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HISTORY STD X

THE LAST PHASE TOWARDS PARTITION 2018-2019

Q.1) Why did Jinnah become popular during 1942-43?


Ans. During the Quit India movement in 1942-43, the British declared the congress illegal and
its leaders were imprisoned. Jinnah now gained popularity and separatist tendencies gained
importance. Jinnah's new slogan was "Divide and Quit", instead of "Quit India".

Q.2) Give 2 salient features of Lord Wavell's plan.


Ans. 1) India would be given Dominion status in the long run.
2) The constitution of India would be drafted by Indians themselves.

Q.3) What is said in Lord Wavell's plan about?


Ans. 1) Powers of the Governor General G. G. would retain the veto power, which he would
use in the interest of the Indian people.
2) Composition of Viceroy's Executive Council Viceroy's E.C. would be reconstructed.
It would consist wholly (completely) of Indians except for the Viceroy and commander-in-
chief.

Q.4) Why wasn't Lord Wavell's plan acceptable to the Muslim League? On what grounds did the
congress oppose the proposals of the League?
Ans. It was not acceptable to the M.L. because M.L. insisted that the right to appoint members
from the Muslim community should entirely rest with the League. Also the offer of equal
representatives of Hindus and Muslims in the Viceroy's E. C. aroused much controversy.
The Congress rejected it because it considered itself secular and represented both Hindus
and Muslims, so it should appoint Hindus as well as Muslims.

Q.5) What made Lord Wavell's plan inoperative?


Ans. The Congress agreed to the plan Jinnah refused to budge from his stand and the adverse
attitude of the League made the plan inoperative.

Q.6) In what way did the outcome of the World War help India's demand for self government?
Ans. The second World War ended in 1945. The Labour party under the Prime Ministership of
Clement Attlee came to power in England in the same year. The Labour party had always
favoured self rule for India. The second World War shattered British rule economically and
militarily. U.S.A. and Russia emerged 3s world powers and both these nation supported
India's demand for self-Government.

Q.7) Briefly explain why the British Government set the prisoners of the Indian National Army
free.
Ans. After the surrender of Japan in 1945 and after the second World War ended, the soldiers of
the Indian National Army were taken as war prisoners by the British. The British
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government wanted to try some of the leaders as traitors as they had been officers of the
British Indian Army earlier. The historic trial of Shah Nawaz Khan, G.S. Dhillon and Prem
Sehgal was held in Red Fort in November, 1945. Leading advocates like Bhulabai Desai,
Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jawaharlal Nehru appeared as defense counsels. The court
martial held the prisoners guilty, but the Indians hailed them as national heroes. Huge
demonstrations broke out all over the country and people showed they were determined not
to allow the INA soldiers to be punished. There were agitations and hartals all over the
country even in the princely states of Hyderabad, Travancore and Kashmir. In November,
1945 Lacs of people demonstrated on the streets of Calcutta to demand their release. For
three days there was no government authority in the city. Again on February 12, 1946 there
was a massive demonstration. The British Government could no longer ignore the mass
agitation and though they were found guilty the Government was forced to release them.

Q.8) In what way did the outcome of the general elections of 1945-46 strengthen Jinnah's demand
for partition?
Ans. In winter of 1945-46, there were general elections in the provinces. Congress won a majority
of the general seats and Muslim League captured a majority of seats reserved for Muslim
quota. The Congress formed Ministries in eight provinces, (Assam, Bihar, United Provinces
(U.P.), N.W. Frontier Province, Bombay, Madras, Central Provinces and Orissa). A
coalition Ministry headed by Malik Khizar Hayyat than, formed the government in Punjab.
But the Muslim League could not form the government in any province inspite of its
victories in the elections. This situation strengthened Jinnah's demand for partition.

Q.9) Name the members of the cabinet Mission plan.


Ans. Lord Patrick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps, A.V. Alexander.

Q.10) What was the purpose of the cabinet mission plan?


Ans. The purpose was to hold consultations with the Indian leaders with the object of setting up
complete self government in India.

Q.11) On what grounds did the cabinet Mission reject Jinnah's demand for partition of India?
Ans. Jinnah's demand for partition of India was rejected:-
a) Partition would not solve the communal problem because Hindu minorities would still
live in the areas demanded by the League and there was no justification of keeping large
Hindu districts in BengaI, Assam, and Punjab in Pakistan, The same argument of partition
as advanced by League held relevance to Hindu majority districts in Pakistan.
b) A small Pakistan would not be viable because its two parts East and West Pak would
be separated bar hundreds of miles of Indian territory.
c) Partition would involve dislocation of communication network, division of armed
services and services personnel along communal lines.

Q.12) Give any two salient features of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
Ans. India would be a federation of British and Indian states. Till the new constitution was ready
an interim government of all parties would he formed. It would have 14 members. What is
said in the Cabinet Mission plan about – (1) A three tier system of government. (2) Division
of British provinces into three groups. India would be a federation of British provinces and
Indian states. The provinces would have a three tier system of government. They would be
divided into three groups Group A,B,C. Group A would consist of Madras, Bombay, United
Provinces, Bihar, Orrisa, Central Provinces Group B would consist of Punjab. North west
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Frontier Province and Sindh. Group C would have Bengal and Assam. Each group would
draft a constitution. A province could opt out of the group by a majority decision of its
legislature. To draw up the constitution, 292 members would be from the provinces.

Q.13) Division of power between Federal Govt. and provinces. There would be a federation of all
provinces and Indian states.
Ans. The Federal Govt. would control defense, foreign affairs and communication Provinces
would look after other subjects and control residency powers. The states would not be under
the direct control of the union and could decide what powers they had to surrender.

Q.14) What was the view of the Congress and League on the grouping of the provinces as
proposed by the Cabinet Mission Plan?
Ans. The Congress welcomed the proposals which provided for an Indian union of Provinces or
states as it preserved the unity of India. It was glad to see the proposals rejecting the idea of
Pakistan. Congress accepted only the part which dealt with constitution and rejected the
scheme of interim Govt. because of its limited status and powers. The League finally
accepted the plan in its entirety and asked the Viceroy to constitute an interim Government.

Q.15) In what way did the Cabinet Mission Plan try to preserve the unity of India?
Ans. It provided for an Indian Union of provinces and states and rejected the proposals for
Pakistan.

Q.16) Why did the Congress reject the Leagues claim of having, the exclusive right for nominating
members of the Muslim quota in the interim Government?
Ans. Congress said it too had Muslim members who could represent that community, nor would
it give up its national and secular character or accept an artificial parity with the M. L.
information of a national govt.

Q.17) What was finally accepted of the Cabinet Mission Plan by : (i) Congress, (ii)The League?
Ans. The Congress accepted only that part of the scheme which dealt with the constitution
making. stated that it would join the constituent Assembly with a view to framing the
constitution. The Muslim League accepted the plan in its entirety and asked Wavell and
Viceroy to constitute an Interim Government.

Q.18) Why did the viceroy refuse to implement the Interim Government plan as proposed in the
Cabinet Mission Plan?
Ans. The Viceroy refused to implement the Interim Government plan as it had been rejected by
Congress the largest political party in India.

Q.19) What were the views of the Sikhs and the Scheduled class on the proposals of the Cabinet
Mission Plan?'
Ans. The Sikh found these proposals unacceptable because they were included in the North
Western Muslim BIoc. They thought that it would leave them at the mercy of the Muslim
Community and imperil the Sikh religion and culture. The Scheduled Castes were of the
opinion that these proposals were illusory because no seats were reserved for scheduled
Castes and also because only one seat was offered to them in the Interim Govt.

Q.20) Why did the League demand appointment of two different Constituent Assemblies?
Ans. In July 1946, elections were held to the Constituent Assembly and congress won 212 out of
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298 seats, while the League won 73 seats. The League feared that it would be out- voted in
the Assembly. It therefore demanded two different constituent Assemblies.

Q.21) How did Jinnah justify his stand to resort to Direct Action Day by the League?
Ans. Jinnah was no more content with negative action. The League under Jinnah's leadership
passed a direct Action resolution on 30th July 1946, condemning the British Government
and. the Congress for their breach of faith in the Muslim community and set 16th August
1946 as a day of protest. The League declared that the time had come for it to resort to direct
action to achieve Pakistan.

Q.22) Which day was observed as the" Direct Action Day "by the League?
Ans. 30th July 1946.

Q.23) What is referred to as the "Great Calcutta Killing"?


Ans. As a result of the Direct Action Day , a section of people in Calcutta went on a rampage,
arson, looting and murder. Nearly 5000 people were killed,15000 injured and 1 Lakh
rendered

Q.24) Who was elected as the president of the Constituent Assembly in 1946?
Ans. Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Q.25) By what time did the British propose to leave India according to Clement Attlee's
announcement? When did they hand over power to successors Governments in India?
Ans. June 1948.

Q.26) Who replaced Lord Wavell as the Viceroy of India?


Ans. Lord Louis Mountbatten.

Q.27) To whom was the power to be transferred according to the Mountbatten plan?
Ans. Successor Governments in India.

Q.28) What were the views of Congress on partition of the country?


Ans. Congress was against the partition of the country. Abdul Islam Azad like other Congress
leaders, opposed the creation of Pakistan.

Q.29) What last effort did Gandhiji make to prevent the country from partitioning?
Ans. Gandhiji said, "Even if the whole of India is in flames, it will not bring Pakistan. Pakistan
would be made on my dead body. Gandhiji offered Jinnah the Prime Ministership of
undivided India.

Q.30) Why did Lord Mountbatten put his plan for the Partition of India into action?
Ans. After his discussion with the two warring sections the Congress and the League, he realized
it was impossible to solve the deadlock between the two warring parties, it was unworkable
and the partition was inevitable.

Q.31) When was the plan announced?


Ans. The Plan was announced on June 3,1947. It was put forward in the presence of big leaders
like Nehru, Jinnah, Liaquat and Baldev Singh.

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Q.32) State the features of the Mountbatten Plan
Ans. It stated that : The country would be divided into two dominions, i.e. India and Pakistan.
The two Dominions would have the freedom to decide future relations with the British
Commonweal and each other A boundary Commission would settle the boundaries of the
two countries. The Princely states would be free to loin either of the Dominion Status.
Bengal and Punjab would be partitioned only on the approval of the Legislate assemblies
of the two provinces. The LA of Sindh would take its own decision. A Plebiscite would be
held in The North west frontier province to decide if they wished to join Pakistan or India.
There would be two different Constituent assemblies for the two dominions. The power
would be transferred on the basis of an act before August 15 1947.

Q.33) Why did the Congress accept the Mountbatten Plan?


Ans. They accepted the plan because they felt they had no other alternative. If they would not
have accepted the plan the large scale communal riots would engulf the whole country. They
also felt that after working with the League, the League had joined the interim Government
to obstruct and not co-operate. They preferred a stronger sate with a central authority than
weak federation. They felt Partition was the only choice and answer to the British who were
instigating, the rulers of the Indian States to remain independent. If there was further delay,
there would be a Civil war. This was a way to finally put an end to Undemocratic procedures
in the country and have secularism.

Q.34) What did the Indian Act of 1.947 state about?


Ans. i) Bengal and Punjab,
ii) North and West Frontier Province,
iii) Sylhet District of Assam.

i) Bath Bengal and Punjab would be divided if so desired by the people there. In order
to ascertain their wishes the provincial assemblies of these two provinces would meet in
two parts, one representing the Muslim majority and the other the Non-Muslim majority
districts. Each part would separately decide
ii) A plebiscite would be held in North West Frontier province to determine the wishes
of the people there.
iii) There would also be a plebiscite in Sylnet District of Assam to determine whether it
would join Assam or East Pakistan.

Q.35) What is stated in the Indian Independence Act, 1947 about the princely states?
Ans. On withdrawal of the British the Indian princely states would become independent of would
join India or Pakistan. All treaties and agreements made by the British with regard to States
would cease from 15th August, 1947.