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state if it is simple or compound.

1. 2 is the only even prime number.

Proposition - Simple

2. If 2 is odd, then there are more than 200000 planets in the universe.

Proposition - Compound

3. Alpha Centauri is the nearest star to the Earth and dogs have four legs.

Proposition - Compound

4. The capital of Africa is Café Verde if and only if 2 is greater than 5.

Proposition – Compound

5. Philippines has more than 7000 island but only about 2000 of it are inhabited.

Proposition - Compound

6. Miley Cyrus’ real name is Destiny Hope Cyrus or the word mathematics has 11

letters.

Proposition - Compound

7. Math is the best subject in the universe.

Not a proposition best cannot have a truth value

8. This sentence is false.

Not a proposition truth value cannot be determine – an example of a fallacy

9. Neither today is September 1 nor next week is September 8 next week.

Proposition - compound

10. Last year my grade in Mathematics is greater than 90 but my grade in English is

less than 80.

Proposition - Compound

II. Given that p is true, state whether the propositions are always true, sometimes true or

never true using truth table.

1. p v q

This is always true, the truth value of q does not matter

p q pvq

T T T

T F T

2. ~p

This is never true since this is opposite of p

p q

T F

3. ~p v p

Always true, truth value of p does not matter

p ~p p v ~p

T F T

4. ~p ^ p

This is never true

p ~p p ^ ~p

T F F

5. p ^ q

Sometimes true

p q p^q

T T T

T F F

6. p v (q ^ ~q)

Always true

p q ~q q ^ ~q p v (q ^ ~q)

T T F F T

T F T F T

7. p → q

Sometimes True

p q p→q

T T T

T F F

8. p → (q v p)

Always True

p q qvp p → (q v p)

T T T T

T F T T

9. p ↔ q

Sometimes True

p q p↔q

T T T

T F F

10. p v (q ^ r)

Always True

p q r q^r p v (q ^ r)

T T T T T

T T F F T

T F T F T

T F F F T

III. Translate each statement into symbols letting p the first statement, q the second

statement and r the third statement and state the truth value of each proposition.

1. 2 is the only even prime number.

p – True since simple the truth value of p is the truth value of the proposition

2. If 2 is odd, then there are more than 200000 planets in the universe.

p→q

p q p →q

F T T

2 is even and There are more than million times 200000 planets.

3. Alpha Centauri is the nearest star to the Earth and dogs have four legs.

p^q

p q p^q

F T F

Sun is the nearest star to earth and dogs have four legs

4. The capital of Africa is Café Verde if and only if 2 is greater than 5.

p↔q

p q p↔q

F F T

Africa is a continent it does not have a capital and 2 is less than 5

5. Philippines has more than 7000 island but only about 2000 of it are inhabited.

p^q

p q p^q

T T T

Philippines has more than 7000 island and only about 2000 of it are inhabited

Both are true and the students MUST know this

6. Miley Cyrus’ real name is Destiny Hope Cyrus or the word mathematics has 11

letters.

pvq

p q pvq

T T T

Miley Cyrus real name is Destiny Hope Cyrus and mathematics has 11 letters.

Note that even if the learners do not know Miley’s real name it won’t matter since

even if it is false the or statement is still true.

7. Neither today is September 1 nor next week is September 8 next week.

~(p v q)

This may depend on which day you will teach this, If today is September 1 then

p q pvq ~(p v q)

T T T F

Now if today is not September 1 then

p q pvq ~(p v q)

F F F T

less than 80.

The truth value depends on the student and his/her honesty.

9. If x + 2 = x + 5 then x = 0.

p→q

p q p →q

F T/F T

x + 2 = x+5 cannot be true and x = 0 may be true or false but it won’t matter since

if p is false the whole statement is true

3 3

10. Green is a primary color of light or 4 = √2 + √−121 + √2 − √−121

pvq

p q pvq

T T T

Green is a primary color of light together with blue and red.

Now the 2nd statement is true for the proof,

3 3 3 3

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 √2 + √−121 + √2 − √−121 = √2 + 11𝑖 + √2 − 11𝑖

3 3

𝐿𝑒𝑡 𝑎 = √2 + 11𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑏 = √2 − 11𝑖

𝑎3 + 𝑏 3 = (𝑎 + 𝑏)(𝑎2 − 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2 ) = (𝑎 + 𝑏)(𝑎2 − 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏 2 )

3 3

𝑆𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑏 = √(2 + 11𝑖)(2 − 11𝑖) = √125 = 5

𝐹𝑢𝑟𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑎3 + 𝑏 3 = 2 + 11𝑖 + 2 − 11𝑖 = 4

𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 4 = (𝑎 + 𝑏)(𝑎2 − 5 + 𝑏 2 ) = (𝑎 + 𝑏)[(𝑎 + 𝑏)2 − 2𝑎𝑏 − 5]

= (𝑎 + 𝑏)[(𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 ) − 15]

𝐹𝑟𝑜𝑚 ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑤𝑒 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑎 + 𝑏 = 4 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑖𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑠𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑠𝑓𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛.

𝑁𝑜𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑦 𝑚𝑎𝑦 𝑏𝑒 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎

+ 𝑏 𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑖𝑠.

IV. Using the truth table prove that the truth value of the second proposition is true if the

first proposition is true.

1. ((p →q) ^ p), q

p q[2] p →q (p →q) ^ p[1] [1] →[2]

T T T T T

T F F F T

F T T F T

F F T F T

2. ((p →q) ^ ~q), ~p

T T F T F F T

T F T F F F T

F T F T F T T

F F T T T T T

p q r p →q q →r (p →q) ^ (q→r) [1] p →r[2] [1] →[2]

T T T T T T T T

T T F T F F F T

T F T F T F T T

T F F F T F F T

F T T T T T T T

F T F T F F T T

F F T T T T T T

F F F T T T T T

4. p v q, ~p → q

p q ~p p v q[1] ~p→ q[2] [1] →[2]

T T F T T T

T F F T T T

F T T T T T

F F T F F T

In fact this is if and only if since the column of [1] is the same as the column of [2]

5. ((p v q) ^ ~p), q

p q ~p p v q (p v q) ^ ~p [1] q [2] [1] →[2]

T T F T F T T

T F F T F F T

F T T T T T T

F F T F F F T

p q r s p→q r→s p v r (r→s) ^ (p v r) (p→q) ^ ((r→s) ^ (p v r))[1] q v s[2] [1] →[2]

T T T T T T T T T T T

T T T F T F T F F T T

T T F T T T T T T T T

T T F F T T T T T T T

T F T T F T T T F T T

T F T F F F T F F F T

T F F T F T T T F T T

T F F F F T T T F F T

F T T T T T T T T T T

F T T F T F T F F T T

F T F T T T F F F T T

F T F F T T F F F T T

F F T T T T T T T T T

F F T F T F T F F F T

F F F T T T F F F T T

F F F F T T F F F F T

p q r p→q p→ r (p→q) ^ (p→ r)[1] q ^ r p→(q ^ r)[2] [1] →[2]

T T T T T T T T T

T T F T F F F F T

T F T F T F F F T

T F F F F F F F T

F T T T T T T T T

F T F T T T F T T

F F T T T T F T T

F F F T T T F T T

In fact this is if and only if since the column of [1] is the same as the column of [2]

8. (p ^ (q v r)) ,(p ^ q) v (p ^ r)

p q r q v r p ^ (q v r)[1] p ^ q p ^ r (p ^ q) v (p ^ r)[2] [1] →[2]

T T T T T T T T T

T T F T T T F T T

T F T T T F T T T

T F F F F F F F T

F T T T F F F F T

F T F T F F F F T

F F T T F F F F T

F F F F F F F F T

In fact this is if and only if since the column of [1] is the same as the column of [2]

p q p↔q[1] p ^ q ~p ~q ~p ^ ~ q ((p ^ q) v (~p ^ ~ q)

T T T T F F F T

T F F F F T F F

F T F F T F F F

F F T F T T T T

In fact this is if and only if since the column of [1] is the same as the column of [2]

p q r q→r p→(q→r)[1] p ^ q (p^q) →r[2] [1] →[2]

T T T T T T T T

T T F F F T F T

T F T T T F T T

T F F T T F T T

F T T T T F T T

F T F F T F T T

F F T T T F T T

F F F T T F T T

In fact this is if and only if since the column of [1] is the same as the column of [2]

therefore SHY WILL STAY AT HOME (This is modus ponens)

2. The propositions can be translated as. 𝑝 → 𝑞. ~𝑞. The conclusion would be ~p. So

therefore COMPASSIONATE DID NOT GIVE FOOD TO THE BEGGARS (This is

modus tollens)

3. The propositions can be translated as. 𝑝 → 𝑞. 𝑞 → 𝑟. The conclusion would be p→

r. So therefore IF AMBITIOUS ACHIEVES HIS DREAM THEN DILIGENT WILL

FINISH HIS JOB. (This is hypothetical syllogism)

4. The propositions can be translated as p v q. ~p. The conclusion would be q. So

therefore FRANK WILL NOT LIE TO YOU. (This is Disjunctive Syllogism)

5. The propositions can be translated as. 𝑝 → 𝑞. 𝑟 → 𝑠. p v r. The conclusion would be

q v s. So therefore IT IS EITHER YOU SHOULD TRUST RELIABLE OR

SINCERE IS TELLING THE TRUTH (This is Constructive Dillema)

VI. Challenge

Ryan S. Estolatan, one of the most handsome teacher in the Philippines, was the one

who prepared these 2018 Grade 11 MTAP materials, he prepared the first five

modules (not necessarily arranged from 1 to 5) at different days (Monday to Friday)

and spent different number of hours to finish each material (1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours,

5 hours and 6 hours). He prepared them at different places (one at the coffee shop).

From the given clue can you determine on which day, at what place and how much

time he spent preparing each material?

1. The 5 different places were his home, the one where he prepared the 4th module,

the school, the place where he spent his Monday, and the place where he spent 1

hour for the module.

2. Module 2 was prepared 2 hours less than the module he prepared in the food

court, which he prepared at some point in the day before he prepared the module

in the library. Module 2 was not prepared on Monday.

3. Module 3 was prepared at some point earlier in the week than the module he

prepared in the school but at some point later in the week than the module he

spent 3 hours to be finished. Module 3 was prepared on Wednesday.

4. Mr. Estolatan spent 6 hours finishing the module on Monday, and he prepared

Module 5 on Thursday.

5. Mr. Estolatan prepared the Module 2 either at home, library or at the food court.

Solution:

Module Day Place No of hours.

Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday

The module he prepared on Monday was not Module 4 (clue 1[they were prepared

at different places]), not module 2(clue 2) not module 3(clue 3 [since he spent

created Module 3 at some point later in the week than other module]) so therefore

he created Module 1 on Monday.

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday

(clue 3) [since he spent 3 hours on the day before he prepared module 3 but it

cannot be Monday since he spent 6 hours on Monday. (clue 4).]

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday

Module 3 Wednesday

Tuesday 3 hours

Module 2 was not created at the food court nor at the library (clue 2). So he

created Module 2 at home (clue 5) [I will italicize and all caps module 2 since you

are still not sure if it was prepared on Tuesday or Friday]

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday

Module 3 Wednesday

MODULE 2 Tuesday HOME 3 hours

MODULE 2 Friday HOME

Module 2 was not prepared for 1 hour [(clue 1) since he prepared it at home it is

different than the one he prepared for 1 hour.] It cannot be 6 hours since Module 1

was prepared for 6 hours. It cannot be 2 hours or 5 hours, since from (clue 2) it

was prepared 2 hours less than the other module but there is no module prepared

for 4 or 7 hours. So therefore Module 2 was prepared for 3 hours and thus

Module 2 was created at Tuesday at home for 3 hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday

Module 3 Wednesday

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Friday

This would mean that Module 4 was created on Friday.

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday

Module 3 Wednesday

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Module 4 Friday

He did not prepare Module 4 at school (clue 1) they were different places.

He did not prepare Module 1 at school(clue 1) because he prepared Module 1 on

Monday then he did not prepare it on School.

He prepared Module 2 at home.

He did not prepare Module 3 at school (clue 3 because he prepared it earlier in the

week than the one he prepared at school)

So he prepared Module 5 at school.

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday School

Module 3 Wednesday

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Module 4 Friday

By clue 1, the one he created for 1 hour was not Module 4 and not the one he

created at school (which is Module 5). Since it is already known that he created

Module 1 for 6 hours. And he created Module 2 for 3 hours. Then the one he

created for 1 hour was Module 3.

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday School

Module 3 Wednesday 1 hour

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Module 4 Friday

He spent 5 hours at the food court. Since he spent 2 hours more on the food court

than Module 2 (clue 2). Since he prepared module 5 at school, and prepared

module 1, 2, 3 for 6, 3 and 1 hours respectively. Therefore, Module 4 was

prepared for 5 hours at the food court and thus Module 4 was created at

Friday at food court for 5 hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday School

Module 3 Wednesday 1 hour

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Module 4 Friday Food court 5 hours

Therefore, Module 5 was prepared for 2 hours and thus Module 5 was

prepared at Thursday at school for 2 hours.

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday School 2 hours

Module 3 Wednesday 1 hour

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Module 4 Friday Food court 5 hours

Module 2 was prepared before he prepared the other module in the library. So

Module 1 cannot be in the library since Module 1 was prepared on Monday.

Therefore, Module 3 was the one created in the library and thus,

And by elimination Module 1 was prepared at Monday at the coffee shop for

6 hours.

Module Day Place No of hours.

Module 1 Monday Coffee shop 6 hours

Module 5 Thursday School 2 hours

Module 3 Wednesday Library 1 hour

Module 2 Tuesday Home 3 hours

Module 4 Friday Food court 5 hours

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