM D-11051
5

N/A N/A TDLEOF UL 256QAM This feature 7 UL 256QAM


D-15160 is supported (TDD)
5 only by
TDD.

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 3 Overview

3 Overview

In digital communications systems, modulation is the process of varying the amplitude,


frequency, or phase of a carrier with a digital baseband signal to convey information using the
carrier. Figure 3-1, Figure 3-2, and Figure 3-3 illustrate different types of modulation, in
which the dashed lines represent the carriers before modulation and the solid lines represent
the carriers after modulation.

Figure 3-1 Amplitude modulation

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 3 Overview

Figure 3-2 Frequency modulation

Figure 3-3 Phase modulation

Information is transmitted in digital communications systems in the form of bit streams. The
more variants of a carrier there are after modulation, the more information bits the carrier can
convey, and the higher the spectral efficiency is. Figure 3-4 shows an example of amplitude
modulation. In this example, there are only two variants of a carrier. Therefore, only one bit
can be mapped onto this carrier.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 3 Overview

Figure 3-4 Example of amplitude modulation

The LTE system uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Common
modulation schemes include downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) quadrature phase shift keying
(QPSK), DL and UL 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM), and DL 64QAM. To
meet the demand for the ever increasing data rates required for today's services, 3GPP has
also introduced UL 64QAM and DL 256QAM. If channel quality is good enough, these
modulation schemes help increase UL and DL transmission efficiency for UEs.
A higher-order modulation scheme is one that modulates more bits of information into each
modulation symbol, resulting in higher overall spectral efficiency of LTE networks. Table 3-1
lists the spectral efficiency, expressed in the number of bits per modulation symbol, of various
modulation schemes.

Table 3-1 Spectral efficiency of modulation schemes


Modulation Scheme Spectral Efficiency

QPSK 2

16QAM 4

64QAM 6

256QAM 8

However, a higher modulation order also requires better channel quality for the receiver to be
able to maintain a signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) that is high enough to allow
for accurate demodulation of the signal.

3.1 Related Concepts


l CQI
In the DL, data is terminated in UEs instead of eNodeBs. Therefore, eNodeBs cannot
measure the DL SINR for evaluating DL channel quality. UEs report channel quality
indicators (CQIs) to eNodeBs to indicate the DL channel quality of services from the
eNodeBs. The eNodeBs then determine which modulation and coding scheme (MCS) to
use based on these CQIs. CQI values include 0 to 15. The larger the CQI value, the better
the channel quality.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 3 Overview

l MCS
eNodeBs use different MCSs to ensure transmission efficiency and the quality of UE
services. If the channel quality is good, an eNodeB selects an MCS with a high-order
modulation scheme combined with a high code rate. If the channel quality is poor, the
eNodeB selects one with a low-order modulation scheme and a low code rate (the code
rate is higher if fewer redundant bits are inserted).
l TBS index
A transport block size (TBS) index determines the size of a single transport block given
a specific number of physical resource blocks (PRBs). For details about how to select
TBSs for the DL and UL, see sections 7.1.7.2 "Transport block size determination" and
8.6.2 "Transport block size determination", respectively, in 3GPP TS 36.213 V12.8.0.
l CQI table
A CQI table maps CQI indexes to modulation schemes. With the introduction of DL
256QAM, 3GPP TS 36.213 V12.8.0 provides a new CQI table, Table 7.2.3-2, which is
referred to as the CQI table with 256QAM in this document for the sake of clarity. This
same protocol also includes an earlier version of the CQI table, Table 7.2.3-1, which is
referred to as the CQI table without 256QAM in this document.
l MCS table
An MCS table maps MCS indexes to combinations of modulation orders (indicating
modulation schemes) and TBS indexes.
Table 7.1.7.1-1A in 3GPP TS 36.213 V12.8.0 lists DL MCSs including 256QAM and is
referred to as the MCS table with DL 256QAM in this document for the sake of clarity.
This same protocol also includes an earlier version of the MCS table, Table 7.1.7.1-1,
which is referred to as the MCS table without DL 256QAM in this document.
Table 8.6.1-3 in 3GPP TS 36.213 V14.5.0 lists UL MCSs including 256QAM and is
referred to as the MCS table with UL 256QAM in this document. This same protocol
also includes an earlier version of the MCS table, Table 8.6.1-1, which is referred to as
the MCS table without UL 256QAM in this document.

3.2 DL TBS Index Optimization


Under favorable channel conditions, the peak throughput of a UE has a positive correlation
with the TBS index selected by the eNodeB for the UE. The larger the TBS index, the higher
the peak UE throughput.
l New TBS indexes are now available for UEs for which transmission mode 9 (TM9) is
used. The highest TBS indexes for TM9 UEs used to be 25 and 32 in cells with certain
bandwidth and cell-specific reference signal (CRS) port configurations. This is because
fewer resource elements (REs) can be used for data transmission due to RE consumption
by channel state information-reference signals (CSI-RSs) and demodulation reference
signals (DMRSs). 3GPP Release 12 and later releases have defined TBS indexes 26A
and 33A. These two new indexes are included in the MCS table without DL 256QAM
and the MCS table with DL 256QAM, respectively. They are used for TM9 UEs in the
cell center, increasing the DL peak throughput of these UEs.
l 3GPP Release 14 and later releases have defined TBS index 33B. This new index is
included in the MCS table with DL 256QAM. It is used for cell-center UEs capable of
TM1, TM2, TM3, TM4, TM6, or TM7, increasing the DL peak throughput of these UEs.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 3 Overview

NOTE

In TDD, TBS index 33B does not take effect in cells with 4-CRS-port configurations.

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 4 Basic Modulation Schemes

4 Basic Modulation Schemes

4.1 Principles
DL and UL QPSK, DL and UL 16QAM, and DL 64QAM are all basic modulation schemes.
They are not under switch control. The eNodeB selects an appropriate UL or DL modulation
scheme for each UE based on the UL or DL channel quality of the UE during scheduling.

DL TBS index optimization with index 26A introduced takes effect for TM9-capable UEs if
the MIMO_TBSIZE_OPT_SWITCH option of the CellAlgoSwitch.DlSchExtSwitch
parameter is selected. For TM9-capable UEs that meet channel condition requirements, the
eNodeB sends RRC messages to inform these UEs that the TBS of index 26A can be used,
and also uses this TBS for DL data transmission.

4.2 Network Analysis

4.2.1 Benefits
Spectral efficiency increases, as eNodeBs dynamically select appropriate modulation schemes
for UEs based on channel quality. When TBS index 26A is selected for TM9-capable UEs in
the cell center, the DL peak throughput of these UEs increases by 2%–5%.

4.2.2 Impacts

Network Impacts
None

Function Impacts
None

4.3 Requirements

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 4 Basic Modulation Schemes

4.3.1 Licenses
None

4.3.2 Software
Prerequisite Functions
None

Mutually Exclusive Functions


None

4.3.3 Hardware
Base Station Models
No requirements

NOTE

DL TBS index optimization, with index 26A introduced, for TM9-capable UEs can be used only for
3900 and 5900 series base stations.

Boards
No requirements

RF Modules
No requirements

Cells
DL TBS index optimization, with index 26A introduced, for TM9-capable UEs can be used
only in cells with a 10 MHz, 15 MHz, or 20 MHz bandwidth.

4.3.4 Others
DL TBS index optimization, with index 26A introduced, for TM9-capable UEs requires that
the alternativeTBS-Indices-r12 IE in UE capability information be set to supported.

4.4 Operation and Maintenance

4.4.1 Data Configuration

4.4.1.1 Data Preparation


Basic modulation schemes do not require parameter settings for activation, but they can be
optimized using the parameter described in Table 4-1.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 4 Basic Modulation Schemes

Table 4-1 Parameters used for optimization


Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

DL Scheduling CellAlgoSwitch.D MIMO_TBSIZE_ You are advised to select


Extension Switch lSchExtSwitch OPT_SWITCH this option for cells with a
2-CRS-port configuration.

4.4.1.2 Using MML Commands

Activation Command Examples


MML commands are not required for activating this function.

Optimization Command Examples


//Enabling DL TBS index optimization with index 26A introduced
MOD CellAlgoSwitch:LOCALCELLID=0,DlSchExtSwitch=MIMO_TBSIZE_OPT_SWITCH-1;

Deactivation Command Examples


N/A

4.4.1.3 Using the CME


For detailed operations, see CME-based Feature Configuration.

4.4.2 Activation Verification


To check whether DL TBS index optimization with index 26A introduced has taken effect,
perform the following steps:

Step 1 Start a Uu interface tracing task on the U2020 client.

Step 2 Run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command to enable DL TBS index optimization with
index 26A introduced.
Step 3 Check the RRC_CONN_RECFG message in the Uu interface tracing result. If the PDSCH-
Config IE in the message contains the PDSCH-ConfigDedicated-v1280 field whose value is
a26, DL TBS index optimization with index 26A introduced has taken effect when DL
64QAM is used.

----End

4.4.3 Network Monitoring


N/A

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 5 UL 64QAM

5 UL 64QAM

5.1 Principles
UL 64QAM is an enhanced UL modulation scheme. It is enabled if the
PUSCHCfg.Qam64Enabled parameter is set to BOOLEAN_TRUE. This modulation
scheme will then be used for UL 64QAM-capable UEs whose UL channel quality is
favorable. After UL 64QAM is enabled, the PUSCHCfg.R12Qam64Enabled parameter can
be set to BOOLEAN_TRUE to prevent compatibility issues with UEs that comply with
3GPP Release 12 or later.

5.2 Network Analysis

5.2.1 Benefits
UL 64QAM offers the following benefits:

l Increased UL spectral efficiency for UEs in the cell center and, therefore, increased
average UL user-perceived throughput for these UEs
l Increased UL peak cell throughput

The gains vary with the radio channel quality. They range from 0% to 39% when radio
conditions are favorable (for example, MCS 24 is selected for UL transmission more than 5%
of the time, according to 24-hour statistics) and there is a high penetration rate of UL
64QAM-capable UEs on the live network. Therefore, it is recommended that UL 64QAM be
enabled in this situation.

5.2.2 Impacts

Network Impacts
After UL 64QAM takes effect, interference to neighboring cells slightly increases. The higher
the percentage of times UL 64QAM is selected for cell-center UEs, the higher the interference
to neighboring cells. In addition, the Cell Uplink Average Throughput of the neighboring
cells may decrease.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 5 UL 64QAM

Function Impacts
RAT Function Function Reference Description
Name Switch

FDD eMTC EMTC_SWITC eMTC eMTC-capable UEs do


TDD introduction H option of the not support UL 64QAM.
CellEmtcAlgo.E
mtcAlgoSwitch
parameter

FDD UMTS and UL_SPECTRU UMTS and LTE With UMTS and LTE
LTE spectrum M_SHARING Spectrum spectrum sharing, the
sharing option of the Sharing LTE system is exposed to
SpectrumCloud. interference from the
SpectrumCloudS UMTS system. The
witch parameter interference may cause
decreases in the
proportion of times UL
64QAM is selected and
also in the gains provided
by UL 64QAM.

FDD GSM and GL_SPECTRU GSM and LTE With GSM and LTE
LTE spectrum M_CONCURRE Spectrum spectrum concurrency,
concurrency NCY option of Concurrency the LTE system is
the exposed to interference
SpectrumCloud. from the GSM system.
SpectrumCloudS The interference may
witch parameter cause decreases in the
proportion of times UL
64QAM is selected and
also in the gains provided
by UL 64QAM.

5.3 Requirements

5.3.1 Licenses
RAT Feature ID Feature Name Model Sales Unit

FDD LOFD-00100 UL 64QAM LT1SU64QAM per cell


6 00

TDD TDLOFD-001 UL 64QAM LT1ST64QAM per cell


006 00

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 5 UL 64QAM

5.3.2 Software

Prerequisite Functions
None

Mutually Exclusive Functions


None

5.3.3 Hardware

Base Station Models


For FDD, the following base stations are compatible with this function:

l 3900 and 5900 series base stations


l DBS3900 LampSite and DBS5900 LampSite
l BTS3912E
l BTS3911E

For TDD, the following base stations are compatible with this function:

l 3900 and 5900 series base stations


l DBS3900 LampSite and DBS5900 LampSite

Boards
No requirements

RF Modules
No requirements

5.3.4 Others
UEs must support UL 64QAM.

5.4 Operation and Maintenance

5.4.1 Data Configuration

5.4.1.1 Data Preparation


Table 5-1 describes the parameters used for function activation.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 5 UL 64QAM

Table 5-1 Parameters used for activation


Parameter Name Parameter ID Setting Notes

Qam64 enabled PUSCHCfg.Qam To enable UL 64QAM in a cell, set this


64Enabled parameter to BOOLEAN_TRUE.

R12 UL 64QAM PUSCHCfg.R12Q You are advised to set this parameter to


Enabled am64Enabled BOOLEAN_TRUE if the
PUSCHCfg.Qam64Enabled parameter is set to
BOOLEAN_TRUE.

5.4.1.2 Using MML Commands

Activation Command Examples


//Enabling UL 64QAM and UE compatibility resolution
MOD PUSCHCFG:LOCALCELLID=0,QAM64ENABLED=BOOLEAN_TRUE,R12Qam64Enabled=BOOLEAN_TRUE;

Optimization Command Examples


N/A

Deactivation Command Examples


//Disabling UL 64QAM and UE compatibility resolution
MOD
PUSCHCFG:LOCALCELLID=0,QAM64ENABLED=BOOLEAN_FALSE,R12Qam64Enabled=BOOLEAN_FALSE;

5.4.1.3 Using the CME


For detailed operations, see CME-based Feature Configuration.

5.4.2 Activation Verification


Monitor the L.Traffic.UL.SCH.64QAM.TB counter. If this counter produces a non-zero
value, UL 64QAM has taken effect.

5.4.3 Network Monitoring


Average UL user-perceived throughput = L.Thrp.bits.UE.UL.Experienced/
L.Thrp.Time.UE.UL.Experienced
Compare the throughput values before and after UL 64QAM is activated to determine the
function benefit.

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

6 DL 256QAM

6.1 Principles

6.1.1 CQI Table Setting


After 3GPP introduced DL 256QAM, a total of two CQI tables are available. During DL
scheduling, an eNodeB selects a CQI table depending on the
CellDlschAlgo.Dl256QamCqiTblCfgStrategy parameter.
l If this parameter is set to ADAPTIVE_CONFIG, the eNodeB adaptively selects the
CQI table with 256QAM or the CQI table without 256QAM for 256QAM-capable UEs
based on the MCS.
l If this parameter is set to CQI_BASED_ADAPTIVE_CONFIG, the eNodeB
adaptively selects the CQI table with 256QAM or the CQI table without 256QAM for
256QAM-capable UEs based on the CQI and MCS.
l If this parameter is set to FIX_CONFIG, the eNodeB always uses the CQI table with
256QAM for 256QAM-capable UEs.
The CQI table with 256QAM references fewer low-order TBSs (TBSs with indexes 1, 3,
5, 7, and 9 are not supported) than the CQI table without 256QAM. Therefore, this
parameter setting may result in decreases in the DL rates of QPSK-based services for
256QAM-capable UEs.
When either of the two adaptive selection policies is used, the eNodeB adaptively switches to
the CQI table without 256QAM for 256QAM-capable UEs if channel quality deteriorates.
This switching maintains the DL rates of QPSK-based services on these UEs, but it requires
additional RRC signaling for the eNodeB to notify the UEs of the CQI table used.

6.1.2 DL 256QAM-related Scheduling Process


Figure 6-1 illustrates how the eNodeB determines to use DL 256QAM.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

Figure 6-1 DL 256QAM-related scheduling process

1. The eNodeB checks whether the DL 256QAM switch is on.


– If the Dl256QamSwitch option of the CellAlgoSwitch.Dl256QamAlgoSwitch
parameter is selected, the eNodeB performs 2.
– If the Dl256QamSwitch option of the CellAlgoSwitch.Dl256QamAlgoSwitch
parameter is deselected, the eNodeB selects QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM for the UE
based on channel quality.
2. The eNodeB checks whether the UE meets the requirements for DL 256QAM.
The use of DL 256QAM requires that UEs be of the capabilities of category 11 or higher,
comply with 3GPP Release 12 or later, and support the DL 256QAM modulation
scheme.
– If the UE meets the requirements, the eNodeB goes to 3.
– If the UE does not meet the requirements, the eNodeB selects QPSK, 16QAM, or
64QAM for the UE based on channel quality.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

3. The eNodeB checks whether fixed CQI table selection has been enabled.
– If fixed selection has been enabled, the eNodeB always selects the CQI table with
256QAM for the UE.
– If adaptive selection (either based on MCS or based on the CQI and MCS) has been
enabled, the eNodeB periodically determines whether to use the CQI table with
256QAM or the CQI table without 256QAM for the UE based on channel quality.
The period is specified by the CellDlschAlgo.Dl256QamCqiTblAdpPeriod
parameter.
n If this parameter is set to a smaller value, the eNodeB tracks channel quality
changes more frequently for adaptive CQI table selection, resulting in a higher
DL rate. However, RRC connection reconfiguration messages are sent more
frequently. This increases the probability of service drops.
n If this parameter is set to a larger value, the eNodeB tracks channel quality
changes less frequently for adaptive CQI table selection, resulting in a lower
DL rate. However, RRC connection reconfiguration messages are sent less
frequently. This reduces the probability of service drops.
4. The eNodeB performs scheduling based on channel quality and the selected CQI table.
NOTE

The highest-order modulation scheme for evolved multimedia broadcast/multicast service (eMBMS) in
the DL is 64QAM. Therefore, the MCS table without 256QAM is used during scheduling of eMBMS
services.

DL TBS index optimization with index 33A introduced takes effect for TM9-capable UEs if
the MIMO_TBSIZE_OPT_SWITCH option of the CellAlgoSwitch.DlSchExtSwitch
parameter is selected. For TM9-capable UEs that meet channel condition requirements, the
eNodeB sends RRC messages to inform these UEs that the TBS of index 33A can be used,
and also uses this TBS for DL data transmission.

DL TBS index optimization with index 33B introduced takes effect for UEs capable of TM1,
TM2, TM3, TM4, TM6, or TM7, if the Dl256QamTbsIndexExtSwitch option of the
CellAlgoSwitch.Dl256QamAlgoSwitch parameter is selected. For
TM1/TM2/TM3/TM4/TM6/TM7-capable UEs that meet channel condition requirements, the
eNodeB sends RRC messages to inform these UEs that the TBS of index 33B can be used,
and also uses this TBS for DL data transmission.

6.2 Network Analysis

6.2.1 Benefits
DL 256QAM offers the following benefits:

l Increased DL spectral efficiency for UEs in the cell center and therefore increased User
Downlink Average Throughput of these UEs
l Increased DL peak cell throughput

The increases vary depending on radio channel quality, the EVM of RF signals sent by
eNodeBs, and the EVM of signals received by UEs. The increases range from 0% to 30%
when radio conditions are favorable and the use of DL 64QAM has achieved the network
capacity limit to which DL 64QAM can contribute. You may infer that the limit has been
reached when MCS 28, the largest MCS index mapped to 64QAM, has been selected for DL

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

transmission on a large proportion (for example, more than 30%) of occasions. Therefore, it is
recommended that DL 256QAM be enabled in this situation.

When TBS index 33A is selected for TM9-capable UEs in the cell center, the DL peak
throughput of these UEs increases by 3%–5%.

When TBS index 33B is selected for cell-center UEs capable of TM1, TM2, TM3, TM4,
TM6, or TM7, the DL peak throughput of these UEs increases by 0.4%–3%.

6.2.2 Impacts

Network Impacts
l Impact on User Downlink Average Throughput in special scenarios
Due to non-linear TBSs introduced in 3GPP specifications, using DL 256QAM instead
of DL 64QAM may decrease User Downlink Average Throughput at locations where
the SINR reaches a certain value.
For example, assume that cell bandwidth is 20 MHz and there is one PDCCH symbol per
subframe. If the eNodeB uses the CQI and MCS tables without 256QAM for a UE at a
location where the SINR reaches a certain value, the eNodeB may select DL 64QAM
and TBS index 26, which indicates a TBS of 75,376 bits. In this case, no block error
occurs. However, if the eNodeB uses the CQI and MCS tables with 256QAM, the
eNodeB has to select TBS index 29 because TBS index 26 is unavailable. TBS index 29
indicates a TBS of 73,712 bits. In this scenario, there will be block errors, resulting in a
decrease of approximately 4% in throughput when DL 256QAM is in use.
l Impact on the average CQI and average MCS index
When adaptive CQI table selection (either based on the MCS or based on the CQI and
MCS) takes effect:
– The number of CQI reports sent by UEs for which DL 256QAM is used is
measured by counters L.ChMeas.DL.256QAM.CQI.DL.0–L.ChMeas.DL.
256QAM.CQI.DL.15 and also by counters L.ChMeas.CQI.DL.0–
L.ChMeas.CQI.DL.15. With the modulation scheme unchanged, the CQI values
reported by UEs according to the 3GPP-defined CQI table with 256QAM are
smaller than those reported according to the CQI table without 256QAM. As a
result, the average CQI value calculated by using counters L.ChMeas.CQI.DL.0–
L.ChMeas.CQI.DL.15 decreases slightly.
– The number of times MCSs indicating 256QAM are selected for these UEs is
measured by counters within the range of L.ChMeas.PDSCH.DL.256QAM.MCS.
0–L.ChMeas.PDSCH.DL.256QAM.MCS.31. Therefore, the average MCS index
value calculated by using counters L.ChMeas.PDSCH.MCS.0–
L.ChMeas.PDSCH.MCS.31 decreases slightly.
The decreases are determined by the proportion of times DL 256QAM is selected. The
higher the proportion, the larger the decreases.
l Impact on the DL IBLER
For TDD, when adaptive CQI table selection (either based on the MCS or based on the
CQI and MCS) takes effect, 256QAM is now used for UEs for which 64QAM was
originally used and the DL IBLER was low. As a result, the DL IBLER increases. The
increase is dependent on the proportion of times DL 256QAM is selected. The higher the
proportion, the larger the increase.
l Impact on other relevant counters

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

For TDD, using DL 256QAM for UEs increases average spectral efficiency for the UEs
and decreases the proportion of UEs in the beamforming state. A larger proportion of
UEs for which DL 256QAM is used results in larger decreases in the values of the
following counters:
– L.Traffic.DL.SCH.TB.TM7.bits and L.Traffic.DL.SCH.TB.TM8.bits
– L.Traffic.DL.SCH.TB.TM7 and L.Traffic.DL.SCH.TB.TM8
– L.ChMeas.PRB.TM7 and L.ChMeas.PRB.TM8
– L.ChMeas.BF.PRB.OL.Rank1 and L.ChMeas.BF.PRB.OL.Rank2
– L.Traffic.DL.SCH.TB.BF.Rank1 and L.Traffic.DL.SCH.TB.BF.Rank2

Function Impacts
RAT Function Function Reference Description
Name Switch

FDD Downlink 4x4 None MIMO For UEs that support


TDD MIMO both DL 4x4 multiple-
input multiple-output
(MIMO) and DL
256QAM, DL 256QAM
may fail to take effect
after the UEs enter the
4x4 MIMO state. The
gains brought by the DL
256QAM function
decrease, even to zero.

FDD UMTS and UL_SPECTRU UMTS and LTE With UMTS and LTE
LTE spectrum M_SHARING Spectrum spectrum sharing, the
sharing option of the Sharing LTE system is exposed to
SpectrumCloud. interference from the
SpectrumCloudS UMTS system. The
witch parameter interference may cause
decreases in the
proportion of times DL
256QAM is selected and
also in the gains provided
by DL 256QAM.

FDD GSM and GL_SPECTRU GSM and LTE With GSM and LTE
LTE spectrum M_CONCURRE Spectrum spectrum concurrency,
concurrency NCY option of Concurrency the LTE system is
the exposed to interference
SpectrumCloud. from the GSM system.
SpectrumCloudS The interference may
witch parameter cause decreases in the
proportion of times DL
256QAM is selected and
also in the gains provided
by DL 256QAM.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

RAT Function Function Reference Description


Name Switch

TDD DL CoMP IntraDlCompSw DL CoMP UEs for which DL


cell itch, (TDD) 256QAM has taken
InterDlCompDc effect are not selected as
sSwitch, and coordinating UEs for
InterDlCompCb coordinated
fSwitch options beamforming (CBF) in
of the DL CoMP.
CellAlgoSwitch.
DlCompSwitch
parameter

FDD Short TTI SHORT_TTI_S Short TTI UEs scheduled in short


W option of the (FDD) TTI mode do not support
CellShortTtiAlg DL 256QAM.
o.SttiAlgoSwitch
parameter

FDD DL CoMP FDDHomNetDl DL CoMP When the


cell CompSwitch, (FDD) CellDlschAlgo.Dl256Qa
FDDHetNetDlC mCqiTblCfgStrategy
ompSwitch, and parameter is set to
Tm9JtSwitch ADAPTIVE_CONFIG
options of the or
CellAlgoSwitch. CQI_BASED_ADAPTI
DlCompSwitch VE_CONFIG for a cell,
parameter UEs for which DL
256QAM is used cannot
be selected for joint
transmission (JT).

6.3 Requirements

6.3.1 Licenses
RAT Feature ID Feature Name Model Sales Unit

FDD LEOFD-1103 DL 256QAM LT1SDL256QA per cell


01 M

TDD TDLEOFD-1 DL 256QAM LT1S256QAM0 per cell


10515 0

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

6.3.2 Software
Prerequisite Functions
None

Mutually Exclusive Functions


None

6.3.3 Hardware
Base Station Models
For FDD, the following base stations are compatible with this function:
l 3900 and 5900 series base stations
l DBS3900 LampSite and DBS5900 LampSite
l BTS3912E
l BTS3911E
For TDD, the following base stations are compatible with this function:
l 3900 and 5900 series base stations
l DBS3900 LampSite and DBS5900 LampSite

NOTE

l DL TBS index optimization, with index 33A introduced, for TM9-capable UEs can be used only for
3900 and 5900 series base stations.
l DL TBS index optimization, with index 33B introduced, for TM1/TM2/TM3/TM4/TM6/TM7-
capable UEs can be used for the following base stations:
l 3900 and 5900 series base stations
l DBS3900 LampSite and DBS5900 LampSite
l BTS3912E
l BTS3911E

Boards
For FDD, the baseband processing unit (BBP) must not be LBBPc.
For TDD, the BBP must not be LBBPc or LBBPd.

RF Modules
For FDD, the eNodeB must be equipped with RF modules that meet the following conditions:
The Description field of the DSP BRDMFRINFO command output, indicating the RF
module type, is V3, V6, KUNLUN, KL, WUYI, WY, or AAU. Examples of these RF
modules are RRU3952 and RRU3959. (Before running the DSP BRDMFRINFO command,
operators must run the DSP CELLPHYTOPO command to obtain the cabinet, subrack, and
slot numbers of the RF modules.)
For TDD, there are no requirements.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

Cells
DL TBS index optimization with indexes 33A and 33B introduced can be used only in cells
with a 10 MHz, 15 MHz, or 20 MHz bandwidth.

6.3.4 Others
UEs must comply with 3GPP Release 12 or later and support the DL 256QAM modulation
scheme.

DL TBS index optimization, with index 33A introduced, for TM9-capable UEs requires that
the alternativeTBS-Indices-r12 IE in UE capability information be set to supported.

DL TBS index optimization, with index 33B introduced, for TM1/TM2/TM3/TM4/TM6/


TM7-capable UEs requires that these UEs comply with 3GPP Release 14 and the
alternativeTBS-Index-r14 IE in UE capability information be set to supported.

DL 256QAM does not work with the Radio Frequency Access (RFA) application in which
LTE RF signals are input into LampSite base stations.

6.4 Operation and Maintenance

6.4.1 Data Configuration (FDD)

6.4.1.1 Data Preparation


Table 6-1 and Table 6-2 describe the parameters used for function activation and
optimization, respectively.

Table 6-1 Parameters used for activation

Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

Downlink CellAlgoSwitch.D Dl256QamSwitch You are advised to select


256QAM l256QamAlgoSwit this option.
Algorithm Switch ch

Table 6-2 Parameters used for optimization

Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

DL 256QAM CQI CellDlschAlgo.Dl N/A Set this parameter to its


Table Configure 256QamCqiTblCf recommended value.
Strategy gStrategy

DL 256QAM CQI CellDlschAlgo.Dl N/A Set this parameter to its


Table Adaptive 256QamCqiTblAd recommended value.
Period pPeriod

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

DL Scheduling CellAlgoSwitch.D MIMO_TBSIZE_ You are advised to select


Extension Switch lSchExtSwitch OPT_SWITCH this option for cells with a
2-CRS-port configuration.

Downlink CellAlgoSwitch.D Dl256QamTbsIn You are advised to select


256QAM l256QamAlgoSwit dexExtSwitch this option. With this
Algorithm Switch ch option selected, it is
recommended that the
CellDlschAlgo.PdschMa
xCodeRate parameter be
set to R14_0DOT932.

6.4.1.2 Using MML Commands

Activation Command Examples


//Enabling DL 256QAM
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMALGOSWITCH=Dl256QamSwitch-1;

Optimization Command Examples


//Enabling adaptive CQI table selection
MOD CELLDLSCHALGO:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMCQITBLCFGSTRATEGY=ADAPTIVE_CONFIG;
//Setting the CQI table adaption period to 10s
MOD CELLDLSCHALGO:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMCQITBLADPPERIOD=10;
//Enabling DL TBS index optimization with index 33A introduced
MOD CellAlgoSwitch:LOCALCELLID=0,DlSchExtSwitch=MIMO_TBSIZE_OPT_SWITCH-1;
//Enabling DL TBS index optimization with index 33B introduced
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMALGOSWITCH=Dl256QamTbsIndexExtSwitch-1;

Deactivation Command Examples


//Disabling DL 256QAM
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMALGOSWITCH=Dl256QamSwitch-0;

6.4.1.3 Using the CME


l Fast batch activation
This function can be batch activated using the Feature Operation and Maintenance
function of the CME. For detailed operations, see the following section in the CME
product documentation or online help: CME Management > CME Guidelines >
Enhanced Feature Management > Feature Operation and Maintenance.
l Single/batch configuration
This function can be activated for a single eNodeB or a batch of eNodeBs on the CME.
For detailed operations, see CME-based Feature Configuration.

6.4.2 Data Configuration (TDD)

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

6.4.2.1 Data Preparation


Table 6-3 and Table 6-4 describe the parameters used for function activation and
optimization, respectively.

Table 6-3 Parameters used for activation


Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

Downlink CellAlgoSwitch.D Dl256QamSwitch You are advised to select


256QAM l256QamAlgoSwit this option.
Algorithm Switch ch

Table 6-4 Parameters used for optimization


Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

DL 256QAM CQI CellDlschAlgo.Dl N/A Set this parameter to its


Table Configure 256QamCqiTblCf recommended value.
Strategy gStrategy

DL 256QAM CQI CellDlschAlgo.Dl N/A Set this parameter to its


Table Adaptive 256QamCqiTblAd recommended value.
Period pPeriod

DL Scheduling CellAlgoSwitch.D MIMO_TBSIZE_ You are advised to select


Extension Switch lSchExtSwitch OPT_SWITCH this option for cells with a
2-CRS-port configuration.

MIMO UE PA CellAlgoSwitch. N/A The value ON is


Adaptation Switch MimoUePaAdapt recommended.
Sw

Downlink CellAlgoSwitch.D Dl256QamTbsIn You are advised to select


256QAM l256QamAlgoSwit dexExtSwitch this option. With this
Algorithm Switch ch option selected, it is
recommended that the
CellDlschAlgo.PdschMa
xCodeRate parameter be
set to R14_0DOT932.

6.4.2.2 Using MML Commands

Activation Command Examples


//Enabling DL 256QAM
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMALGOSWITCH=Dl256QamSwitch-1;

Optimization Command Examples


//Enabling adaptive CQI table selection
MOD CELLDLSCHALGO:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMCQITBLCFGSTRATEGY=ADAPTIVE_CONFIG;

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

//Setting the CQI table adaption period to 10s


MOD CELLDLSCHALGO:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMCQITBLADPPERIOD=10;
//Enabling DL TBS index optimization with index 33A introduced
MOD CellAlgoSwitch:LOCALCELLID=0,DlSchExtSwitch=MIMO_TBSIZE_OPT_SWITCH-1;
//Enabling DL TBS index optimization with index 33B introduced
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMALGOSWITCH=Dl256QamTbsIndexExtSwitch-1;
//Enabling adaptive PA adjustment for MIMO UEs
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,MimoUePaAdaptSw=ON;

Deactivation Command Examples


//Disabling DL 256QAM
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,DL256QAMALGOSWITCH=Dl256QamSwitch-0;

6.4.2.3 Using the CME


For detailed operations, see CME-based Feature Configuration.

6.4.3 Activation Verification


Monitor the following counters. If the value of any counter is greater than 0, DL 256QAM has
taken effect.

Table 6-5 Counters related to DL 256QAM


Counter ID Counter Name

1526739656 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB

1526739657 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB.bits

1526739658 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB.Retrans

1526739659 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB.Retrans.bits

1526739660 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Ibler

1526739661 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Rbler

1526739662 to L.ChMeas.DL.256QAM.CQI.DL.0 to L.ChMeas.DL.


1526739677 256QAM.CQI.DL.15

1526739682 to L.ChMeas.PDSCH.DL.256QAM.MCS.0 to
1526739713 L.ChMeas.PDSCH.DL.256QAM.MCS.31

1526739719 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB.NACK

1526741865 L.CA.PCell.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB

1526741866 L.CA.SCell.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB

1526741867 L.CA.PCell.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Ibler

1526741868 L.CA.SCell.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Ibler

1526741869 L.CA.PCell.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Rbler

1526741870 L.CA.SCell.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Rbler

1526741862 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB.QCI.1

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

Counter ID Counter Name

1526741863 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB.Retrans.QCI.1

1526741864 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Ibler.QCI.1

1526741857 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.DRB.TB

1526741858 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.DRB.TB.Retrans

1526741859 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.DRB.ErrTB.Ibler

1526741860 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.DRB.ErrTB.Rbler

1526741861 L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.bits.Rbler

To check whether DL TBS index optimization has taken effect, perform the following steps:

Step 1 Start a Uu interface tracing task on the U2020 client.


Step 2 When DL 256QAM has taken effect, run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command to
enable DL TBS index optimization with indexes 33A and 33B introduced.
Step 3 Check the RRC_CONN_RECFG message in the Uu interface tracing result. If the PDSCH-
Config IE in the message contains the PDSCH-ConfigDedicated-v1280 field whose value is
a33, DL TBS index optimization with index 33A introduced has taken effect when DL
256QAM is used. If the PDSCH-Config IE in the message contains the PDSCH-
ConfigDedicatedSCell-v1430 field whose value is b33, DL TBS index optimization with
index 33B introduced has taken effect when DL 256QAM is used.

----End
To check how long the eNodeB uses the CQI table with 256QAM in the downlink for a
specific UE, perform the following steps:

Step 1 Check RRC connection reconfiguration messages sent by the eNodeB to the UE. Find the first
message in which the IE CQI-ReportConfig contains the field altCQI-Table-r12. The presence
of this field indicates that the eNodeB starts using the CQI table with 256QAM in the
downlink for the UE.
Step 2 Check RRC connection reconfiguration messages sent by the eNodeB to the UE after the
previous message. Find the first message in which the IE CQI-ReportConfig no longer
contains the field altCQI-Table-r12. The absence of this field indicates that the eNodeB stops
using the CQI table with 256QAM and starts to use the CQI table without 256QAM in the
downlink for the UE.
Step 3 Take the interval between the two messages as a period within which the eNodeB uses the
CQI table with 256QAM in the downlink for the UE.
Step 4 Take the sum of such periods as the total duration.

----End

6.4.4 Network Monitoring


Before activating DL 256QAM, operators can predict the proportion of times the DL
256QAM modulation scheme will be selected by calculating the total proportion of times

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 6 DL 256QAM

MCSs 27 and 28 indicating DL 64QAM have been selected. This is because, according to
3GPP TS 36.213, these two proportions are expected to be similar. Note that the UEs for
which MCS 28 has been selected will benefit the most from the DL 256QAM function.
After DL 256QAM is activated in a cell, the probabilities of DL UE throughput in high
throughput ranges and Cell Downlink Average Throughput will increase with the
proportion of times DL 256QAM is selected during scheduling.
l Proportion of times DL 256QAM has been selected during scheduling
Proportion = L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB/(L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB +
L.Traffic.DL.SCH.64QAM.TB + L.Traffic.DL.SCH.16QAM.TB +
L.Traffic.DL.SCH.QPSK.TB)
l Probability of DL UE throughput in each throughput range
Probability of DL UE throughput in throughput range n (n = 0–9) =
L.Thrp.DL.BitRate.Samp.Indexn/sum(L.Thrp.DL.BitRate.Samp.Index0 to
L.Thrp.DL.BitRate.Samp.Index9)
l DL IBLER
DL IBLER = (L.Traffic.DL.SCH.QPSK.ErrTB.Ibler + L.Traffic.DL.SCH.
16QAM.ErrTB.Ibler + L.Traffic.DL.SCH.64QAM.ErrTB.Ibler +
L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.ErrTB.Ibler)/(L.Traffic.DL.SCH.QPSK.TB +
L.Traffic.DL.SCH.16QAM.TB + L.Traffic.DL.SCH.64QAM.TB +
L.Traffic.DL.SCH.256QAM.TB)

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

7.1 Principles

7.1.1 MCS Table Setting


After 3GPP introduced UL 256QAM, a total of two UL MCS tables are available. During UL
scheduling, an eNodeB can either adaptively select an MCS table or use a fixed MCS table,
depending on the PUSCHCfg.Ul256QamMcsTblCfgStrategy parameter.
l If this parameter is set to ADAPTIVE_CONFIGURATION, adaptive MCS table
selection takes effect. The eNodeB adaptively selects the MCS table with UL 256QAM
or the MCS table without UL 256QAM for 256QAM-capable UEs based on the
evaluated channel quality.
If channel quality deteriorates for 256QAM-capable UEs, the eNodeB switches to the
MCS table without UL 256QAM, maintaining the UL rates of QPSK-based services on
the UEs. Therefore, this setting is recommended.
As the eNodeB must use RRC signaling to notify UEs of the MCS table used, this setting
increases RRC signaling overhead.
l If this parameter is set to FIXED_CONFIGURATION, the eNodeB always uses the
MCS table with UL 256QAM for 256QAM-capable UEs.
The MCS table with UL 256QAM references fewer low-order TBSs (TBSs with indexes
1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 are not supported) than the MCS table without UL 256QAM. Therefore,
this parameter setting may result in decreases in the UL rates of QPSK-based services for
256QAM-capable UEs.

7.1.2 UL 256QAM-related Scheduling Process


Figure 7-1 illustrates how the eNodeB determines to use UL 256QAM.

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eRAN
Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

Figure 7-1 UL 256QAM-related scheduling process

1. The eNodeB checks whether the UL 256QAM switch is on.


– If the UL_256QAM_SWITCH option of the PUSCHCfg.Ul256QamAlgoSwitch
parameter is selected, the eNodeB performs 2.
– If the UL_256QAM_SWITCH option of the PUSCHCfg.Ul256QamAlgoSwitch
parameter is deselected, the eNodeB selects QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM for the UE
based on channel quality.
2. The eNodeB checks whether the UE meets the requirements for UL 256QAM.
The use of UL 256QAM requires that UEs be of the capabilities of category 16 or higher,
comply with 3GPP Release 14 or later, and support the UL 256QAM modulation
scheme.
– If the UE meets the requirements, the eNodeB goes to 3.
– If the UE does not meet the requirements, the eNodeB selects QPSK, 16QAM, or
64QAM for the UE based on channel quality.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

3. The eNodeB checks whether adaptive MCS table selection has been enabled.
– If adaptive selection has been disabled, the eNodeB always selects the MCS table
with UL 256QAM for the UE.
– If adaptive selection has been enabled, the eNodeB periodically determines whether
to use the MCS table with UL 256QAM or the MCS table without UL 256QAM for
the UE based on channel quality. The period is specified by the
PUSCHCfg.Ul256QamMcsTblAdpPeriod parameter.
n If this parameter is set to a smaller value, the eNodeB tracks channel quality
changes more frequently for adaptive MCS table selection, resulting in a
higher UL rate. However, RRC connection reconfiguration messages are sent
more frequently. This increases the probability of service drops.
n If this parameter is set to a larger value, the eNodeB tracks channel quality
changes less frequently for adaptive MCS table selection, resulting in a lower
UL rate. However, RRC connection reconfiguration messages are sent less
frequently. This reduces the probability of service drops.
4. The eNodeB performs scheduling based on channel quality and the selected UL MCS
table.

7.2 Network Analysis

7.2.1 Benefits
UL 256QAM offers the following benefits:

l Increased UL spectral efficiency for UEs in the cell center and therefore increased User
Uplink Average Throughput of these UEs
l Increased UL peak cell throughput

The increases vary depending on radio channel quality, the EVM of RF signals sent by UEs,
and the EVM of signals received by eNodeBs. The increases range from 0% to 40% when
radio conditions are favorable and the use of UL 64QAM has achieved the network capacity
limit to which UL 64QAM can contribute. You may infer that the limit has been reached
when MCS 28, the largest MCS index mapped to 64QAM, has been selected for UL
transmission on a large proportion (for example, more than 30%) of occasions. Therefore, it is
recommended that UL 256QAM be enabled in this situation.

7.2.2 Impacts

Network Impacts
When adaptive MCS table selection takes effect, the number of times MCSs indicating UL
256QAM are selected during scheduling is measured by counters L.ChMeas.PUSCH.
256QAM.MCS.0–L.ChMeas.PUSCH.256QAM.MCS.31. Therefore, the average MCS
index value calculated by using counters L.ChMeas.PUSCH.MCS.0–
L.ChMeas.PUSCH.MCS.31 decreases slightly.

Function Impacts
None

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

7.3 Requirements

7.3.1 Licenses
RAT Feature ID Feature Name Model Sales Unit

TDD TDLEOFD-1 UL 256QAM LT4SUL256TD per cell


51605 D

7.3.2 Software
Prerequisite Functions
None

Mutually Exclusive Functions


RAT Function Name Function Switch Reference

TDD Extended CP Cell.ULCyclicPref Extended CP


ix

TDD eMTC EMTC_SWITCH eMTC


introduction option of the
CellEmtcAlgo.E
mtcAlgoSwitch
parameter

7.3.3 Hardware
Base Station Models
For TDD, only 3900 and 5900 series base stations are compatible with this function.

Boards
For TDD, the following BBPs are compatible with this function:
l UBBPf1
l UBBPfw1
l UBBPf3

RF Modules
No requirements

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

7.3.4 Others
UEs must comply with 3GPP Release 14 or later and support the UL 256QAM modulation
scheme.

7.4 Operation and Maintenance

7.4.1 Data Configuration

7.4.1.1 Data Preparation


Table 7-1 and Table 7-2 describe the parameters used for function activation and
optimization, respectively.

Table 7-1 Parameters used for activation

Parameter Name Parameter ID Option Setting Notes

UL 256QAM PUSCHCfg.Ul25 UL_256QAM_S You are advised to select


Algorithm Switch 6QamAlgoSwitch WITCH this option.

Table 7-2 Parameters used for optimization

Parameter Name Parameter ID Setting Notes

UL 256QAM PUSCHCfg.Ul25 Set this parameter to its recommended value.


MCS Table 6QamMcsTblCfgS
Configuration trategy
Strategy

UL 256QAM PUSCHCfg.Ul25 Set this parameter to its recommended value.


MCS Table 6QamMcsTblAdp
Adaptive Period Period

7.4.1.2 Using MML Commands

Activation Command Examples


//Enabling UL 256QAM
MOD PUSCHCFG:LOCALCELLID=0,UL256QAMALGOSWITCH=UL_256QAM_SWITCH-1;

Optimization Command Examples


//Enabling adaptive MCS table selection
MOD PUSCHCFG:LOCALCELLID=0,UL256QAMMCSTBLCFGSTRATEGY=ADAPTIVE_CONFIGURATION;
//Setting the MCS table adaption period to 10s
MOD PUSCHCFG:LOCALCELLID=0,UL256QAMMCSTBLADPPERIOD=10;

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 7 UL 256QAM (TDD)

Deactivation Command Examples


//Disabling UL 256QAM
MOD PUSCHCFG:LOCALCELLID=0,UL256QAMALGOSWITCH=UL_256QAM_SWITCH-0;

7.4.1.3 Using the CME


l Fast batch activation
This function can be batch activated using the Feature Operation and Maintenance
function of the CME. For detailed operations, see the following section in the CME
product documentation or online help: CME Management > CME Guidelines >
Enhanced Feature Management > Feature Operation and Maintenance.
l Single/batch configuration
This function can be activated for a single eNodeB or a batch of eNodeBs on the CME.
For detailed operations, see CME-based Feature Configuration.

7.4.2 Activation Verification


Monitor the following counters. If the value of any counter is greater than 0, UL 256QAM has
taken effect.

Table 7-3 Counters related to UL 256QAM

Counter ID Counter Name

1526749492 to L.ChMeas.PUSCH.256QAM.MCS.0 to
1526749523 L.ChMeas.PUSCH.256QAM.MCS.31

1526749524 L.Traffic.UL.SCH.256QAM.TB

7.4.3 Network Monitoring


Before activating UL 256QAM, operators can predict the proportion of times the UL
256QAM modulation scheme will be selected by calculating the total proportion of times
MCSs 27 and 28 indicating UL 64QAM have been selected. This is because, according to
3GPP TS 36.213, these two proportions are expected to be similar. Note that the UEs for
which MCS 28 has been selected will benefit the most from the UL 256QAM function.

After UL 256QAM is activated in a cell, the probabilities of UL UE throughput in high


throughput ranges and Cell Uplink Average Throughput will increase with the proportion of
times UL 256QAM is selected during scheduling.

l Proportion of times UL 256QAM has been selected during scheduling


Proportion = L.Traffic.UL.SCH.256QAM.TB/(L.Traffic.UL.SCH.256QAM.TB +
L.Traffic.UL.SCH.64QAM.TB + L.Traffic.UL.SCH.16QAM.TB +
L.Traffic.UL.SCH.QPSK.TB)
l Probability of UL UE throughput in each throughput range
Probability of UL UE throughput in throughput range n (n = 0–9) =
L.Thrp.UL.BitRate.Samp.Indexn/sum(L.Thrp.UL.BitRate.Samp.Index0 to
L.Thrp.UL.BitRate.Samp.Index9)

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 8 Parameters

8 Parameters

The following hyperlinked EXCEL files of parameter reference match the software version
with which this document is released.
l Node Parameter Reference: contains device and transport parameters.
l eNodeBFunction Parameter Reference: contains all parameters related to radio access
functions, including air interface management, access control, mobility control, and radio
resource management.
NOTE

You can find the EXCEL files of parameter reference for the software version on the live network from
the product documentation delivered with that version.

FAQ: How do I find the parameters related to a certain feature from parameter
reference?

Step 1 Open the EXCEL file of parameter reference.

Step 2 On the Parameter List sheet, filter the Feature ID column. Click Text Filters and choose
Contains. Enter the feature ID, for example, LOFD-001016 or TDLOFD-001016.
Step 3 Click OK. All parameters related to the feature are displayed.

----End

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 9 Counters

9 Counters

The following hyperlinked EXCEL files of performance counter reference match the software
version with which this document is released.
l Node Performance Counter Summary: contains device and transport counters.
l eNodeBFunction Performance Counter Summary: contains all counters related to radio
access functions, including air interface management, access control, mobility control,
and radio resource management.
NOTE

You can find the EXCEL files of performance counter reference for the software version used on the live
network from the product documentation delivered with that version.

FAQ: How do I find the counters related to a certain feature from performance counter
reference?

Step 1 Open the EXCEL file of performance counter reference.

Step 2 On the Counter Summary(En) sheet, filter the Feature ID column. Click Text Filters and
choose Contains. Enter the feature ID, for example, LOFD-001016 or TDLOFD-001016.
Step 3 Click OK. All counters related to the feature are displayed.

----End

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 10 Glossary

10 Glossary

For the acronyms, abbreviations, terms, and definitions, see Glossary.

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Modulation Schemes Feature Parameter Description 11 Reference Documents

11 Reference Documents

1. 3GPP TS 36.211 V12.8.0: "Physical Channels and Modulation"


2. 3GPP TS 36.213 V12.5.0: "Physical layer procedures"
3. 3GPP TS 36.306 V12.5.0: "User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities"
4. 3GPP TS 36.331 V12.5.0: "Radio Resource Control (RRC)"
5. Scheduling
6. MIMO
7. eMTC
8. UMTS and LTE Spectrum Sharing
9. GSM and LTE Spectrum Concurrency
10. Short TTI (FDD)
11. DL CoMP (FDD)
12. Extended CP
13. DL CoMP (TDD)

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