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South Eastern Railway-

Elec. Genl. Hatia Coaching Depot.



I would like to thank the entire Coaching Depot Hatia, which

has provided me this summer training. I am also thankful to
the Divisional Manager, who organized my training schedule
and also for their benevolent guidance and kind cooperation
throughout my training along with completing this project
report and provided me the various knowledge about their
I also thanks to the workers of respective departments, who
were always ready to clarify my doubts and helped me to
increase my knowledge by illustrating me to the finer points.
I wish to express my deep gratitude to all the concerned
persons, whose enthusiasm, support and co-ordination have
helped me to complete my training in the organization.
I hope that my report will reflect my technical knowledge and
innovativeness, which I gained at South Eastern Railway,
Coaching Depot Hatia.
Indian Railways have 46,038 various types of coaches
(excluding EMUs and MEMU coaches) and around 3000 of new
coaches are being added annually to the system. There are
two classes of the coaches called conventional and LHB being
manufactured at ICF/Perambur and RCF/Kapurthala

There are three power supply systems as existing over Indian

Railways to provide illumination,fan, air-conditioning and other
miscellaneous needs of electricity for travelling passengers.

The following systems of Train Lighting are in use on Indian

Railways coaching stock:
1. End On Generation (EOG
2. Self Generation (SG)
3. Mid On Generation (MOG)

Self Generating (SG) :

2×25 kW alternators for AC coach and 1×4.5 kW for non-AC

coach is mounted underslung, driven by a pulley-belt
arrangement when driving pulley is mounted on coach axle.
Output is rectified and charges 110V DC battery for
continuous power supply to AC and non-AC coaches. AC load of
roof mounted packaged units is supplied by converting DC into
2×25 kVA inverters. This system is followed over trains having
a combination of AC and non-AC coaches.

End-on-Generation (EOG) :

Two power cars each equipped with 2×750 kVA DG sets, one
at each end of the train, supplies 3 phase power at 750 V AC
power to each electrically interconnected air conditioned
coach. The voltage is stepped down to 3 phase 400 V and
supplied to standard voltage equipment on each coach. EOG
system is followed for fully air conditioned train like Rajdhani,
Shatabdi, Duranto, Garib Rath, Premium special trains. Import
of LHB class of coaches from Germany is provided with the
EOG system with a promise to provide SG system design for
indigenous manufacturing.

TOPSG technology given was a complete failure and IR is still

struggling to develop designs for the last 15 years.

Head-on-Generation (HOG) :

Power is supplied from the train locomotive at the head of the

train. The single phase 25 kV transformer of the electric
locomotive is provided with hotel load winding which is
converted to three phase AC at 750 V using 2×500 kVA
inverter and supplied to the same system as that of
EOG. In case of Diesel Locomotive, three phase alternator is
mounted on the traction alternator and feeds the hotel load.
This is the most efficient system as the cost of power is
about 25% less as compared to EOG, but the system is still
under development for the last 30 years. The other class of
trains namely Electrical Multiple Unit and Main Line Electrical
Multiple Units employs the same system for coach lighting.
The system is similar to what is followed in train-set
composition of train having a power unit at head as well as on
tail and power the entire load of the coach for comfort.

Running of mixed LHB design AC and non-AC coach :

There is a need for running a mix of AC and non-AC coaches

with LHB coach design to improve passenger satisfactory,
higher capacity and improved riding with less maintenance.
RCF has already started manufacturing Non-AC LHB and 276
such coaches have gone into service till 31st March 2014 and
working on Northern Railway, North Western Railway,
Western Railway, East Central Railway and Eastern Railway.
The only way to power these coaches is by EOG system as the
SG design not yet successful. The electrical load of the train
is about 250 kW and with a diversity factory of 80%, system
loading will be around 200 kW for which the existing power
cars is of over capacity.
Capital and Maintenance Cost:

The capital and maintenance cost of a large number of under

slung mounted equipment such as alternator, pulley, belt,
Electronic regulator, battery and inverter will get a go bye
with the addition of maintenance cost of four numbers of DG
sets and their panel. It is the total quantity of these items in
SG coaches that makes the difference in all aspects of
reliability and maintainability.

Depending upon the train lighting systems, the

coaches are of following types.
Brushless alternators are axle driven with ‘V’ belt drive,
mounted on the bogies of the AC & TL coaches. These
alternators are of various ratings and make as per
requirement for different type of coaches. 4.5 kW Brush less
alternators are used on Non AC BG Coaches. It consists of a
three-phase heteropolar inductor type Alternator and a static
Rectifier-Cum- Regulator Unit (RRU). Earlier AC coaches
provided with under slung split type AC units were fitted with
two nos. of 18 kW brush less alternators. After the
development of roof mounted AC units (RMPU) and 25 KVA
inverters, 22.75 kW (Optimized) brush less alternator
was developed within the same frame size of 18 kW
alternator. Subsequently 25 KW alternator with new design
was developed for 2 tier and 3 tier AC sleeper coaches with
RMPU and 25 kVA inverters and for AC 1st class one 25 kW
alternator with 25 kVA inverter is provided.
The brushless Alternator with the help of static rectifier cum
regulator unit is capable of developing voltage at the set value
to meet the coach load during journey from minimum speed
for full output (MFO) to maximum speed. The alternator is
used for:
i. Charging the coach batteries.
ii. To meet electrical load i.e. fans, lights, air conditioning,
water-raising apparatus (WRA) etc. in the coach.

4.5 kW brush-less alternator are driven by 4 Nos. sets of

‘V’belt coupled between the axle and the alternator pulley.
alternator pulley is of 200 mm PCD. Belts are kept under
tension by a spring-loaded belt tensioning device.
18kW/ 22.75kW/ 25kW alternators are fitted with 12 Nos.
of deep V-grooved pulleys of 200 mm PCD with six grooves on
each side of the shaft, which is driven by V-belt in
conjunction with an axle pulley.
The rectifier cum regulator unit has mainly following
1) To rectify the 3 phase AC output of the alternator through
DC full wave bridge rectifier.
2) Regulating the voltage generated by the alternator at the
set value.
3) Regulating the output current.

The following types of batteries are provided on under-frame
of AC & non AC Self Generating type and End On Generation
type coaches.

i. 6V/120 Ah flooded type (Mono block cells) on Non AC BG SG

ii. 2V/120 Ah , VRLA cells on Non AC SG (Self Generating)
iii. 2V,1100 Ah 56 cells VRLA 110 V SG AC coaches fitted with
RMPU’s band 25 kVA Inverter.
iv. 2 V, 800 Ah flooded type cells on under -slung mounted
split type AC equipment .
v. 90/120 Ah, 24V on EOG (End On-Generation) type AC
coaches (Emergency batteries for lighting )

=> The 2V,120 Ah TL batteries are used in conjunction with

brushless alternator with suitable Rectifier-cum Regulator of
4.5 kW capacity for train lighting system of TL BG SG type
=>The 2V, 56 cells 800 Ah / 2V, 56 cells 1100 Ah VRLA
batteries are used in conjunction with brushless alternator
with Rectifier-cum-Regulator unit of 18/22.75/25 kW
capacity for AC coaches. 1100 Ah batteries are used on AC
coaches equipped with the Roof Mounted Package type AC
plants. 1100 Ah capacity battery are of the valve regulated
lead acid (VRLA) type which has its inherent advantages like :
-) Topping up with water is not required.
-) Periodical checking of specific gravity is not required.
-) Regular maintenance to avoid sulphation of terminals and
connections not required.
The VRLA batteries are also known as Sealed Maintenance
Free (SMF) batteries.

ICF type design battery box for AC coaches is a fabricated
framework made of mild steel. It is suspended on coach in the
under frame and is provided with front opening doors for
paying attention to batteries.
Special care is taken to provide locking nuts and split pins to
avoid any accidental falling of batteries while running.Battery
box is having improved safety factor coup led with flexibility
to accommodate both makes of VRLA batteries.

BCT(Battery Charging Terminals) :

BCT is provided at the both sides of the coaches for external
charging of the batteries at stations of maintenance lines .

RJB (Rotary Junction Box) :

Rotary Junction Box is provided inside the coach. It is used to
arrange and control the power supply to various circuit of the
coach (e.g. light, fan) with the help of rotary switches and
HRC fuses.

TL Lamps :
25 and 40 Watt lamps are provided in the non AC coaches.
The power supply is at 110 Volt DC. 25 Watt lamps are used in
corridor, light lamp, wash-basin, toilet. 40 W lamps are used
for lights in the coach.
(Fluorescent Tube Light) :
It is a 2 feet long, 20 watt fluorescent tube light provided in
the coach for the light. It works at 110 V DC supply. It gives
better illumination and is being provided in the coaches in
place of TL lamps.

Carriage Fans :
On non AC coaches 400 mm sweep carriage fans are used
where system voltage is 110 DC.
Till recently, Indian Railways have been transporting
passenger traffic mainly through coaches of ICF design.
These coaches are being manufactured at ICF and RCF. A
limited number of these coaches are being manufactured at
BEML/Bangalore also. These type of coaches are having
limitations such as:

i) Speed potential;

ii) Heavy corrosion;

iii) Poor riding comfort;

iv) Wearing of parts in the under gear;

To overcome these limitations, Indian Railways entered into

supply and technology transfer contracts with M/s. ALSTOM
LHB/Germany to initially supply 24 coaches consisting of 19.
AC chair cars, 2 AC Executive Class Chair cars and 3
Generator cum Brake vans. The bogies for these coaches are
manufactured by M/s. FIAT/SIG Switzerland. These coaches
arrived in India and got commissioned in the year 2001 and
put in service on route. These type of coaches are far
superior w.r.t. passenger comfort, safety, speed, corrosion,
maintenance and aesthetics in appearance. These coaches are
also longer as compared to ICF design resulting into more
carrying capacity.

The expected benefits from these type of coaches are as


I. Higher carrying capacity - These coaches are about 2

meters longer than ICF coaches. With this extra length two
additional rows of chairs in chair cars or one additional bay in
sleeper coaches can be accommodated.

II. The weight of LHB coach is lesser as compared to ICF

design coaches. LHB coach can accommodate 72 passengers as
compared to 64 in conventional AC III Tier Coach. Thus giving
better pay to tier ratio.

III. Low corrosion – There will be low corrosion of LHB

coaches due to extensive usage of Stainless Steel and better
design and manufacturing techniques.

IV. Low Maintenance – Replacement and removal of sub-

systems will be required only after one million
kilometers.There are no doors handles projecting outside the
coach thus mechanized car washing is facilitated.
V. LHB Coaches have aesthetically superior interiors with
FRP panels for side wall and roof. They can be removed easily
for maintenance, resist water seepage and are wear

VI. There are no visible screws inside the passenger


VII. Better passenger comfort: Ride Index of 2.5 (Not

exceeding 2.75) has been specified as compared to in
conventional ICF coaches.

VIII. LHB coach offers better passenger safety due.

Use of fire retardant materials for furnishing.

Provision of emergency open able windows.

Vertically interlocked. Centre Buffer couplers.

IX. LHB coach offers better passenger amenities due to

More space for pantry;

Individual reading light in chair car;

Ergonomically designed chairs with reclining back rest.


->Provision of IGBT based battery charger.

->Microprocessor based AC package with low noise level.

->Integrated modular single switch board with controls of AC

& lighting etc.
->Lightweight epoxy moulded transformer.
->On line insulation monitoring.
->Modular and elegant interior light fittings and reading
->Provision of radox type FRLS cables.
->Uniformity of illumination as per UIC.
->Microprocessor based pump line.
->Antiskid protection
->Modular toilets with electro pneumatically controlled toilet
fittings. Controlled discharge type toilet with
microprocessor control.
->Moulded GRP paneling and antiskid PVC flooring.
->Microprocessor controlled disc break system with wheel
slip control device.
->Centre buffer coupler with anti-climbing features.
Compact Air Conditioning Unit :

Compact air conditioning unit consists of following components

->Two refrigerant compressors

->Two condensers

->Two axial fans for cooling condensers

->Two evaporators and heating assembly

->Two twin sucking radial fans for the supply air

->Two air inlets for circulating air

->Two air inlets for fresh air

->Two mixed air filters & fresh air filter

->Control and safety devices

->Servo drive

Operating Modes:

(a) Preheating and Cooling Operation -

In this mode the outside air dampers are closed to facilitate

rapid heating up or cooling down of the coach.

(b) Normal Operation -

In this mode, the dampers are set to ensure the envisaged
fresh air volume of 21 m /h per person.
(c) Emergency Operation -
When AC system fails due to failure of power supply, the
adjusting dampers of the circulating air duct close so that the
system is operated exclusively with outside air.
Heating Coil Operation :

The heating output is controlled by the two heating

contactors, which can be actuated separately by one output
each. The heater is cycled with a period of 60 seconds. The
ON period of the heater is controlled by a control signal of
the computer.

Cooling Circuit Operation :

Now starting the appropriate compressor via output. In

cooling mode, the fresh air/ re-circulating air flap must be
activated for as long as it takes to supply 21m /h fresh air for
every person.

Dehumidification :

The dehumidification function is used if the relative humidity

of the room air rises to over 60%. This condition is monitored
by the moisture sensor.
How Electric Locomotives Work ?
An “Electric Locomotive” is a railway vehicle that can move
along rails and push or pull a train attached to it using electric
power drawn from an external source, usually from overhead
cables or a third rail.

Electric Locomotives, be it a standalone unit or the powercars

of an EMU trainset, work on the single principle of drawing
current from external sources and then after sufficiently
“modifying” it feed it to the traction motors which turn the
wheels. This “modification” of the electric current is aimed at
supplying optimum power to the motors for optimum
performance under different conditions and loads, involving a
complicated process of conversion, reconversion, smoothing
and transformation of the current to varying values of
frequency, Voltage, Current etc, using banks of components
like transformers, rectifiers/thyristors, inverters, capacitors,
compressors and other such paraphernalia, housed within the
locomotive body or the “shell”. In fact, it is this process of
“modification” or transformation what electric locomotive
technology is all about.There are actually two ways electric
locomotives can be classified:
one is as per the type of current they draw from the lines
(traction power):

-> DC (Direct Current)

-> AC (Alternating Current),

or as per the type of traction motors they use (drives):

-> Direct Current (DC) traction motors or those with 3-phase


-> Current (AC) traction motors.

Both AC and DC drives can work on both AC and DC traction.

The main function of all the equipment housed in locomotives
is to convert receiving current to make it optimal to use for
traction motors.

How (Drive Control) of Electric Locomotives in


The torque put out by traction motors is directly proportional

to the current they receive. For starting the train and for
accelerating from low speeds they need to put out more
torque hence require more current, and vice versa. The
process of controlling this power output to traction motors
and thereby the speed of the locomotive is called “controlling
the drive” and is carried out completely different for
locomotives with AC and DC motors.
DC Drive: Older locomotives in India with DC traction motors
used silicon-controlled rectifiers, the current to which and to
traction motors was controlled by a device called a tap-
changer. Single phase AC received through the Pantograph is
passed to the transformer where it is stepped down to
manageable levels. It then passes through the tap-change
which according to the input from the driver selects the
optimum current required to power the traction motors by
“tapping” it from the secondary transformer coil at the
appropriate position (Current is different at different points
of the winding), which is then passed to the main rectifier
(SCR) that converts the AC into DC. After passing through a
smoothing reactor to remove fluctuations in the current, it is
fed to the traction motors which turn the wheels. In the loco
cabin, the loco driver would turn a wheel up and down
“notches” 1 to 30 to control the acceleration/speed of the
locomotive, where each notch actually specified a point on the
winding where the tap-changer would tap current from. Notch
1 is the starting point where maximum power would be drawn
as starting up from a standstill requires most torque. As the
loco accelerates, lesser torque will be required and
accordingly the pilot will move up the notches and at notch 32
the loco will be at the highest speed with the least current
output.The tap-changer can be said to be the “throttle” of the
electric locomotive.
AC Drive: Three-phase AC locomotives use contactless
semiconductor devices like GTO Thyristors (Diodes) or IGBTs
(transistors) to control their traction motors. The 25 kV
single phase AC current received by the Pantograph will be as
usual stepped down by the transformer and passed on to the
main GTO Thyristor/IGBT-controlled rectifier which converts
it into DC (2800V for WAG9) which passes through a bank of
capacitors and inductors where it is smoothed, called a DC-
Link. The DC is then sent to the main inverter, again consisting
of GTO/IGBTs which will convert the DC into 3-phase AC as
required (2180V for WAG9) which is then fed to the motors
driving the wheels. During this entire process, the current
output to the traction motors will be controlled by varying the
output currents/voltages across all components by the
Thyristors/IGBTs on command by the microprocessors
controlling the locomotive as per instructions from the loco
driving cabin. The entire setup is called a VVVF (Variable
Voltage Variable Frequency) drive and is seamless and
efficient. No more tapping or changing.

In both AC and DC drives, the appropriate output power from

the rectifier or inverter is also used to power all the
numerous auxiliary equipment in the loco such as blowers,
fans, compressors, lights, meters, batteries and so on. And
there is a lot more equipment to fine-tune all current at
different stages for best use by equipment.
AC drives and semiconductor devices are more efficient since
they have no moving parts, lighter, generate less heat and are
easier to maintain.

In India, older DC motor locos like WAM4, WAG5, WAG7 and

WAP4 locomotives use tapchangers while 3-phase AC WAP5,
WAP7 and WAG9 locos utilize either GTO Thyristors or IGBT

The major drawback of electric locomotives is that they are

totally dependent on the power which has to be supplied for it
to run. Any power outage, short circuit or breaking of
Overhead Equipment (OHE) will cause trains to come to a
standstill. Hence, even on fully electrified routes, diesel
locomotives are kept on standby always.And on partly
electrified routes, trains are run on diesel under the wire
because it is more efficient than switching locomotives.
However, electrics are always faster and powerful.
25 kV, ac 50 Hz single phase power supply for electric
traction is derived from the grid system of State Electricity
Boards through traction sub-stations located along the route
of the electrified sections. The distance between adjacent
sub-stations depends on intensity of traffic and load of
At present there are broadly four different arrangements
in existence as under:

1.The Supply Authorities supply power at 220/132kV Extra

High Voltage (EHV) a teach Traction Sub Station which is
owned, installed, operated and maintained by the Railway.

2. The Railway receives 3-phase power supply from the Supply

Authority at a single point near the grid substation, from
where the Railway runs its own transmission lines providing its
own Traction Sub-Stations.

3. All EHV and 25kV equipment is owned, installed, operated,

and maintained by the Supply Authority, except 25kV feeder
circuit breakers which are owned, installed, operated and
maintained by the Railway.

4. All EHV and 25kV equipment is owned, installed, operated

and maintained by the Supply Authority but 25kV feeder
circuit breakers alone are operated on remote control by the
Traction Power Control (TPC).


The permissible variation of the bus bar voltage on the bus

bars at the grid sub-station is +10% And 5% i.e., between
27,500V and 23,750V. The tappings on the transformers are
on the secondary winding and are set to ensure at the voltage
is maintained as high as possible but not exceeding 7.5kV at
the feeding post at any time.


Basically these are meant in normal times to parallel the over

head shipments and in emergencies to bifurcate and quickly
isolate the faulty section trough remote control operation.

In addition the feeding post feeds the power into the over
head equipment sector wise and the sectioning post bifurcates
the over head equipment at the neutral section to avoid mix up
of power fed from different phases (different substations).

The sectioning post also helps in extending power supply in

times of emergency like outage of one of the substations.
The parallelism of over head equipment helps to reduce the
voltage drop by making use of all the over head equipments to
share the load.

All the switching Stations have:

i)interruptors to carry out the switching operations.

ii)potential transformers for line indication.

iii)auxiliary transformer for power supply at the switching

station which is most often away from the station areas.

iv)lighting arrestor for the protection of each sub-sector of

the over head equipment. Since the interruptors are meant to
operate only under command there is no relay associated with
switching station except the sectioning post.

This training is focused upon increasing our knowledge and

interest toward the Electrification of Railway Carriage &
Wagons. Because It is most efficient and necessary needs to
peoples in these days so its production at most efficient
method with minimum cost and in proper sequence with less
wastage. I learned how to produce it by turbine, generators,
cooling towers, water and maintain it. It was a great
experience. It increase my practical skills that’s the main
thing which i learned in the training session. Thus, I believe
that my training session will be beneficial for various purposes
& hence our efforts will be fruitful.