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2018 MTAP-DepEd Program of Excellence in Mathematics Grade 11 Session 3

I. Evaluate the following and give the final answer with positive exponents

1. 𝑥7 7. 𝑥 4 𝑦6
12. 𝑥 9
1
2. 𝑥10005 8. 𝑥 5 𝑥 12
3. 𝑎6 𝑏 5 1 13. 𝑦 12
9.
4. 𝑎18 𝑥 14. 12𝑥 2
5. 𝑥3𝑦2𝑧3 10. 𝑥 15. 𝑥 2
6. 𝑎4 𝑏 8 𝑐 12 11. 1

II. Solve the following equation

1. 2𝑥+3 = 64 → 2𝑥+3 = 26 → 𝑥 + 3 = 6 → 𝑥 = 3
2. 2𝑥+1 + 2𝑥 = 24 → 2(2𝑥 ) + 2𝑥 = 24 → 3(2𝑥 ) = 24 → 2𝑥 = 8 → 2𝑥 = 23 → 𝑥 = 3
3𝑥
3. 2𝑥 (3𝑥−1 ) = 2592 → 2𝑥 ( 3 ) = 2592 → 6𝑥 = 3(2592) → 6𝑥 = 3(25 )(34 ) → 6𝑥 = 65 → 𝑥 = 5
4. 43𝑥 = 82𝑥+9 → (22 )3𝑥 = (23 )2𝑥+9 → 26𝑥 = 26𝑥+27 → 6𝑥 = 6𝑥 + 27 → 0 = 27 →
𝑁𝑜 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
1
5. 4𝑥 = 256 → (22 )𝑥 = 2−8 → 22𝑥 = 2−8 → 2𝑥 = −8 → 𝑥 = −4
21
6. 9𝑥 = 272𝑥−7 → (32 )𝑥 = (33 )2𝑥−7 → 32𝑥 = 36𝑥−21 → 2𝑥 = 6𝑥 − 21 → 4𝑥 = 21 → 𝑥 = 4
1 1
𝑥 2 𝑥 2𝑥 1 1
7. 9 = √3 → (3 ) = 3 → 3 2 = 3 → 2𝑥 = 2 → 𝑥 = 4
2

8. 32𝑥+3 − 82(3𝑥 ) + 3 = 0 → 27(32𝑥 ) − 82(3𝑥 ) + 3 = 0 → (27(3𝑥 ) − 1)(3𝑥 − 3) = 0


1
27(3𝑥 ) = 1 𝑜𝑟 3𝑥 = 3 → 3𝑥 = 𝑜𝑟 3𝑥 = 3 → 𝑥 = −3 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 1
27
3𝑥 2𝑥 𝑥 𝑥 8 𝑥
9. 2 = 3 → 8 = 9 → (9) = 1 → 𝑥 = 0
10. (3−𝑥+2 )(92𝑥+5 ) = 27𝑥+4 → (3−𝑥+2 )((32 )2𝑥+5 ) = (33 )𝑥+4 → (3−𝑥+2 )(34𝑥+10 ) = 33𝑥+12
33𝑥+12 = 33𝑥+12 → 3𝑥 + 12 = 3𝑥 + 12 → 0 = 0 → 𝐴𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟𝑠

III. Complete the table then graph the following function.

Function Domain Range Asymptote x-intercept y-intercept


y = 2x All Reals y>0 y=0 No x-intercept 1
y = 3x All reals y>0 y=0 No x-intercept 1
1 All reals y>0 y=0 No x-intercept 1
y = 2𝑥
−1 All reals y<1 y=1 1 -1
𝑦= +1
2 𝑥−1
1 All reals y > -8 y = -8 -6 -63/8
𝑦 = 𝑥+3 − 8
2

IV. Rewrite the following exponential equations in logarithmic form.

1. log 7 343 = 3 2. log 𝑎 𝑥 = 2 3. log 𝑥 𝑐 4 = 3

V. Evaluate the following.

1. log 2 + log 3 = log 6


2. log 4 + log 25 = log 100 = log 102 = 2
3. log 20 − log 2 = log 10 = 1
4. log 2 20 − log 2 5 + log 10 = log 2 4 + log 10 = 2 + 1 = 3
6
log18 64 6 6
5. = log 32 64 = log 32 64 = log 25 26 = log 25 25(5) = 5 (1) = 5
log18 32
123 43 33 64(33 )
6. 3 log 3 12 − 2 log 3 8 = log 3 123 − log 3 82 = log 3 = log 3 = log 3 = log 3 33 = 3
82 82 64
7. 𝑎 log 2 + 𝑏 log 𝑛 = log 𝑎2 + log 𝑛𝑏 = log 𝑎2 𝑛𝑏

VI. Solve the following.


4 4 1
4
1. log 𝑥 16 = 3 → 𝑥 3 = 16 → 𝑥 3 = 24 → 𝑥 3 = 2 → 𝑥 = 8
2. 2log 3 𝑥 = log 3 81 → 𝑥 2 = 81 → 𝑥 = ±9 𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑥 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑑 𝑏𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 0 𝑠𝑜 𝑥 = 9
3. log 3 𝑥 2 = log 3 81 → 𝑥 2 = 81 → 𝑥 = ±9
loga 𝑥
4. = 3 → log 3 𝑥 = 3 → 𝑥 = 33 = 27
log𝑎 3
5. (log 3 𝑥)2 − 3 log 3 𝑥 + 2 = 0 → (log 3 𝑥 − 1)(log 3 𝑥 − 2) = 0 → log 3 𝑥 = 1 𝑜𝑟 log 3 𝑥 = 2
𝑥 = 31 = 3 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 32 = 9
log2 9
6. = 2 → log 𝑥 9 = 2 → 𝑥 2 = 9 → 𝑥 = ±3 𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑥 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑑 𝑏𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 0 𝑠𝑜 𝑥 = 3
log2 𝑥
2 2 2
7. log 3 2 − log 3 𝑥 = 2 → log 3 𝑥 = 2 → 𝑥 = 9 → 9𝑥 = 2 → 𝑥 = 9
log 12−log 4+log 3 log 9 1
8. = −2 → log 𝑥 = −2 → log 𝑥 9 = −2 → 𝑥 −2 = 9 → 𝑥 2 = 9 → 𝑥 =
log 𝑥
1 1
± 3 𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑑 𝑏𝑒 𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 0 𝑠𝑜 𝑥 = 3
9. (log 𝑥)2 − log 𝑥 2 + 1 = 0 → (log 𝑥)2 − 2log 𝑥 + 1 = 0 → log 𝑥 − 1 = 0 →
log 𝑥 = 1 → 𝑥 = 101 = 10
10. 2 log 𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑥 → 2(1) = 𝑥 → 𝑥 = 2

VII. Complete the table then graph the following function.

Function Domain Range Asymptote x-intercept y-intercept


𝑦 = log 2 𝑥 x>0 All reals x=0 1 No y-intercept
𝑦 = log 3 𝑥 x>0 All reals x=0 1 No y-intercept
𝑦 = log 1 𝑥 x>0 All reals x=0 1 No y-intercept
2
𝑦 = −log 2 (𝑥 + 1) + 1 x > -1 All reals x = -1 1 1
𝑦 = log 2 (𝑥 − 9) − 7 x>9 All reals x=9 137 No y-intercept

VIII. Solve for the following inequality.

1 𝑥+3
1. (2) > 64 → 2−(𝑥+3) > 26 → −𝑥 − 3 > 6 → 𝑥 < −9
2. 3𝑥 < 27 → 3𝑥 < 33 → 𝑥 < 3
log2 16 4 4 4−2 log2 𝑥
3. log 𝑥 16 < 2 → < 2 → log < 2 → log −2<0→ <0
log2 𝑥 2𝑥 2𝑥 log2 𝑥
𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 0, 1, 4 → 𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 0 < 𝑥 < 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 > 4
1 3𝑥−6 1 𝑥−100
4. (8) ≥ (8) → 3𝑥 − 6 ≤ 𝑥 − 100 → 2𝑥 ≤ −94 → 𝑥 ≤ −47
5. 3𝑥 + 3𝑥 + 3𝑥 ≤ 9 log 3 9 → 3(3𝑥 ) ≤ 9(log 3 32 ) → 3𝑥+1 ≤ 18 → 3𝑥 ≤ 6 → x ≤ log 3 6
9𝑥 32𝑥 18
6. < 272𝑥−6 → < 33(2𝑥−6) → 3𝑥 < 36𝑥−18 → 𝑥 < 6𝑥 − 18 → 5𝑥 > 18 → 𝑥 >
3𝑥 3𝑥 5
log(2𝑥+1) log(𝑥+8) log(2𝑥+1) log(𝑥+8)
7. log 𝑥 (2𝑥 + 1) < log 𝑥 (𝑥 + 8) → < → − <0→
log 𝑥 log 𝑥 log 𝑥 log 𝑥
𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 0, 1, 7 → 𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 1 < 𝑥 < 7
IX. Solve the following problem involving exponents and logarithm.

1.
a. log 35= log 7 + log 10 – log 2= c + 1- a
b. log 31.5 = log 9 + log 7 – log 2 = log 32 + log 7 – log 2=2 log 3 + log 7 – log 2 = 2b+c-a
c. log 24/7 = log 8 + log 3 – log 7 = log 23 + log 3 – log 7=3 log 2 + log 3 – log 7 = 3a+b -c
d. log 70 = log 7 + log 10 = c + 1
2. Since every minute, the number of bacteria doubles. Now the number of bacteria is just 2
times the number. Therefore 12:30 pm – 1 minute = 12:29 pm
4 6
3. 100 (5) = 100(0.86 ) = 26.2144 𝑚 ≈ 26.21 𝑚
22920
4. 2 (2 5730 ) = 2(24 ) = 2(16) = 32 𝑘𝑔
5. 𝐿𝑒𝑡 𝑥 = 9log3 4 → log 3 𝑥 = log 3 9log3 4 → log 3 𝑥 = (log 3 4)(log 3 9) → log 3 𝑥 =
(log 3 4)(log 3 32 ) → log 3 𝑥 = 2 (log 3 4)(log 3 3) → log 3 𝑥 = (log 3 42 )(1) → log 3 𝑥 =
log 3 16 → 𝑥 = 16

X. Challenge

1.
𝐴 = 𝑚 𝑚 𝑛𝑛 𝑜 𝑜 , 𝐵 = 𝑚 𝑚 𝑛𝑜 𝑜 𝑛 , 𝐶 = 𝑚 𝑛 𝑛𝑜 𝑜 𝑚
𝐴 𝑚𝑚 𝑛𝑛 𝑜𝑜 𝑜𝑜−𝑛 𝑜 𝑜−𝑛 𝑜
= 𝑚 𝑜 𝑛 = 𝑜−𝑛 = ( ) . 𝑁𝑜𝑤 𝑜 > 𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 > 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑜 − 𝑛 > 0
𝐵 𝑚 𝑛 𝑜 𝑛 𝑛 𝑛
𝐴 𝑜 𝑜−𝑛
=( ) > 1. 𝑊ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝐴 > 𝐵
𝐵 𝑛
𝐵 𝑚 𝑚 𝑛𝑜 𝑜 𝑛 𝑜𝑛−𝑚 𝑜
= 𝑛 𝑜 𝑚 = 𝑛−𝑚 . 𝑁𝑜𝑤 𝑜 > 𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 > 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑛 > 𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑛 − 𝑚 > 0
𝐶 𝑚 𝑛 𝑜 𝑚 𝑚
𝐵 𝑜𝑛−𝑚 𝑜 𝑛−𝑚
= =( ) > 1. 𝑊ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝐵 > 𝐶. 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝐴 > 𝐵 > 𝐶
𝐶 𝑚𝑛−𝑚 𝑚
2018𝑎𝑏𝑐
2. If 16𝑎 = 81𝑏 = 625𝑐 = 30, find the value of 𝑎𝑏+𝑏𝑐+𝑎𝑐 .
1 1 1
16 = 30𝑎 , 81 = 30𝑏 , 625 = 30𝑐
1 1 1 1 1 1 𝑎𝑏𝑐
24 = 30𝑎 , 34 = 30𝑏 , 54 = 30𝑐 → 304 = 30𝑎+𝑏+𝑐 = 30𝑎𝑏+𝑏𝑐+𝑎𝑐
𝑎𝑏𝑐 2018𝑎𝑏𝑐
=4→ = 2018(4) = 8072
𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏𝑐 + 𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑏 + 𝑏𝑐 + 𝑎𝑐
2
3. (𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 5)𝑥 −10𝑥+21 = 1
2
(𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 5)𝑥 −10𝑥+21 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑏𝑒 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 1 𝑖𝑓 (𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 5) = 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 2 − 10𝑥 + 21 = 0
𝑜𝑟 𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 5 = −1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑥 2 − 10𝑥 + 21 𝑖𝑠 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛
𝐹𝑖𝑟𝑠𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 5 = 1 → 𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 4 = 0 → (𝑥 + 1)(𝑥 + 4) = 0
→ 𝑥 = −1 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = −4
𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 𝑐𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑥 2 − 10𝑥 + 21 = 0 → (𝑥 − 3)(𝑥 − 7) = 0 → 𝑥 = 3 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 7
𝑇ℎ𝑖𝑟𝑑 𝑐𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 5 = −1 → 𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 + 6 = 0 → (𝑥 + 2)(𝑥 + 3) = 0
→ 𝑥 = −2 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = −3
𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝑖𝑓 𝑥 = −2, 𝑥 2 − 10𝑥 + 21 = (−2)2 − 10(−2) + 21 = 4 + 20 + 21 = 45
𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑑𝑑 𝑠𝑜 𝑥 = −2 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑖𝑓 𝑥 = −3, 𝑥 2 − 10𝑥 + 21 = (−3)2 − 10(−3) + 21 = 9 + 30 + 21 = 50
𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑠𝑜 𝑥 = −3 𝑖𝑠 𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 − 1, −4, 3, 7, −3
1 1 1 1
4. Solve for log + log + log + ⋯ + log .
2 100! 3 100! 4 100! 100 100!

1 1 1 1
+ + +⋯+
log 2 100! log 3 100! log 4 100! log100 100!
1 1 1 1
= + + + ⋯+
log 100! log 100! log 100! log 100!
log 2 log 3 log 4 log 100
log 2 log 3 log 4 log 100
= + + + ⋯+
log 100! log 100! log 100! log 100!
log((2)(3)(4) … (100)) log 100!
= = =1
log 100! log 100!

5. Given that x > 1. What is log √𝑥 √𝑥√𝑥√𝑥 √𝑥√𝑥.

1
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 2
log √𝑥 √𝑥√𝑥√𝑥 √𝑥√𝑥 = log 1 𝑥 𝑥 (𝑥 (𝑥 (𝑥 2 )) )
𝑥2

( ( ) )
1
1 4 1
1 2 1 8
1 1 2 1 1 1 2
= log 1 𝑥 2 𝑥 (𝑥 (𝑥 (𝑥 2 )) ) = log 1 𝑥 2 𝑥 4 (𝑥 (𝑥 (𝑥 2 )) )
𝑥2 𝑥2

( ( ) ) ( ( ))
1
1 1 1 1 16 1 1 1 1 1
= log 1 𝑥 2 (𝑥 4 (𝑥 8 (𝑥 (𝑥 2 )) )) = log 1 (𝑥 2 (𝑥 4 (𝑥 8 (𝑥 16 (𝑥 32 )))))
𝑥2 𝑥2

( )
1 1 1 1 1
( )+( )+( )+( )+( )
31 1 31 31 1 31
= log 1 𝑥 2 4 8 16 32 = log 1 𝑥 32 = log 1 𝑥 (2)(16) = log 1 𝑥 2 =
𝑥2 𝑥2 𝑥2 16 𝑥2 16

Prepared by: RYAN S. ESTOLATAN, Kapitolyo High School