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Industrial Training Report

PREFACE

BSc Civil Engineering degree program carried out by faculty of Engineering, University of
Moratuwa spans over for four years. Among the four years of academic work we are given a period
of 16 weeks for industrial training. This report is prepared after the completion of my training at
Fairway Elements project by MAGA Engineering Pvt Ltd. The report consists of three chapters.

In the first chapter I presented a brief but informative description about my training establishment
MAGA Engineering Pvt Ltd. It includes their history, their present organizational structure, their
achievements and few of their ongoing projects.

I dedicated the second chapter to express my training experience within the period of 16 weeks.
Starting with a brief description about the project the chapter presents the areas that I was exposed
and the experiences I have gained.

I have ended the report with chapter 3 as the conclusion which includes a summary of the work
experience, my thoughts and suggestions for the improvements of the overall training program and
an overall assessment.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The 16 week of industrial training period is offered for the undergraduates to practice the
theoretical knowledge which they have gained for almost 3 years. To arrange a place for each and
every student of the department was not an easy task. So the gratitude should be extended to all
the people who were behind it.

I extend my sincere gratitude to the Director of Industrial Training Division Eng.


N.A.Wijewickrama for taking the lead in arranging us perfect places for our training. Also my
heartfelt thanks goes to Eng.Plnr.Ananda Gamage who kept a continuous track on us throughout
the period. I also take this opportunity to thank the Head, department of civil Engineering Prof.
J.M.S.J.Bandara, the department coordinator of industrial training Dr.K.Baskaran and
Dr.J.C.P.H.Gamage who was the staff member assigned to me. My thanks also goes to National
Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) who took great effort in arrangements.

Next I would like to thank Mr.P.N.K. Dias who is the training coordinator at MAGA head office
for sending me to Fairway Elements Project which was a great exposure. It is my duty to thank the
site staff starting from Project Manager Mr.M.S.Amarasinghe, construction manager
Mr.A.W.M.Irshan, Planning Engineer Mr.M.Farzad and Engineer Assitant Mr.A,Bandusena for
their kind guidance and for opportunities given to me. Also I thank all the supervisors, Technical
officers, Sub contractors and all the labors for their cooperation.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Training Establishment ................................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1

1.1.1 Company Details ....................................................................................................... 1


1.1.2 Company Logo......................................................................................................... 2

1.2 Company History ............................................................................................................. 2

1.3 Board of Directors of the Company ................................................................................. 4

1.4 Awards won and Achievements ....................................................................................... 5

1.5 Ongoing Projects .............................................................................................................. 7

1.6 SWOT Analysis Of The Company................................................................................... 7

1.6.1 Strengths ................................................................................................................... 7


1.6.2 Weaknesses ............................................................................................................... 7
1.6.3 Opportunities............................................................................................................. 8
1.6.4 Threats....................................................................................................................... 8

Chapter 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Training Experience ................................................................................................................ 9

2.1 Introduction to the project ................................................................................................ 9

2.1.1 Project details ............................................................................................................ 9


2.1.2 Special Features of the project .................................................................................. 9
2.1.3 Site layout ................................................................................................................. 9
2.1.4 Typical floor layout................................................................................................... 9
2.1.5 Organization Chart .................................................................................................. 10

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2.2 Reinforcement work ....................................................................................................... 11

2.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 11


2.2.2 Bar notation ............................................................................................................. 12
2.2.3 Lap Length & Crank Length ................................................................................... 12
2.2.4 Covering for Concrete............................................................................................. 12
2.2.5 Bar Schedules.......................................................................................................... 13
2.2.6 Cutting and Bending of Bars................................................................................... 15
2.2.7 Beam Reinforcement .............................................................................................. 15
2.2.8 Slab Reinforcement ................................................................................................. 18
2.2.9 Column reinforcement ............................................................................................ 18
2.2.10 Retaining Wall and Lift wall reinforcement ........................................................... 19
2.2.11 Starters and Chemical Anchoring ........................................................................... 20

2.3 Formwork ....................................................................................................................... 21

2.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 21


2.3.2 Important characteristics of formwork.................................................................... 21
2.3.3 Main components of a Formwork ........................................................................... 23
2.3.4 Column Formwork .................................................................................................. 24
2.3.5 Beam formwork ...................................................................................................... 25
2.3.6 Slab formwork ........................................................................................................ 28
2.3.7 Inspection of formworks ......................................................................................... 30
2.3.8 Removing of formwork........................................................................................... 30
2.3.9 Protection of formwork ........................................................................................... 31

2.4 Tests for conrete ............................................................................................................. 31

2.4.1 Slump Test .............................................................................................................. 32


2.4.2 Casting Test cubes .................................................................................................. 33

2.5 Concreting ...................................................................................................................... 34

2.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 34

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2.5.2 Grade of Concrete ................................................................................................... 34


2.5.3 Mixing and Transportation of Concrete .................................................................. 35
2.5.4 Concreting of Elements........................................................................................... 36
2.5.5 Water Bar ................................................................................................................ 37

2.6 Tiling .............................................................................................................................. 38

2.6.1 Tools and materials used in Tiling .......................................................................... 38


2.6.2 Floor tiling .............................................................................................................. 38
2.6.3 Wall tiling ............................................................................................................... 39
2.6.4 Tile quality Checks. ................................................................................................ 39

2.7 Water proofing ............................................................................................................... 41

2.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 41


2.7.2 Steps of water proofing ........................................................................................... 42

2.8 Floor Rendering.............................................................................................................. 43

2.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 43


2.8.2 Placing of Level Points ........................................................................................... 43
2.8.3 Steps of Rendering .................................................................................................. 44

2.9 Blockwork ...................................................................................................................... 44

2.10 Plastering ........................................................................................................................ 45

2.10.1 2.10.1 Internal plastering ........................................................................................ 45


2.10.2 Concrete wall plastering ......................................................................................... 45
2.10.3 Chicken Mesh ......................................................................................................... 46
2.10.4 External Plastering by Plaster spray machine ......................................................... 47

2.11 Daily costing .................................................................................................................. 48

2.11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 48


2.11.2 Steps of preparing daily costing sheets ................................................................... 48
2.11.3 Objectives of daily costing...................................................................................... 48

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2.12 Man Power ..................................................................................................................... 49

2.13 Material Requisition ....................................................................................................... 50

Chapter 3 ....................................................................................................................................... 51

3 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 51

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Table of figures

Figure 1.1 Company Logo .............................................................................................................. 2

Figure 1.2 Organizational Structure. ............................................................................................... 4

Figure 2.1 Side view of the building ............................................................................................. 11

Figure 2.2 Bar Notation ................................................................................................................ 12

Figure 2.3 Cover Blocks ............................................................................................................... 13

Figure 2.4 Cover block moulds..................................................................................................... 13

Figure 2.5 Bar schedule Format .................................................................................................... 14

Figure 2.6 Bender.......................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 2.7 Bar Bending ................................................................................................................. 15

Figure 2.8 Beam reinforcement .................................................................................................... 17

Figure 2.9 Loading of stirrups ...................................................................................................... 17

Figure 2.10 Slab Reinforcement ................................................................................................... 18

Figure 2.11 Laying of B1 layer ..................................................................................................... 18

Figure 2.12 Covering For Columns .............................................................................................. 19

Figure 2.13 Column reinforcement ............................................................................................... 19

Figure 2.14 Retaining wall Reinforcement ................................................................................... 19

Figure 2.15 Chemical Gun ............................................................................................................ 20

Figure 2.16 Chemical Anchoring .................................................................................................. 20

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Figure 2.17 HILTI HIT-RE 100 packs ......................................................................................... 21

Figure 2.18 Air Blower ................................................................................................................. 21

Figure 2.19 U-Jack ........................................................................................................................ 24

Figure 2.20 T-Jack ........................................................................................................................ 24

Figure 2.21 Form tie fitting ........................................................................................................... 24

Figure 2.22 Separators .................................................................................................................. 24

Figure 2.23 column Formwork ..................................................................................................... 25

Figure 2.24 Kicker height calculation ........................................................................................... 26

Figure 2.25 Side board height Calculation ................................................................................... 27

Figure 2.26 Beam bottom ............................................................................................................. 28

Figure 2.27 Beam Bottom ............................................................................................................. 28

Figure 2.28 Slab bottom ................................................................................................................ 29

Figure 2.29 Form oiled Slab formwork ........................................................................................ 29

Figure 2.30 Slump testing ............................................................................................................. 32

Figure 2.31 Cube Casting ............................................................................................................. 33

Figure 2.32 Truck Mixture ............................................................................................................ 35

Figure 2.33 Pouring to the Pump Car ........................................................................................... 35

Figure 2.34 Placing the water bar ................................................................................................. 37

Figure 2.35 HDBR Water Bar ...................................................................................................... 37

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Figure 2.36 Grinder Machine ........................................................................................................ 40

Figure 2.37 Tile Cutter .................................................................................................................. 40

Figure 2.38 2mm Tile Spacers ...................................................................................................... 41

Figure 2.39 Tile Adhesives ........................................................................................................... 41

Figure 2.40 Floor Tiling ................................................................................................................ 41

Figure 2.41 Water Proofing Agent................................................................................................ 43

Figure 2.42 Level Points Placing .................................................................................................. 46

Figure 2.43chipping for Plastering ............................................................................................... 46

Figure 2.44 Chicken Mesh ............................................................................................................ 46

Figure 2.45 Plaster mixture ........................................................................................................... 47

Figure 2.46 Scaffolding work for external Plastering ................................................................... 47

Figure 2.47 Daily Costing sheet Format ....................................................................................... 49

Figure 2.48 Daily Man Power sheet ............................................................................................. 50

Figure 2.49 Material Requisition Note ......................................................................................... 50

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Table of tables

Table 2.1 Minimum days for formwork removal ......................................................................... 31

Table 2.2 Use of different concrete grades ................................................................................... 34

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Chapter 1

1 Introduction to Training Establishment

1.1 Introduction

Maga has been a dynamic contributor for the construction industry in Sri Lanka from the beginning
in 1984. From the 30 years of experience Maga has made an indelible imprint as a model
construction company in the country as well as abroad. This has being develop from working
together with numerous global contractors to implementing some of the most significant building
and infrastructure development projects in Sri Lanka. Maga is responsive to the developing
national needs and dedicated to rebuilding and restoration plans currently ongoing in Sri Lanka.

1.1.1 Company Details

 Name of the company : Maga Engineering (Pvt) Ltd


 Chairman / Founder : Capt. M.G. Kularathne
 Ownership: Private Limited Liability Company.
 Company Address: No. 200, Nawala road, Narahenpita, Colombo 05, Sri Lanka.
 Telephone No. : 0112808835, 0112808844
 Fax No. : 0112808846, 0112808847
 Email : maga@maga.lk
 Date of registration : 02/12/1983
 VAT No. : 1140076507000
 Annual Reporting : Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, GRI G4
 Accreditations : ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, Superbrands
 Asphalt Plant : Athurugiriya, Mirijjawila
 Plant & Machinery Division : Athurugiriya
 Concrete Batching Plants : Kelaniya, Ambatale, Gampola
 Scaffolding Leasing Division : Narahenpita

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1.1.2 Company Logo

Figure 1.1 Company Logo


1.2 Company History

Captain M.G. Kularathne founded Maga in 1984, with the vision of becoming the leading
construction company in Sri Lanka. In the beginning of 1980s company got the chance to come
into industry by full filling the higher demand for construction projects with the open economy.
From that opportunity Maga gain the chance to work with world’s leading construction companies
and got an experience in construction managerial skills which were used in the advantage of Sri
Lankan construction industry. After acquiring plants and machinery with a committed team Maga
got the chance to get some of the most important construction projects in the country.

Colombo Hilton Hotel project in 1987 which is constructed under the Taisei Corporation of Japan
is great benchmark for the company on that year. In 1988 company involved Construction of
Building for National Building Research Organization, first marine work in the Colombo Dry
Dock project, First dam work in the Samanalawewa Hydropower project and Figure 1.1-Company
Logo 3 airport work in Katunayake Airport Runway project. In the same year company endeavor
first foreign project in Maldives.

Maga was the main subcontractor to Kajima Corporation of Japan for construction of Sri Lanka-
Japan Friendship Bridge in 1991 and it was the first of many major bridge projects. Eden Hotel &
Spa in Beruwala was the first major hotel project constructed in 1994. Maga won the first National
Construction Excellence Award for the construction of Head office for the Hemas Group in 1996.
At the same year constructing Taj Exotica in Bentota, Bluw waters in Wadduwa, Sinbad Gardens

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in Kaluthara and Geffrey Bawa-designed Lighthouse in Galle was done Maga. From that the Blue
waters Hotel and Lighthouse has won the National Construction Awards.

Construction of a seawall in Maldives and Mahaweli Sakura Bridge was the main achievements
of the year 1998. In the year of 1999 Maga has completed two main projects in education sector
which is the National College of |Education at Bingiriya and the National college of Education of
Rathnapura that won the National Construction Awards. 2000 is the year of Maga start the
Southern Provincial roads improvement project which is the first largescale highway project. The
IFAWPCA Gold Medal was awarded to Maga in the year of 2002 for the construction of the
Landmark Apollo Hospital in Colombo. In the year 2003 Maga won the National Construction
Award in the bridge sector by constructing the Rathnapura Bridge. Also bidges in Muwagamuwa
and Gampola were constructed in the same year. In the year of 2004 company’s Quality
Management System (QMS) was certified to be in compliance with ISO 9001:2000 Standards.
The first company’s joint venture was with the China’s CDIG for A2- Kaluthara to Ambalangoda
Road project in 2005. That was the first of many successful joint ventures with leading foreign
contractors in order to carry out large scale infrastructure development projects. Also same year
Maga was collaborated to the Greater Galle Water Supply project. In the year of 2006 company
won the National Construction Excellence Award for the construction of \Cargo complex at
Katunayake Airport. In the same year the longest reinforced concrete bridge over Ginganga on the
Southern Expressway was constructed.

Fairmount Residencies is one of the large scale design and build projects done by Maga in 2007.
In the same year Maga became the first company to achieve the National Awards for Human
Resource Development and Effective Safety Management. In the year of 2008 company achieved
the Superbrands status and constructed the world’s first ever purpose-built green manufacturing
plant in Thulhiriya. From year of 2009 to 2014 Maga keep achieving awards by awards for the
excellence construction projects that completed. In the month of November Maga celebrate the
30th anniversary along with the stakeholders and employees for providing three decades of
Construction Excellence.

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1.3 Board of Directors of the Company

Figure 1.2 Organizational Structure.

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1.4 Awards won and Achievements

 IFAWPCA Gold Medal Award 2002 - Apollo Hospital, Colombo


 National Construction Excellence Awards {1996 - Hemas Corporate building, Colombo 2,
1997 - Light House Hotel, Galle , 2002 - Apollo Hospital, Colombo 5 , 2006 - Cargo
Complex, Katunayake International Airport , 2007 - Ceylinco Healthcare Centre , 2008 -
Fairway Residencies, Rajagiriya , 2010 - Fairmount Residencies, Rajagiriya , 2011 -
People’s Leasing Head office Building , 2012 - Head Office Building for Sri Lanka
Customs , 2013 - Administrative Complex Building – Sethsiripaya Stage II , Hambantota
Port Development Project – Stage I – Administrative Complex , 2014 - Mercedes Benz
Centre, Colombo 14 , New Head of Mission Residence for Australian High Commission.}
 ICTAD Construction Merit Awards { 1992 - Army Commanders Secretariat Building ,
1994 - Valiant Towers, Colombo 2 , 1997 - Blue Waters Hotel, Wadduwa , 2000 - National
College of Education, Ratnapura , 2001 - Lotus Tower, Luxury Apartment Complex , 2003
- Vocational Training Centre, Narahenpita , 2005 - Mixed Development Project, Colombo
3 , 2007 - Skyline Residencies, Borella , 2008 - Model Green Factory, Thulhiriya , 2012 -
Shopping Complex for Crown Property Development (Pvt) Ltd }
 ICTAD Construction Performance Awards { 2005 - Improvements to Dr N.M. Perera
Mawatha , Vehicular Bridge, Ratnapura , 2006 - Bridge on Deniyaya – Madampe Road ,
Improvements to Matara Beach Road , Tangalle – Weeraketiya Road , Nittambuwa Town
Development Project – Stage II , 2007 - Matara – Akuressa Road , Matara – Hakmana
Road , Human Resource Development , Effective Adaptation of Safety Measures in
Construction , 2008 - Kahatagasdigiliya – Konwewa – Demetawewa Road , Improvements
to Palavi – Kalpitiya Road, UVB-4R Bridges , Weeraketiya - Middeniya Road , Wellawaya
Water Supply Scheme , Human Resource Development , Effective Adaptation of Safety
Measures in Construction , 2009 - Padeniya – Puttalama Road , Jayanthipura –
Tirukkondaimadu Road , Effective Adaptation of Safety Measures in Construction ,
Nawala Welikada Road , 2010 - Matara – Wellawaya Road, A-32 Road , Improvements to
Palavi – Kalpitiya Road , 6 Greater Kandy Water Supply Project, Ampitiya Improvement

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, Hambantota Port Bypass Road , 2011 - Kirindi Oya Water Supply Project , Improvements
to Udawalawa – Tanamalwila Road , Rehabilitation of Siyambalanduwa – Pottuvil –
Akkaraipattu Road , 2012 - Construction of Proposed Building Titled Sambuddhathva
Jayanthi Mandiraya , Improvements to Soriyawewa Meegahajandura Road , Rehabilitation
of Puttalam Trincomalee road from Puttalam to Anuradhapura , Improvements to
Parliament Road , Phase II Stage II of Grater Kandy Water Supply Project , Sooriyawawa
Meegahajandura Road , 2013 - Rehabilitation & Improvement of A009 Road , A032 Road
, A020 Road , A009 Road, B268 Road, A034 Road, A035 Road, Hakmana – Beliatta -
Tangalle Road , Bopale Junction Kiriibbanara Udamauara Road, Point Pedro Water Supply
Project, 2014 - Construction of Kegalle Bypass Road, Improvements to Palavi – Kalpitiya
Road, Rajapihilla Transmission Line, Construction of Flyover at Siribopura }
 The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka, Excellence Awards { 2008 – Engineering
Excellence Award (Infrastructure Development) , 2012 – Engineering Excellence Award
(Infrastructure Construction) , 2013 – Engineering Excellence Award (Infrastructure
Construction) , National Chamber of Commerce Business Excellence Awards , 2007 -
Construction Sector – Winner , Best Realized Growth – Runner-up , 2008 - Construction
Sector – Winner , 2009 - Construction Sector – Winner , 2010 - Construction Sector –
Winner , 2011 - Construction Sector – Winner , Extra Large Category – Merit Award ,
2012 - Construction Sector – Winner , Extra Large Category – 2nd Runner-up , 2013 -
Construction Sector – Runner-up }
 Corporate Accountability Rating, by Sting Consultants { 2009 - Gold Rating , 2010 -
Platinum Rating , 2011 - Platinum Rating , 2012 - Platinum Rating , 2014 - Platinum Rating
, 2008 - Business Superbrands Certification , 2011 - National Gold Award for
Environmental Protection for Private & Public sector }
 National Green Award { 2012 - Green Construction Excellence - MAS Intimates Thuruli
(Pvt) Ltd , 2015 - Silver Award for Private Institutes sector }
 Best Construction Company in Sri Lanka’s Water Supply & Drainage Sector, Grade C1:
Performance in Major Water Supply Projects from 2010-2012, awarded by NWS&DB
 The Ceylon Chamber of Industries (CNCI) Achiever Award{ 2014 - Merit Award
(National Level Service Sector – Extra Large Category)}

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1.5 Ongoing Projects

 Clear point Residencies


 Ayurvedha Hospital Project Borella
 Grand Hyatt Colombo
 Fairway City Hotel, Colombo
 Jetwing City Hotel, Colombo
 Rakwana – Madampe Road

1.6 SWOT Analysis Of The Company

1.6.1 Strengths

Quality of the construction woks is the main strength of MAGA that keeps them above all other
construction companies. They take a lot of effort to maintain it. They have earned the reputation
and continuing to keep the standard. With the theme of company “the saga of quality construction”
Maga got a distinctive Senior Management to handle their operations in a good manner. Also the
Technological skills that company acquired from the 32 years of work experience, strong human
resources , plants and equipment are helping Maga to become the Leading construction company
in Sri Lanka.

1.6.2 Weaknesses

MAGA is company with a long breakdown of organization hierarchy. So usually it takes some
time to get approval for any decisions of technical or nontechnical matters.

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1.6.3 Opportunities

MAGA is a company with up to date technology. They have the most recent machineries and
equipment with them. With that capability of fulfilling any client requirement there are lot of
opportunities in the field for them. In near future they will be more frequent in overseas projects
with gaining experiences.

1.6.4 Threats

Construction industry is a moving industry with new companies emerging with talented youth and
latest technologies. Competition is the main threat MAGA is facing right now. Also the political
instability of the country, policy changes and tax increase are common for every construction
company.

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Chapter 2

2 Training Experience

2.1 Introduction to the project

Elements by fairway is a high luxury apartment building project with 40 floors and 130 apartment
units. And a 3 story store building in front of the apartment building.

2.1.1 Project details

 Project name - Elements by Fairway


 Client - The Fairways, No 100, Buthgamuwa Road, Rajagiriya.
 Architect and Engineer - Avant Garde Urban Design Partnership, No 30/6, Bagatalle
Road, Colombo 3.
 Contractor - Maga Engineering Pvt Ltd, No 200, Nawala Road,
Narahenpita, Colombo 05.

2.1.2 Special Features of the project

 3 basements for car parks


 Mazzanine floor consisting Swimming pool, Gym, garden and office premises.
 34 apartment floors each consisting 4 high luxury apartments
 Water tank at the top with capacity of 240m3.

2.1.3 Site layout

Refer annex 01

2.1.4 Typical floor layout

Refer annex 02

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2.1.5 Organization Chart

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Figure 2.1 Side view of the building

2.2 Reinforcement work

2.2.1 Introduction

Concrete is reinforced with steel in order to withstand the tension in structural elements. So the
reinforced concrete is then suitable for carrying both tensile and compressive loads.

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2.2.2 Bar notation

Figure 2.2 Bar Notation

2.2.3 Lap Length & Crank Length

Usually all reinforcement bars in different diameter are available in 12m lengths. But when the
structural elements are requiring reinforcement longer than that lapping of bars has to be done.In
the General Notes it is given that the lap length should be 52 x Diameter of the smaller bar.

Cranking is done to maintain the alignment of the reinforcement work. Because when lapping is
done 2nd bar won’t follow the line of 1st bar. Making it to follow the same line is called cranking.
Cranking is usually done for the bars which are larger than 16mm in diameter. Crank length is
decided by the formula,

2.2.4 Covering for Concrete

Cover is the distance between outside face of the concrete and the face of the nearest reinforcement
bar. Main objective of keeping adequate cover is to protect steel from exposing to fire and moisture
which will lead to the corrosion.

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In the site 25mm and 40mm covering blocks are made using 1:1.5 cement sand mixture. Mixture
is poured in to 50mm diameter cylindrical and a 18 gauge binding wire is attached. After hardening
blocks are removed from moulds and cured for about for a week.

In the store building almost elements were kept a covering of 25mm. But the part of the lift wall
and the retaining wall which is underground were kept covering of 40mm. Because as it is under
the water table those areas are continuously exposed to moisture.

Figure 2.3 Cover Blocks Figure 2.4 Cover block moulds

2.2.5 Bar Schedules

2.2.5.1 Introduction

A bar schedule serves different requirements. It is the document prepared by the engineer and sent
to the bar bending yard to cut and bend the bars in required sizes, lengths and in required quantity.
After the bars are taken to the site the assistant engineer or the trainee can choose the correct bars
for the exact location by referring to the bar schedule. The bar schedule also includes the quantity
of the each reinforcement work. It is the reference document considered in preparing bills for the
sub-contractors. Another objective of the bar schedule is to minimize the offcut lengths thus the
wastage.

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2.2.5.2 Format of the Bar schedule

Figure 2.5 Bar schedule Format

 Item – Whether it is a Beam/Column/Slab etc.


 Location – Name given to the element in the layout plan
 Bar mark – Name of the bar given in the drawing
 Type & Size – Whether it is Tor-steel or Mild steel and the Diameter of the bar
 No. of members – Number of identical members in the layout
 Number of bars in each member
 Total bars required
 Shape and dimensions – A rough sketch
 Cut length – in ‘mm’

Apart from these off cut lengths should be calculated. Then the total weight and length of the bars
used in that particular schedule, total number of full bars needed, total offcut weight and length
has to be included.

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2.2.6 Cutting and Bending of Bars

Steel yard for the Element site is located outside the site but in a nearby location. About 4 other
MAGA sites fulfill their steel requirements from this yard. Bar bending machine and cutting
machines are used to bending and cutting of steel.

Figure 2.7 Bar Bending Figure 2.6 Bender

2.2.7 Beam Reinforcement

2.2.7.1 Scheduling

First top and bottom reinforcement of the beam is scheduled. When the beam is a long, continuous
beam we have to lap the reinforcement. And if there are beams crossing each other we have to go
for cranking. In the top layer no lapping should occur at the supports. In the bottom layer no lapping
should occur in the middle of the span. Lap lengths and crank lengths are calculated using relevant
formulas. Final sketch of the reinforcement bar should be drawn and the total cut length is
mentioned in the relevant column.

Secondary reinforcement, laser bars (side face r/f) are then scheduled according to the drawing.

Stirrups- To calculate the cut length for a stirrup covering of the both sides and the length
increment of the bar when bending has to be considered. Number of stirrups needed is calculate
by dividing the span by the spacing of the stirrups. In the same way hooks are scheduled.

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In preparing a bar schedule we must do it in a way minimizing the offcuts. Little alterations can
be made to the cut lengths if we can use the off cut as another member. One the scheduling is
completed we have to calculate the total length and weight used and the total number of full bars
needed has to be mentioned .Then the schedule is sent to the bar bending yard. Once cutting and
bending is done we have to check whether all members are there. Then the rebar sets are tagged
indicating the cut length, shape and the name of the member and brought to the site.

2.2.7.2 Placing of Reinforcement

I had the opportunity to supervise the reinforcement work of the Basement 1 & basement 2 slabs
in the store building. There are 16 different beams in a slab.

 First the top r/f is placed through the column and held horizontal by a stirrup at the far end.
 Then required number of stirrups are loaded to the top r/f and attached in given spacing
using binding wires.
 Then the bottom r/f are driven through the stirrups and bonded.
 Then cover blocks are placed at the bottom with minimum 2 feet spacing.
 Then the second layer r/f are placed. Spacer bars of 25mm is kept between main bars and
2nd layer to allow the aggregate to pass through when concreting.
 Next the hooks are attached connecting middle bars of top and bottom main bars.

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 Finally the side face r/f are attached. They are only used when beams have a depth more
than 750mm.

Figure 2.8 Beam reinforcement

Figure 2.9 Loading of stirrups

When the beam is a continuous beam spanning over few columns, lapping of r/f should be done.
In such places cut length of the bars are decided such that lapping occurs on the 1/3 rd of the span
from the column. It is because the strength is low in a lapped joint. So it is placed where the
minimum bending moment occurs.

2.2.7.3 Curtailment

Curtailment is “using the 2nd layer r/f only where needed.”

For a continuous beam spanning over few columns BM diagram and the r/f arrangement will as in
the figure. In spans bottom r/f will be subjected to tension. So providing extra tensile r/f will be
only at the bottom.

Over the supports top r/f is experiencing tension. So the second layer is provided at the top over
the supports only.

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2.2.8 Slab Reinforcement

After slab bottom formwork is placed and oiled using form oil slab reinforcement work is started.
First the B1 layer is laid. On top of that B2 layer is placed. Then B2 and B1 r/f are bond. Covering
blocks are placed in adequate spacing. Then stools are kept and bond to the bottom r/f net in about
1m spacing. Stools are used to maintain the distance between top and bottom r/f nets. Then
distribution bars are placed according to the spacing given in the drawing. On top of the
distribution bars the T1 net is laid.

Figure 2.11 Laying of B1 layer Figure 2.10 Slab Reinforcement

2.2.9 Column reinforcement

Once the slab is concreted on the next day reinforcement work of the columns will start. First the
covering of the column starter bars are checked. If there are any issues those are sorted out. After
scaffoldings are set first the stirrups are loaded to the existing column starter bars. Then the column
bars are lapped accordingly. Spacing for the column stirrups are marked on the column bars and
bond. Finally Covering blocks are placed in adequate spacing.

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Figure 2.13 Column reinforcement


Figure 2.12 Covering For Columns

2.2.10 Retaining Wall and Lift wall reinforcement

R/F work of a retaining wall is quite simple. Vertical and horizontal reinforcement are bond in
correct spacing. For the lift wall r/f members of different shapes are needed. Lift wall is raised
with alternate use of straight bars and U shaped bars.

Figure 2.14 Retaining wall Reinforcement

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2.2.11 Starters and Chemical Anchoring

When we have to extend an element such as column, beam, tie beam, slab later, we have to extend
additional reinforcement form current position to cast it later and have good bond. Those are called
as starter bars. They should have enough length to lap with other reinforcement bar. Therefore at
least 52D distance should provide for starter bars. Here D = Diameter of the smaller bar.

In places where starter bars are not already placed and there has to be construction continued
attached to the existing concrete we have to go for the chemical anchoring. Most of the times the
spacing and the depth of drilling is specifically given in the drawings.

 First we chipped the existing concrete and cleaned the surface well.
 Then I marked the places to be drilled by a white chalk.
 The operator drilled the holes using the Hilti drill machine. The hole diameter is decided
according to the diameter of the r/f bar to be driven in.
 Then the holes are well cleaned. For that we used an air blower with a nozzle attached to
that. It is very important to make sure that it is well cleaned because if not the dust will
disturb the proper binding between the chemical and Concrete.
 Then the chemical HILTI HIT-RE 100 pack is loaded to the chemical gun.
 A nozzle is attached to the gun and then chemical is placed in to the hole. Then we have to
drive the r/f bar into the hole as much as possible until the chemical comes out.
 We have to keep it 24 hours to harden before any further r/f work.

Figure 2.16 Chemical Anchoring Figure 2.15 Chemical Gun

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Figure 2.18 Air Blower Figure 2.17 HILTI HIT-RE 100 packs
After the reinforcement works are done we have to inform the resident engineer for the inspections.
He mainly focuses on the covering, stirrup spacing, whether the bars are corroded, pacing of spacer
bars, location of the bars and anchorage lengths and lap lengths. After the inspections we have to
fill the checklist for Reinforcement Bar Fixing and give to the resident engineer for the approval.

2.3 Formwork

2.3.1 Introduction

The temporary structures that are made to provide support to the concrete, until it gains
sufficient strength for self-supporting and its shape are called the Formwork. Therefore, formwork is
an important part of any construction work. The formwork should be designed and constructed
with adequate waling struts, ties, braces and clamps to produce required shape and dimension.

2.3.2 Important characteristics of formwork

 The formwork should be sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent loss of grout of concrete. If
they were not enough rigid and tight loss of grout can be expected when compacting and it
cause in honeycombing of concrete structure.

 The formwork should withstand of loading such as

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1. Total weight of formwork, reinforcement and concrete

2. Dynamic effects of placing, compacting, and construction traffic

3. Wind loads

 Formwork should construct so as to be easily removed in sections in the desired sequence


without damaging to the concrete or itself

 The permissible stresses in bending, the buckling of props, and the permissible deflection
of shuttering should not be exceeded.

 Shuttering should have a smooth and even surface

 Materials can be easily fixed using ties and nails without splitting

 Materials should be cheap and should be able to re-use several times.

 Formwork must provide access for placing concrete.

 Can be able to do readjustments when encountering errors and mistakes.

 The surface of timber shuttering should be wetted and coated with a release agent to prevent
adhesion of concrete to formwork.

 Timber should be stiff and strong enough to avoid undue deflection when loaded.

 Should not be so soft as to get damaged easily on the contacts faces under normal
conditions such as fixing steel, pouring concrete etc.

 Timber Should be free from loose knots, projecting nails, splits or other defects

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2.3.3 Main components of a Formwork

2.3.3.1 Plywood

For the construction of the store building the site used the plywood board for the formwork. There
are many advantages of using plywood as the formwork. They are easy to handle compared with
normal timber, have good strength and light weighted. They are waterproof and give smooth
surface to concrete. They comes in 2440mm x 1220mm sheets. Normally 12mm and 15mm
plywood are used for construction works. However, we used 15mm plywood sheets for all concrete
works. Advantage of using those plywood is they can be reused several times if proper care is
taken after the removal.

2.3.3.2 Joists

In my construction projects, both timber and GI pipes were used as joists. Both of them are
advantageous considering different aspects. Usually 2”x2” and 4”x4” timber bars used. They are
easy to handle, easy to cut and light weighted compared with GI pipes. But considering durability
and strength GI pipes are better than timber.

2.3.3.3 Form ties and P-cone

Form ties are very important because they helps to keep the shape and dimensions of tie beams,
beams, concrete walls etc. Normally a complete tie consists of two form ties at both ends and an
extension bar (separator). Threaded bar was used as separator in my site.

2.3.3.4 Scaffoldings

A scaffold is a temporary structure which provides different levels for the workers to implement
their works. There are 3 types of scaffolds. Full frmae, Half frame and Quarter frame are those.
Scaffolding frames were used along with cross bars, joining pins, cat walk plates and u-jacks for
formworks. In our site all slab soffits were supported with scaffoldings.

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Figure 2.21 Form tie fitting


Figure 2.22 Separators

Figure 2.20 T-Jack


Figure 2.19 U-Jack

2.3.4 Column Formwork

 Kicker Formwork is the initial step in the column formwork. Column kickers are the
vertical guidance for placing column panel boards. Normally the kicker concreting height
will be vary among 100-125mm.
 Then the kicker top surface should chipped and cleaned properly. After that a thin sponge
sheet layer should glued into the top outer surface of the kicker for prevent the grout
leakage.
 Then the kicker top surface should chipped and cleaned properly. After that a thin sponge
sheet layer should glued into the top outer surface of the kicker for prevent the grout
leakage.

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 Column box panels can be placed after applying form oil for the surface which is contacting
with concrete.
 Before tightened the side boards, G.I. pipes should be placed in the vertical direction. (At
least three G.I. pipes for a one side. The no. of G.I. pipes will vary according to the column
formwork dimensions and the length of the G.I. pipes should be more than the height from
the top to bottom column locks if not G.I. pipes should be lapped in the column lock.)
 Column locks should be done using G.I. pipes, form ties and tread bars at least four
locations in the column formwork.
 Finally the verticality of the column formwork is achieved by jacking using pipe supports
in all four sides. (Columns in the edge cannot jacked using pipe supports. Because of that
cables and turnbuckles used to maintain the verticality.)
 The verticality is checked by using freely suspended plum-bob or Laser leveling
instrument.

Figure 2.23 column Formwork


2.3.5 Beam formwork

 After construction of column on tie beams, +1000 mm mark from DPC level was marked
on the column using dumpy level.

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 When extending column upto slab they should stop at 300 mm from the soffit of the slab.
Because column head should cated along with beams.This level should obtained using
+1000 mm level.

 Kicker for beam bottom should fixed on column using +1000 mmlevel as the reference.
Following is the example calculation donr for a column formwork at store building.

+4.875 m

500 mm x 300 mm
Kicker for 15 mm thick plywood

beam
2” x 2” timber rod

1000 mm mark from


DPC level
+0.750 m DPC level

Figure 2.24 Kicker height calculation

Height to the kicker = Top level – Bottom level – 1000 mm- height of beam- 15 mm

= 4875-750-1000-500-15

=2610 mm

 Then bottom formwork for beam was placed on column kickers

 Beam bottoms were sypported by adjustable jacks placed at 750 mm centre to centre
intervals.

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 After placing all beam bottoms, side boards for beams were placed. Care must be taken for
beams with drops on the slab. Following is the procedure to decide dimensions of beam
side boards.

15mm thick
Plywood Calculation the height of the side board from bottom
board.

 Here 500 mm x 300 mm beam was


considered
H 2” x 2”
Timber  Thickness of the slab is 150 mm

H = Height of the beam – thickness of the slab –


thickness of the plywood sheet
2” x 2”
Timber = 500 – 150 -15
GI Pipe
=335 mm

Figure 2.25 Side board height Calculation

 Before fixing side boards of beams they were drilled at 600 mm intervals to place
seperators and P-cones.

 After all the reinforement steel works on slabs and beams, beams were locked using form
ties, GI pipes and 2” x 2” timber rods.

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 Finally before placing concrete beams were leveled.

Figure 2.27 Beam Bottom Figure 2.26 Beam bottom

2.3.6 Slab formwork

After the completion of beam formworking slab formowrk can be started. But it is essential
to recheck beam side boards before starting the formwork for slab. Procedures for slab formwork
can be listed as follows.

 First step of the slab formwork is, arranging the scaffoldings. The fixing of scaffoldings
was done in a special way, that is they were placed to be interlocked each other so that the
distance between two sequence frames is about 1m.

 Then 2” x 4” timber purlins were placed at 1 m gap on U-jacks which are fixed on
scaffoldongs.

 GI pipes laid on those purlins with spacing 300 mm-350 mm and kept in place by partially
driven nails at both sides of the pipes

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 Then 15 mm thick, 2440 mm x 1220 mm plywood sheets were laid on those GI pipes. Joints
of plywood sheets were strengthen by placing 2”x 2” timber rods at joins.

 Then masking tapes were sticked at plywood sheet joints to avoid the leakage of grout from
concrete.

 Next mould oil applied on beams and slab using roller brushes.

 Finally slab was levelled.

Figure 2.29 Form oiled Slab formwork Figure 2.28 Slab bottom

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2.3.7 Inspection of formworks

After finishing formworks and reinforcement works onspections were carried out before
placement of concrete.Following things were checked.

 Whether the formwork is accurate according to the drawing

 Checked the sideboards were fixed sufficiently by placing GI pipes and the form ties in
correct places at correct spacing.

 Cleanliness of formowrk

 Checked the formwork for the correct alignment and the level
 Checked whether the release agents are applied on the boards

 Checked adequate Cover blocks are placed.


 Checked Whether the joints are constructed firmly to prevent the leakage of grouting when
concreting
 Checked whether junction boxes and conduits for electrical works were firmly fixed.

2.3.8 Removing of formwork

Formworks is the temporary structure that has been used to support actual concrete members.
There fore after gaining required strength they should remove without damaging concrete
members due to shock or vibration. Formwork were stripped in the following order.

1. Shutters to vertical faces such as sides of columns, beams and walls

2. Shutters to soffits of roof and floor slabs, horizontal and inclined canopies.

3. Shutters to soffits of beams.

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Table 2.1 Minimum days for formwork removal

Element Minimum days before removing formwork

Columns and concrete walls 1

Slabs 4

Beams – Side 7

Bottom 14

2.3.9 Protection of formwork

 Apllication of mould oil should extended around the edges.

 Formwork should store off the ground with proper cover.

 Steel should be prevented from rusting.

 Formwork should be cleaned immediately after striking.

 Should remove from concrete susfaces carefully.

2.4 Tests for conrete

Foe every major cocreting done in the site concrete cubes has to be casted for compressive strength
checking. In casting a certain is followed.

As the truck mixer arrives to the site a portion of the concrete is taken for cube casting and slump
test.

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2.4.1 Slump Test

Slump cone is a metal mould in conical shape that is open in both ends and has attached handles
that has internal diameter of 100mm at top and 200mm at bottom with a height of 305mm. Cone
is placed on a hard non absorbent surface. Then cone is filled with concrete in 3 stages each time
rah layer is tamped 25 times with a 2ft long bullet nosed metal rod. At the end of the 3rd stage the
concrete is struck flush with the top of the mould. Then the mould is carefully lifted vertically
upward so as not to disturb the concrete cone and allowe the concrete to slump. The slump of the
cone is is measured by measuring the distance from the top of the slumped concrete to the top level
of the slump cone.

Usually in the site high workability is needed for the concrete. Also the reinforement have tight
spacing. So we used the concrete with slump in the range 170-190mm.

Figure 2.30 Slump testing

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2.4.2 Casting Test cubes

Usually for every 20 m3 we prepare test cubes. Each set consist of six cubes.

In the site we used the moulds of 150 x 150 x 150 mm cubical steel moulds for the preperation of
cubes. We have to fix them well and oil. The person coming from the lab fills the mould in 3 stages
and tamps each layer not less than 30 times bay a metal rod. Then he levels and smooths the top
with a trowel.

After 24 hours we have to remove the cubes from the moulds and keep them submerged in water
until taken out for testing.

Test is done for check the 7 days strength and 28 days strength. Cubes are taken to the CECB
laboratory sevices at Jawatta for testing.

What if the compressive strength test results in a failure ?

This is a very rare situation. But if such situation occurs suitable design changes has to be made
decreasing the load transferred to that specific element. Before that a drilled core is tested. Usually
it proves enough compressive strength.

Figure 2.31 Cube Casting

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2.5 Concreting

2.5.1 Introduction

Concrete is a heavy, rough building material that is made by mixing of Cement, Fine aggregate
(Sand), Coarse aggregate (Metal) and Water. The hardening occurs due to a chemical reaction
between the cement and the water. The concrete shall possess the strength, durability,
impermeability and stability required for the proposed structure.

2.5.2 Grade of Concrete

This is the standard method of expressing the Concrete strength, expected to be achieved at 28
days in N/mm2. According to the work different grades of concrete were used.

Table 2.2 Use of different concrete grades

Location of concrete Grade of concrete

Piles C35

Pile caps and ground beams C35

Columns and RCC walls C35 / C30

Beams and Slabs C35 / C30

Lintels C25

Screed concrete C15

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2.5.3 Mixing and Transportation of Concrete

Batching plant for the site is located at Kelaniya. Required volume and the grade of concrete is
noticed to the plant for the preparation and transportation.

Batching is the process of weighing or volumetrically measuring and introducing the ingredients
for a batch of concrete into the mixer.

It is generally noted that from ready mix plant the concrete should be discharged from the truck
mixer within two hours. Transportation should be done in a way avoiding segregation and not
reducing workability. Truck mixer is the most common way of transporting concrete to the site.
Truck mixers are commonly available in 5m3 and 7m3 capacity. Fully or partially mixed concrete
is loaded to the truck mixer from the plant. During the transportation period the drum is allowed
to revolve at 1-2 revolutions per minute. After arriving to the site it is increased to 10-15
revolutions per minute for few minutes before pouring starts.

Mixers are usually painted in white color because it leads to minimum heat absorption during
transportation.

Figure 2.32 Truck Mixture


Figure 2.33 Pouring to the Pump Car

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2.5.4 Concreting of Elements

2.5.4.1 Column Concreting.

 Initially the column formwork should be properly cleaned and leveled.

 Then Barra emulsion 100ml (mixed with 100ml of water) should applied to the chipped
construction joint of the column.

 Then Barra emulsion 100ml (mixed with 100ml of water) should applied to the chipped
construction joint of the column.

 After 24hours formwork can be removed and the casted column should be cured for 7days.

2.5.4.2 Slabs and beams concreting

 Initially the slab and beam formwork should be properly cleaned and leveled.

 Then Barra emulsion 100ml (mixed with 100ml of water) should applied to the chipped
construction joints of the slab.

 If the concrete can’t pour directly to the location using the pump car, should use tremie
pipes and a rubber horse for pour concrete.

 After pouring the concrete it should be dragged using shovels and draggers to where it’s
necessary.

 Then proper compaction should be done using the poker machine inside the beam and
column formwork.

 After that concrete surface should be leveled using the levels given by the survey team.

 After concrete is settled surface roughening is done.

 After 24hours the slab curing is done for 7 days and side boards and slab boards can be
removed.

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2.5.5 Water Bar

When a construction is below the ground level concrete is in contact with water continuously. As
the construction is done in stages sometimes concreting has to be done on top of an existing
concreting. In such cases there is a possibility of water seeping through the gap between the two
layers of concrete. In such places a water bar is used.

There are 2 types of water bars used.

1. Rubber water bar (HDBR)

2. Steel water bar

2.5.5.1 HDBR

This is designed for the integral sealing of construction joints. It expands up to 400% of its original
dry volume with contact with water to form a positive seal. After placing the water bar we have to
make sure to keep it dry until the concrete is poured. In the site I experienced the use of water bar
in continuing the retaining wall and the lift wall as they are going to be backfilled from the outside.

Figure 2.34 Placing the water bar


Figure 2.35 HDBR Water Bar

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2.6 Tiling

Tiling is the most common floor finishing method used in modern days. In our site also all
bathrooms, Terrace, Yard, Balcony and pantry areas are finished with tiling. Only the living room
and bed rooms are finished with timber.

2.6.1 Tools and materials used in Tiling

 Porcelain Tiles (600x600 , 600x300 , 200x200 )

 Tile Adhesive

 Tile cutter

 Grinder machine

 Masonry trowel

 Spirit level

 Tile spacers

 Rubber Hammer

2.6.2 Floor tiling

 After the rendering is completed and cured we ask the survey team to mark the tile lines
on the tiling areas. Then they mark the tile lines considering the water flow, wastage and
good appearance.

 Floor is wetted well before tiling.

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 Then the tillers prepare the adhesive mixture adding roughly about 6-7 liters of water to a
one adhesive bag of 20kg. In the site we used SOLAKRO tile adhesives.

 They spread the adhesive mixture on the floor and lay the tiles on it.

 Using the rubber hammer tiles are brought to required finishing level and slope is
maintained.

 They used 2mm tile spacers to maintain a constant groove size between tile edges.

 After drying the surface and grooves are cleaned well.

 Grouting is usually done after all inspections are done.

2.6.3 Wall tiling

 In wall tiling we apply the adhesive mixure on the tile back face rather than on the wall.

 Using the rubber hammer tiles are fitted to the wall and kept exactly vertical.

2.6.4 Tile quality Checks.

 We ask the tilers to check each tile for damages when the are taking the tile from the
packing. There is a high possibility that the edges are chipped. If such tile is fitted to floor
or wall we ask them to remove and replace it.

 Groove size should be constant (2mm)

 Tiles should be on same level. We check that by using a tile piece. When we run it on the
tile surface there should not be any disturbance.

 Should not make a hollow sound after well dried.

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 Wall tile work should be exactly vertial.

 Slope should be maintained in the bathroom areas floor tile work.

 They are adviced to protect the tiles aftert completion by covering it with cardboards

After completion of every tile work I had to fill the Tile checklist and get it signed by the Assistant
engineer and give it to Resident Engineer. Then he conducts the inspection and mark the defected
tiles. Then I had to inform the tilers about that and recorrect it.

Figure 2.36 Grinder Machine


Figure 2.37 Tile Cutter

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Figure 2.40 Floor Tiling Figure 2.39 Tile Adhesives

Figure 2.38 2mm Tile Spacers

2.7 Water proofing

2.7.1 Introduction

Water proofing is an important aspect in construction because it proper water proofing will lead to
long lasting of the structure. All the areas which are continuously in contact with water should be
water proofed.In our site all the Bathroom, Terrace, Yard, Balcony areas are water proofed.

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2.7.2 Steps of water proofing

Surface Preperation

 Concrete surface should be chipped well and then cleaned. Chipping the surface will give
a better contact with the water proofing agent.

Preperation of the mixture

 The water proofing agent used in the site is Deepseal Flexi 201

 Dry component and the liquid component is mixed in 1:1 ratio until even and consistent
slurry is generated.

Application

 Then it is applied on the prepared surface using a stiff brush.

 Have to ensure full coverage of the area

 Applied in 2 coats. 2nd coat is after 24 hours from the 1st coat.

Pond Test

 After few days the area is filled with water. After about 3 days inspetions are carried out
by the resident engineer. Any leaks can be identified by visual observations of wet patches
under the water proofed area.

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Figure 2.41 Water Proofing Agent

2.8 Floor Rendering

2.8.1 Introduction

When the floor areas are proved water proof then they are cleared for floor rendering. Water is
completely removed from the floor and the survey team is asked to place the level points in the
required levels.

2.8.2 Placing of Level Points

Levelling instrument is placed on the tripod in a place where all corners of the rendering area are
visible. Then using the staff the level of the gully top is taken. A level point near the gully is kept
to level adding 15mm to the gully top level. Level points at other 3 corners are kept to level
reducing 10mm from the level of the level point near the gully.

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2.8.3 Steps of Rendering

 First we have to apply cement grout covering the whole floor area. It is to ensure better
bonding between water proofing coat and the cement sand mixture.
 Then we prepare the cement sand mixture. Cement to Sand ratio is 1:3. But with the high
cost and unavailability of river sand we use 2 portions of river sand and 1 portions of quarry
dust (manufactured sand)
 We have to compact the mixture well while rendering.
 After rendering is completed we have to check whether the required finishing level is
achieved and enough slope is maintained.
 Then we keep the rendering area to harden for about 24 hours and fill the area with water
for curing for 3-7 days.
 After curing is completed water is removed and the unit is handed over for tile marking.

2.9 Blockwork

In our site blockwork is used in constructing ducts, dummy walls, Vanity counters and non-load
bearing partition walls. Mainly used block type is hollow cement blocks. Advantages of using
hollow blocks are that they provide better thermal and sound insulation as well as it is economical.

Hollow cement blocks of different size are used in different places.

 200 x 190 x 390 mm


 150 x 190 x 390 mm
 100 x 190 x 390 mm
 200 x 190 x 195 mm

 For the mortar mixture sea sand is used instead of river sand because it is far more
economical.
 In practice it is told not to raise more than 7 rows of blockwork in one day.

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 If it is a long blockwall stiffener columns are provided in every 3m interval.


 In case if it is a wall extension from an already constructed concrete wall the blockwork
should be anchored using steel bars in adequate intervals.
 Blockwork should be done in a way that hollows are not filled with mortar. But the hollows
in the bottom most row and the corners of a wall or a duct should be filled with mortar.

2.10 Plastering

Plastering can be classified in to two categories as internal plastering and external plastering.
Internal plaster is usually has a thickness of 12mm whereas external plaster has a thickness of
20mm.

2.10.1 Internal plastering

 Using the laser machine level points for plastering are kept in required thickness and in
adequate distances.
 1:4 cement sand mortar is used for plastering.
 First coat is then applied.
 Finally finished with the finishing coat.
 Internal plastering is finished as a smooth finish using the finishing trowel.

2.10.2 Concrete wall plastering

 Concrete wall should be chipped well using a chipping machine and then washed and
cleaned well.
 Bara Emulsion should be applied for concrete walls for better bonding between mortar and
the wall.
 Then a first coat should be applied and it should be left to dry for at least 3 days. It should
also be cured in those period.
 Then plastering should be finished achieving the required thickness.

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Figure 2.42 Level Points Placing

Figure 2.43chipping for Plastering

2.10.3 Chicken Mesh

When a plastering occurs along a joint of a concrete wall and a block wall plastering should be
done over a chicken mesh. Chicken mesh should be attached to the walls well by nails. It should
extent at least 100mm into both walls. This is because the rate of thermal expansion is different in
concrete and blockwall. So if a chicken mesh is not provided cracks will occur at the joint.

Figure 2.44 Chicken Mesh

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2.10.4 External Plastering by Plaster spray machine

Later in my training period our site bought a plaster spray machine to speed up the external
plastering. The plastering mixture is made with cement and fly ash which is a byproduct of coal
fire power plants. Fly ash is used with cement for the ease of pumping. It also increases the
workability.

 First all the tools are fixed and the pipes are put into place.
 Then the mixture is prepared using the concrete mixer.
 Compressor should be connected properly to the gun and make sure that the air is flowing
without any disturbance.
 A cement grout mix is prepared and put into the machine which will ease the pumping
process.
 Then the prepared plaster mixture is put into the machine.
 Then the pumping process is started by opening the valve.
 Always an eye has to be kept on the person with the gun because he gives the signal to
open the valve or by pass. By pass means that the machine does not pump the mixture to
the pipe.
 Also we have to alert to the pressure meter. If it exceeds 100psi we have to turn the machine
off because it indicates that the pipe is blocked. Then the pipes should be disconnected and
clean the pipes.

Figure 2.46 Plaster mixture Figure 2.45 Scaffolding work for external Plastering

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2.11 Daily costing

2.11.1 Introduction

Daily costing is the calculation of the total of material cost, equipment cost, labor cost and the
overheads for a particular work for the day. For every major work going on in the site we had
to prepare daily costing sheets. I had to prepare the daily costing sheets for tiling.

2.11.2 Steps of preparing daily costing sheets

 First the amount of work done is measured. For tiling it is number of square meters. It has
to be measure separately for floor tiling and wall tiling.
 Then the usage of adhesive bags is noted.
 They are multiplied by their unit prices to calculate the total material cost.
 For the machine and equipment cost the equipment provided for the tillers has to be noted.
Ex. Grinding wheels, Cutting wheels, pencils, Tile spacers
 For the labor cost the time that the tillers worked has to be noted. Labor cost is prepared
according to the rates given for the tillers.
 Then the addition of the material cost, equipment cost and labor cost is taken.
 6% of that total is again added as the overheads.
 Finally the daily cost for that particular work is calculated.

2.11.3 Objectives of daily costing

 To identify the areas that can be sped up by allocating more labors


 To check whether the given rate are fair for the sub-contractors
 To track the works that are spending more than allowed.

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 To identify the skill levels of the labors.

Figure 2.47 Daily Costing sheet Format

2.12 Man Power

Every morning we have to take the numbers of the labors who are allocated for us. Their on time
and off time and the work done in the day has to be noted down. At the end of each day we have
to prepare the man power sheets for those labors. In that sheet we have to note the normal hours
and the overtime hours they worked. After preparing that we have to get the approval of the
Engineer and hand over the sheet to time office. Salaries will be prepared for the labors according
to those manpower sheets.

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Figure 2.48 Daily Man Power sheet

2.13 Material Requisition

We have to follow a certain procedure to get any equipment or material from the stores. To that
we have to fill a material requisition chit and get the sign from a staff member. We have to include
the date, item number, description, unit, cost code for the particular item and the quantity.

Figure 2.49 Material Requisition Note

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Chapter 3

3 Conclusion

16 weeks of Industrial training helped us to familiarize with the practical situations which we
hardly experience during the 3 years of academic work. I was lucky enough to be exposed to wide
range of experiences. Although the structural work of the apartment building was almost
completed as the construction of the 3 story store building started I could experience all the
structural aspects. I could also touch all the finishing works as the finishing was going on in the
main building. Although all the theoretical parts were covered at the university it was the first time
we experience real life situations where those theories applied. It was very satisfying to understand
and do the work.

Maga Engineering Pvt Ltd is an excellent place for a trainee to get his industrial training. They
have the ability and the capacity to provide a useful training. Almost all their work sites do have
qualified Engineers who can give us any kind of advice and knowledge. The situation can be
different from one work site to another. But generally from what I have experienced I felt that they
have a great enthusiasm in training the undergraduates and they have no intension of holding back
anything they know. As Maga is a well reputed and established company it was a good opportunity
to understand the organizational structure. In my work site they straight away give full
responsibility of a particular work and ask us to complete and maintain the quality within a given
time. It was good to have a chance to hold such responsibilities. That also increase the level of self
confidence in completing a given task. They also include us in their decision makings and asks us
to give our inputs on the matters. Having the opportunity to work with all kind of people in
different levels was another good experience as it is a basic ability which a civil engineer should
posses. We have to be active in communicating with the staff because they won’t always come
and see whether we are getting what we want. If we feel we are doing the same thing again and
again we have to go and ask for rotations. In this period all the 16 weeks I was at the site. So I
didn’t have the opportunity to practice the use of any design software.

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We must consider our safety in work sites very important. There are number of instances that can
be considered as near misses. Civil engineering work site is always full of risks if we are not alert.
I suggest NAITA and the university to be even more cautious in selecting work sites for the
students. Dengue was and another serious issue even in our site. We have to be responsible for
ourselves and take good care of our safety.

We started our industrial training after the 5th semester. But until then most of the students haven’t
decided which field they are going to specialize. But 16 weeks of industrial training allows us to
be exposed to only one field. May be buildings or roads. I feel arranging the training period as two
periods of 12 weeks students can choose 2 fields and have the experience in both fields. So it
would be helpful in their future as well as selecting a research in final year.

Finally I thank everyone who helped me in completing the industrial training period successfully
and wish all the juniors to experience an even better industrial training.

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ANNEX

Annex 01

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Annex 02

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