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ANALYSIS OF DATA - Frequency Polygons.

- Pie Charts.
Data analysis is the most crucial part of any research. Data
analysis summarizes collected data. It involves the
 Bivariate Analysis
interpretation of data gathered through the use of analytical
Bivariate analysis is the simultaneous
and logical reasoning to determine patterns, relationships or
analysis of two variables (attributes). It
explores the concept of relationship
between two variables, whether there
exists an association and the strength of
1. Quantitative Data Analysis this association, or whether there are
In quantitative data analysis you are expected to differences between two variables and
turn raw numbers into meaningful data through the the significance of these differences. For
application of rational and critical thinking. example:
Quantitative data analysis may include the
calculation of frequencies of variables and
differences between variables. A quantitative
approach is usually associated with finding
evidence to either support or reject hypotheses you
have formulated at the earlier stages of your
research process.
 Univariate Analysis
Univariate analysis is the simplest form
 Multivariate Analysis
of analyzing data. “Uni” means “one”,
Based on the statistical principle of
so in other words your data has only one
multivariate statistics, which involves
variable. It doesn’t deal with causes or
observation and analysis of more than
relationships (unlike regression) and it’s
one statistical outcome variable at a
major purpose is to describe; it takes
data, summarizes that data and finds
In design and analysis, the technique is
patterns in the data. For example:
used to perform trade studies across
multiple dimensions while taking into
account the effects of all variables on the
responses of interest.

You have several options for describing

data with univariate data.
- Frequency Distribution Tables.
- Bar Charts.
- Histograms.
2. Qualitative Data Analysis For example in a paper reporting on a study
Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of involving human subjects, there typically appears
processes and procedures whereby we move from a table giving the overall sample size, sample sizes
the qualitative data that have been collected into in important subgroups (e.g., for each treatment or
some form of explanation, understanding or exposure group), and demographic or clinical
interpretation of the people and situations we are characteristics such as the average age, the
investigating. QDA is usually based on an proportion of subjects of each sex, and the
interpretative philosophy. The idea is to examine proportion of subjects with related comorbidities.
the meaningful and symbolic content of qualitative
data. For example, by analyzing interview data the 5. Comparative Analysis
researcher may be attempting to identify any or all The item-by-item comparison of two or more
of: comparable alternatives, processes, products,
qualifications, sets of data, systems, or the like.
- Someone's interpretation of the world,
Side by side examination of two or more
- Why they have that point of view,
alternatives, processes, products, qualifications,
- How they came to that view,
sets of data, systems, etc., to determine if they have
- What they have been doing,
enough common ground, equivalence, or
- How they conveyed their view of their
similarities to permit a meaningful comparative
- How they identify or classify themselves and
others in what they say

3. Normative Data Analysis

Aims at finding out not only how things are, but
above all how they should be, which means that it
will be necessary to define the subjective point of
view that shall be used, in other words to select the
people who shall evaluate the proposals which aim
at improving the object of study

4. Descriptive Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic
features of the data in a study. They provide simple
summaries about the sample and the measures.
Together with simple graphics analysis, they form
the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of

Discipline of quantitatively describing the main

features of a collection of data, or the quantitative
description itself.