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Republic of the Philippines

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA


(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines

Leaching Ash and Chemical


Activation of Rice Husk and
Peanut Shell for the Production of
Activated Carbon

Renzo Macasil
Marian Mendoza
Karl Joshua Raymundo
Diana Jane Saya

______________________________ _____________________________
Engr. April Anne Tigue Engr. Milagros R. Cabangon

______________________________ ______________________________
Dr. Denvert C. Pangayao Engr. Kim Bryan Duenas
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines

The peanut, also known as the


groundnut is a legume crop grown
mainly for its edible seeds. It is widely
grown in the tropics and subtropics,
being important to both small and
large commercial producers. It is
classified as both a grain legume and,
because of its high oil content, an oil
crop. The cultivation of peanut is
common in several populous countries, in which it is a major food crop. According to the World
Food and Agriculture Organization, the major peanut producing countries are India, China,
USA, Indonesia and Myanmar. Peanut cultivation worldwide covers about 22.2 million
hectares, comprising 16.3 million hectares in Asia, 7.39 million hectares in Africa and 0.7
million hectares in South and Central America (Maiti and Ebeling 2002; Murata 2003).

According to the Philippine Statistics Authority during the first quarter of 2018,
production of peanut went up to 12.30 thousand metric tons from 12.05 thousand metric
tons in 2017 or by 2.1 percent. Ilocos Region, the top producer, shared 7.58 thousand metric
tons or 61.6 percent of the total peanut production. The other top producing regions were
Western Visayas and Northern Mindanao with 8.3 percent and 6.5 percent shares,
respectively. Also the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) reported that a total of 26,107.99
hectares was planted to peanut in 2012 with annual production reaching 29,133.91 metric
tons valued at Php994.26 million. The average shell wastes of 1 kg yield is 35–40 %;
therefore, about 9711.30–11653.64 metric tons of peanut shells wastes are annually
produced in Philippines
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines

On the other hand, Rice is the seed


of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice)
or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). As a cereal
grain, it is the most widely consumed staple
food for a large part of the world's human
population, especially in Asia. It is the
agricultural commodity with the third-highest
worldwide production (rice, 741.5 million
tonnes in 2014), after sugarcane (1.9 billion
tonnes) and maize (1.0 billion tonnes).

According to the International Rice Research Institute the Philippines is the world’s
eighth-largest rice producer. Its arable land totals 5.4 million hectares. Rice area harvested
has expanded from nearly 3.8 million hectares in 1995 to about 4.4 million hectares in 2010.
However, the country’s rice area harvested is still very small compared with that of the other
major rice-producing countries in Asia. More than two-thirds (69%) of its rice area is irrigated.
The country’s production increased by a third, from 10.5 million t in 1995 to 15.8 million t in
2010. Seventy-one percent of rice production came from irrigated areas. Although yield
improved from 2.8 t/ha in 1995 to 3.6 t/ha in 2010, it was still way below the yield potential
of modern varieties.

Also according to IRRI The rice husk, also called rice hull, is the coating on a seed or
grain of rice. It is formed from hard materials, including silica and lignin, to protect the seed
during the growing season. Each kg of milled white rice results in roughly 0.28 kg of rice husk
as a by-product of rice production during milling. The estimated production of rice hull in the
Philippines is more than 2 million tons per annum.
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines

PROCESS
The production of Activated Carbon consists of the following processes:
1. Collection and Pre-Treatment of Raw Materials
2. Bio-Char Production
3. Activation of Carbon
4. Post Treatment of the Activated Carbon
Collection and Pre-Treatment of Raw Material
Rice husk and Peanut Shell is separately washed thoroughly with water initially to remove mud
and other water soluble impurities.

Char Production
After washing the materials are dried in an oven at 105 °C for 24 h. The samples are
preserved in desiccators to avoid further absorption of moisture. Dried rice husk and peanut
shell sample is taken and then crushed into powder. The separate powder was then sieved to
obtain the fraction of size 212 µm then it will be placed in a porcelain crucible and covered
with lid and placed in a furnace at 650°C for an hour. The carbonized husk and peanut shell
samples are cooled and preserved for using for the next step of the procedure.

Activation of Carbon
The Rice Hull and Peanut Shell Bio-char were weighed and placed in a beaker
containing the activating agent. The content of the beaker was thoroughly mixed and heated
until it formed a paste. The paste was then transferred to an evaporating dish which was
placed in a furnace and heated at different temperature at different duration.

Post Treatment of the Activated Carbon

The activated carbon was allowed to cool and washed with distilled water to a pH of 6.7±
0.12, oven dried at 1050C for four hours to constant weight and ground.
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines

Product
Activated carbon, also called activated
charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have
small, low-volume pores that increase the
surface area available for adsorption or
chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes
substituted with active. Due to its high degree
of microporosity, one gram of activated carbon
has a surface area in excess of 3,000 squared
meter (32,000 sq ft) as determined by gas
adsorption. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be obtained solely from
high surface area. Further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties.
Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and is sometimes used as biochar. When
derived from coal or corn it is referred to as activated coal. Activated coke is derived from
coke.

The global activated carbon market size was valued over USD 3.0 billion in 2015.
Growing awareness for clean water consumption coupled with the rising number of water
treatment plants owing to government subsidies is anticipated to benefit the overall market
growth over the forecast period.

Activated carbon is used in various industries for air purification, groundwater


remediation, spill clean up and drinking water filtration. Governments across the globe are
offering subsidies for water as well as air purification. These grants coupled with rapid
industrialization particularly in regions such as Asia Pacific is forecasted to benefit the overall
global market growth.
Republic of the Philippines
PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
(University of the City of Manila)
Muralla Street, Intramuros
Manila 1002, Philippines

Global Market of Activated Carbon