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# Experiment 1

## ZIEGLER NICHOLS TUNING

1 OBJECTIVE

Design the P, PI, PID controller for a given transfer function by using Ziegler
Nichols Tuning method.

2 THEORY

Ziegler and Nichols proposed rules for determining values of the proportional
gain, integral time and derivative time based on the transient response characteristics of
a given plant. Such determination of the parameters of PID controllers or tuning of PID
controllers can be made by engineers on-site by experiments on the plant.
There are two methods called Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules: the first method and
second method.

## 2.1 First Method

In the first method, we obtain step response of a plant experimentally. By using
that output curve we have to calculate delay time L and time constant T. The delay time
and time constant are determined by drawing a tangent line at the inflection point of the
(S-shaped) curve.

## Fig.1. Response curve for ZN first method

TABLE.I Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule based on step response of plant

## 2.2 Second Method

In this method we have to calculate critical gain and corresponding time period
of a plant by using Routh Hurwitz Criteria.
3 ZIEGLER NICHOLS MATLAB CODE

## %Hemant Kumar 19530006

%ZIEGLER NICHOLS TUNING
clear all;
close all;
num=[6];
din=[1 6 11 6];
G=tf(num,din) %plant transfer function
figure(1)
step(G)

CL_G=feedback(G,1)
figure(2)
step(CL_G)
Kc=margin(G)% using routh hurwitz criteria we can calculate
Kc=10
T=1.8945
figure(3)

% P controller design
Kp1=0.5*Kc con1=Kp1
com1=series(G,con1);
P_sys=feedback(com1
,1)
hold on

step(P_sys)

% PI controller design
Kp2=0.45*Kc
Ki2=(1/(0.83*T))*Kp2
con2=tf([Kp2 Ki2],[1 0])
com2=series(G,con2);
PI_sys=feedback(com2
,1)
hold on
step(PI_sys)

## % PID controller design

Kp3=0.6*Kc
Ki3=(1/(0.5*T))*Kp3
Kd3=(0.125*T)*Kp3
con3=tf([Kd3 Kp3 Ki3],[1
0]) com3=series(G,con3);
PID_sys=feedback(com3,1
) step(PID_sys)
4 ZIEGLER NICHOLS MATLAB SIMULINK MODEL

Type of

Controller
P 5 ∞ 0

PI 4.5 2.862 0

## Fig.3. unit step response of the system

Fig.4.Unit step response with critical gain Kc=10

## Fig.5. P controller output response

Fig.6. PI controller output response