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CHE60803

Lecture 13
• Cascade control
• Selective and override control

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General Control Diagram

General representation of a control problem.


Single loop control strategies:
Cascade control
• Example 1: Single loop control of a jacketed vessel
(kettle)

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Single loop control strategies:
Cascade control
• Example 1: Single loop control of a jacketed vessel
(kettle)

TT TC

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GD
E To
R +
+- GC Gv +
GKettle

Gm

Block diagram of single loop control

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Primary control loop

TT1 TC1
Secondary control loop
Set point
TC2

TT2

TC1: Master controller


TC2: Slave controller

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D2 D2

GD2 GD1
R E1 E2 Tj To
+ GC1 + GC2 Gv ++ Gjacket ++ GKettle
- -

Gm2

Gm1

Block diagram of cascade control

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Cascade Control

Example 2: Single loop control of a furnace temperature

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Cascade Control

Example 2: Single loop control of a furnace temperature

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Feedback: Sluggish response to fuel gas pressure
Cascade : rapid response to fuel gas pressure

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Cascade Control

The cascade control loop structure has two


distinguishing features:
• The output signal of the master controller serves
as the set point for the slave controller.
• The two feedback control loops are nested

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Selective Control

• Most process control applications have an equal number of controlled


variables and manipulated variables. However, if fewer manipulated variables
than controlled variables are available, it is not possible to eliminate offset in
all the controller variables for arbitrary disturbances or set-point changes.
• For control problems with fewer manipulated variables than controlled
variables, selectors are employed for sharing the manipulated variables among
the controlled variables
References Used

• Seborg Chapter 16
Lecture 2

• Donald and Steven chapter 17

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Thank you
Lecture 3

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