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# Discrete Structures – Fall 2019 Assignment-02 Due: Friday, 8th November

## Problem 1 - (Recap of Assignment 1)

Part-A
Evaluate (describe with reason if the given claim is correct or not) the following propositions:
i. If x is divisible by 150 then it is either a multiple of 90 or 30.
ii. If x*y=0, either x=0 or y=0.
iii. If Islamabad is the Capital of Pakistan and Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in the world
then Capital of Pakistan has the world’s largest mosque.

Part-B
Write negation of following statements. Hint: Try to separately write p and q:
a. He never comes on time in summer.
b. Billoo’s favourite food is halwa puri and her least favourite drink is lassi.
c. Jami will come to class if he wakes up on time.
d. x=3, y=0,z=10 implies x*y*z=0.
e. If x*y=0, either x=0 or y=0.

Part-C
Let p, q, and r be the propositions
p : You get an A on the final exam.
q : You do every assignment.
r : You get an A in this class.
Write the following propositions using p, q, and r and logical connectives (including negations).
a) You get an A in this class, but you do not do every assignment.
b) You get an A on the final, you do every assignment, and you get an A in this class.
c) To get an A in this class, it is necessary for you to get an A on the final.
d) You get an A on the final, but you don’ t do every assignment; nevertheless, you get an A in this
class.
e) Getting an A on the final and doing every assignment is sufficient for getting an A in this class.

Part-D
Write the inverse, converse and contrapositive of the following statements (in English). Hint: It will
help to separately write p and q.
a. Pakistan will win the match if they bat all 50 overs.
b. Winning the match against Bangladesh is sufficient for Pakistan to qualify for semi final.

Problem 2 -
Express the following statements using quantifiers, variables, and the predicates, with following information:
𝐷 is set of all students
𝑀 (𝑠) : 𝑠 is a math major student
𝐶 (𝑠) : 𝑠 is a computer science major student
𝐸 (𝑠) : 𝑠 is an engineering major student
a) There is an engineering student who is a math major.
b) Every computer science student is an engineering student.
c) No computer science students are engineering student.
Discrete Structures – Fall 2019 Assignment-02 Due: Friday, 8th November

## d) Some computer science students are also math majors.

e) Some computer science students are engineering students and some are not.

Problem 3 -
A. Write negation of each of the statements:
a) ∀ real numbers 𝑥, if 𝑥 2 ≥ 1, then 𝑥 > 0.
b) ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ, if 𝑥(𝑥 + 1) > 0, then 𝑥 > 0 or 𝑥 < −1.
c) ∀ integers 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, if 𝑎 − 𝑏 is even and 𝑏 − 𝑐 is even, then 𝑎 − 𝑐 is even.
B. Write converse of above three statements.
C. Write contrapositive of above three statements.

Problem 4 -
Task1: Write each of the following statements in plain English, without using the symbols ∀ or ∃ or any variables (as
simple as possible)
a) ∀ colors 𝐶, ∃ an animal 𝐴 such that 𝐴 is colored 𝐶.
b) ∃a book 𝑏 such that ∀ people 𝑝, 𝑝 has read 𝑏.
c) ∀ odd integers 𝑛, ∃ an integer 𝑘, such that 𝑛 = 2𝑘 + 1.

Task2: Write negation of the above statements (in mathematical notation and in simple English)

Problem 5 –
Let 𝑍 ∗ be the set of all nonzero integers.
(a) Use a counterexample to explain why the following statement is false:
∀𝑥 ∈ 𝑍 ∗ , ∃𝑦 ∈ 𝑍 ∗ 𝑠𝑢𝑐ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑥𝑦 = 1.
(b) Write the negation of the statement in part (b) in symbolic form using appropriate symbols for quantifiers.
(c) Write the negation from part(c) in English without using the symbols for quantifiers.

Problem 6 –
Write each of the following statements as an English sentence that does not use the symbols for quantifiers.
(a) (∃𝑚 ∈ 𝑍)( ∃𝑛 ∈ 𝑍)(𝑚 > 𝑛)
(b) (∃𝑚 ∈ 𝑍)( ∀𝑛 ∈ 𝑍)(𝑚 > 𝑛)
(c) (∀𝑚 ∈ 𝑍)(∃𝑛 ∈ 𝑍)(𝑚 > 𝑛)
(d) (∀𝑚 ∈ 𝑍)(∀𝑛 ∈ 𝑍)(𝑚 > 𝑛)
(e) (∃𝑚 ∈ 𝑍)( ∀𝑛 ∈ 𝑍)( 𝑚2 > 𝑛)
(f) (∀𝑚 ∈ 𝑍)(∃𝑛 ∈ 𝑍 )(𝑚2 > 𝑛)

## Write negation of the above expressions.

Problem 7 -
For each of the following statements
I. Write the statement as an English sentence that does not use the symbols for quantifiers .
II. Write the negation of the statement in symbolic form in which the negation symbol is not used.
III. Write a useful negation of the statement in an English sentence that does not use the s ymbols for quantifiers.
(a) (∃𝑥 ∈ 𝑄)(𝑥 > √2) .
(b) (∀𝑥 ∈ 𝑄)(𝑥 2 − 2 ≠ 0).
(c) (∀𝑥 ∈ 𝑍) (𝑥 is even or 𝑥 is odd).
(d) (∃𝑥 ∈ 𝑄)( √2 < 𝑥 < √3) .
(e) (∀𝑥 ∈ 𝑍) (If 𝑥 2 is odd, then 𝑥 is odd).
(f) (∀𝑛 ∈ 𝑁) [If 𝑛 is a perfect square, then (2𝑛 − 1) is not a prime number].
(g) (∀𝑛 ∈ 𝑁) (𝑛2 − 𝑛 + 41 is a prime number).
Discrete Structures – Fall 2019 Assignment-02 Due: Friday, 8th November

Problem 8 -
Translate each of these nested quantifications into an English statement that expresses a mathematical fact. The domain in
each case consists of all real numbers.
a) ∃x ∀y (xy = y)
b) ∀x ∀y ( ( (x < 0) ∧ (y < 0) ) → (xy > 0) )
c) ∃x ∃y ( (x2 > y) ∧ (x < y) )
d) ∀x ∀y ∃z (x + y = z)

Problem 9 -

Rewrite each of these statements so that negations appear only within predicates (that is, so that no negation is outside a
quantifier or an expression involving logical connectives).
a) ￢∃y ∃x P(x, y)
b) ￢∀x ∃y P(x, y)
c) ￢∃y ( Q(y) ∧ ∀x￢R(x, y) )
d) ￢∃y ( ∃x R(x, y) ∨ ∀x S(x, y) )
e) ￢∃y (∀x ∃z T (x, y, z) ∨ ∃x ∀z U(x, y, z) )

Problem 10 -
Find a counterexample, if possible, to these universally quantified statements, where the domain for all variables consists of
all integers.
a) ∀x ∀y ( x2 = y2 → x = y)
b) ∀x ∃y (y2 = x)
c) ∀x ∀y (xy ≥ x)

## Problem 11 – Stone picking game

Two players A and B play a game of picking up the stones.
A player picks up 1, 2, or 3 stones on his turn. The player who picks up the last stone(s) is the winner (other player has
no stone to pick up).
If in the beginning there are 15 stones. Which player is GUARANTEED to win, player 1 (A) or player 2 (B).