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ANALYSIS OF SOFT DRINKS

ANALYSIS OF SOFT DRINKS A CHEMISTRY PROJECT REPORT Submitted By Ganesh Venkata Surya Puppala, Class XII

A CHEMISTRY PROJECT REPORT

Submitted By

Ganesh Venkata Surya Puppala, Class XII

SRIMATI SUNDARAVALLI MEMORIAL SCHOOL

CHENNAI – 600 064

ABSTRACT

ANALYSIS OF COOL DRINKS

INTRODUCTION:

What Is A Cool Drink?

Soft drink, any of a class of non alcoholic beverages, usually but not necessarily carbonated, normally containing a natural or artificial sweetening agent, edible acids, natural or artificial flavours, and sometimes juice. Natural flavours are derived from fruits, nuts, berries, roots, herbs, and other plant sources. Coffee, tea, milk, cocoa, and undiluted fruit and vegetable juices are not considered soft drinks.

The term soft drink was originated to distinguish the flavoured drinks from hard liquor, or distilled spirits. Soft drinks were recommended as a substitute in the effort to change the hard-drinking habits of early Americans. Indeed, health concerns of modern consumers led to new categories of soft drinks emphasizing low calorie count, low sodiumcontent, no caffeine, and “all natural” ingredients.

HOW ARE THEY MADE?

There are many speciality soft drinks. Mineral Water

Latin America. Kava made from roots of a bushy shrub, Piper methisciyum, is consumed by the people of Fiji and other Pacific islands. In Cuba people enjoy a

carbonated cane juice; its flavour comes from unrefined syrup. In tropical areas,

where diets frequently lack sufficient protein, soft drinks containing soybean

have been marketed. In Egypt carob(locust bean) extract is used. In Brazil a soft

are very popular in Europe and

flour

obtained from making buffalo

Africa. Some eastern

Europeans enjoy a drink prepared from fermented stale bread. Honey and orange juice go into a popular drink of Israel.

drink is made using mate as a base. The ways they

cheese is carbonated and consumed as a soft drink in North

HISTORY OF SOFT DRINKS: The first marketed soft drinks appeared in the 17th century as

HISTORY OF SOFT DRINKS:

The first marketed soft drinks appeared in the 17th century as a mixture of water and lemon juice sweetened with honey. In 1676 the Compagnie de Limonadiers was formed in Paris and granted a monopoly for the sale of its products. Vendors carried tanks on their backs from which they dispensed cups of lemonade.

Carbonated beverages and waters were developed from European attempts in the 17th century to imitate the popular and naturally effervescent waters of famous springs with primary interest in their reputed theraputic values. The effervescent feature of the waters was recognized early as most important. Flemish scientist Jan Bapista Vel Helmont first used the term gas in his reference to the carbon dioxide content. French physician Gabriel Venel referred to aerated water, confusing the gas with ordinary air. British scientist Joseph Black named the gaseous constituent fixed air. Robert Boyle an Anglo-Irish philosopher and scientist who helped found modern chemistry, published his Short Memoirs for the Natural Experimental History of Mineral Waters in 1685. It included sections on examining mineral springs, on the properties of the water, on its effects upon the human body and, lastly, “of the imitation of natural medicinal waters by chemical and other artificial ways.”

By about 1820, improvements in manufacturing processes allowed a much greater output, and bottled water

By about 1820, improvements in manufacturing processes allowed a much greater output, and bottled water became popular. Mineral salts and flavours were added ginger about 1820, lemon in the 1830s,tonic in 1858. In 1886 John Pemberton, a pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia, invented Coca Cola the first cola drink.

PRODUCTION:

All ingredients used in soft drinks must be of high purity and food grade to obtain a quality beverage. These include the water, carbon dioxide sugar acids, juices, and flavours. Soft drinks are enormously popular beverages consisting primarily of carbonated water, sugar, and flavourings . Due to the high sugar content in typical soft drinks, they may also be called sugary drinks. Soft drinks are made by mixing dry or fresh ingredients (Contains carbonated water, a sweetener, may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, sugar substitutes or some combination of these, also contain caffeine, colouring, preservatives and other ingredients) with water. Production of soft drinks can be done at factories or at home.

WATER : Although water is most often taken from a safe municipal supply, it usually

WATER:

Although water is most often taken from a safe municipal supply, it usually is processed further to ensure uniformity of the finished product; the amount of impurities in the municipal supply may vary from time to time. In some bottling plants the water-treatment equipment may simply consist of a sand filter to remove minute solid matter and activated carbon purifier to remove colour chlorine and other tastes or odours. In most plants, however, water is treated by a process known as super chlorination and coagulation. There the water is exposed for two hours to a high concentration of chlorine and to a floccuant, which removes organisms such as and bacteria it then passes through a sand filter and activated carbon.

CARBON DIOXIDE AND CARBONATION:

Carbon dioxide gas gives the beverage its sparkle and tangy taste and prevents spoilage. It is supplied to the soft drink manufacturer in either solid form dry ice or liquid form maintained under approximately 1,200 pounds per square inch (84 kilograms per square centimetre) pressure in heavy steel containers. Lightweight steel containers are used when the liquid carbon dioxide is held under refrigerator In that case, the internal pressure is about 325 pounds per square inch .Carbocation of either the water or the finished beverage mixture is effected by chilling the liquid and cascading it in thin layers over a series of plates in an enclosure containing carbon dioxide gas under pressure. The amount of gas the water will absorb increases as the pressure is increased and the temperature is decreased.

CARBON DIOXIDE TEST :

As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the sample was passed through lime water. The lime water turned milky.

GLUCOSE CONTENT:

Sugary soft drinks, sometimes referred in common usage as ‘full fat’ drinks, have frequently been linked with poorer health if consumed on a regular basis. Large scale research indicates that regular consumption of sugary drinks, including cola, lemonade and energy drinks, raises the risks of obesity, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Generally speaking, sugary soft drinks are best avoided by people with diabetes and consumed less regularly by people at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

Recommended daily sugar intakes in the UK The Department of Health recommends that not more than 10% of energy each day comes from sugars.

This equates to 70g or less of sugar for men and 50g or less for women.

A half litre bottle of a sweetened drink, such as cola, contributes around 60% of the recommended maximum sugar intake.

There is no specific recommended sugar intake for people with diabetes, but most people will find they need to limit their sugar intake to considerably less than the Department of Health recommendation to ensure good blood glucose control.

GLUCOSE TEST:

A small sample of cold drink of different brands was taken in a test tube anda few drops of Benedict’s reagent were added. The test tube was heated for few seconds. Formation of reddish color confirms the presence of glucose in cold drinks

PH VALUES:

Acidic and basic are two extremes that describe chemicals, just like hot and cold are two extremes that describe temperature. A substance that is neither acidic nor basic is neutral. The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. It ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7, such as pure water is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic and greater than 7 is basic. Each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value. For example, a pH of 4 is ten times more acidic than a pH of 5 and 100 times (10 x 10) more acidic than a pH of 6. The same holds true for pH values above 7, each of which is ten times more basic than the next lower whole value. The pH of the acid in dental plaque is 4; therefore it will dissolve enamel.

PH TEST :

One or two samples are taken, and put on the PH paper.

ALCOHOL CONTENT:

Coca-Cola and Pepsi contain minute traces of alcohol, a study has revealed.

According to tests carried out by the Paris-based National Institute of Consumption, more than half of leading colas contain traces of alcohol, Daily Mail reported on Wednesday.

These include the brand leaders Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola, while it is mainly only cheap supermarket versions of the drink which are alcohol-free. "60 Million Consumers", the French magazine, published the results of the tests in its latest issue. The tests suggest that the alcohol levels are as low as 10 mg in every litre, and this works out at around 0.001 per cent alcohol. But the figures will still be enough to upset the thousands of Muslims who regularly drink Cola because their religion forbids them from drinking alcohol, the daily said.

ALCOHOL TEST:

Samples of each brand of cold drinks are taken in sample test tube and iodine followed by potassium iodide and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution is added to each test tube. Then the test tube are heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes yellow colored precipitate confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks

HEALTH AND REGULATORY ISSUES:

The regular consumption of soft drinks has been associated with multiple chronic health conditions. Research has shown, for example, that individuals who consume one to two servings of sugar-sweetened soft drinks daily are at significantly greater risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetic than individuals who rarely consume the beverages. Likewise, both men and women who drink sugar-sweetened beverages are at increased risk of coronary heart diseases. In children and adults, long-term consumption of soft drinks is linked to weight gainobesity and tooth decay Sugar-free soft drinks also have been associated with dental erosion.

Concerns about the negative health effects of soft drinks have given rise to debate about legally restricting their consumption through soda bans, increased soda taxes, and other regulatory measures. In January 2014 Mexico became one of the first countries to impose a nationwide revenue-raising tax on soft drinks containing added sugar. Later that year Berkeley,California became the first city in the United States in which voters unanimously approved a tax on sugary drinks. In 2015 a ban on the sale of caffeinated soft drinks to children went into effect in the Vologda region of Russia. That same year authorities in San Francisco approved a measure that would soft drink manufacturers to add health warnings to soft drink labels, similar to the health warnings displayed on alcohol and tobacco products.

to add health warnings to soft drink labels, similar to the health warnings displayed on alcohol

DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENT

AIM:

Comparative Study and Qualitative Analysis of different brands of Cold Drinks available in market

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Test Tube, Test Tube Holder, Test Tube Stand, Stopwatch, Beaker, Burner, PH paper tripod stand, china dish, Wire gauge, Water Bath.

Chemicals Required:

Lime Water

Benedict Reagent

Potassium Iodide

Sodium Hydroxide

THEORY:

Cold drinks of different brands are composed of alcohol,carbohydrates, carbon dioxide, phosphate ions etc. These softdrinks give feeling of warmth, lightness and have a tangy tastewhich is liked by everyone. Carbon dioxide is responsible for theformation of froth on shaking the bottle. The carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste. Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic compounds and are major source of energy to our body. General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y.

On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are classified as:-

Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides. Glucose is amino saccharide with formula C6H12O6 .It occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones and also in many sweet fruits. It is also present in human blood to the extent of about 0.1%. Sucrose is one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life. It is widely distributed in nature in juices, seeds and also in flowers of many plants. The main source of sucrose is sugar cane juice which contain 15-20 % sucrose and sugar beet which has about 10-17 % sucrose. The molecular formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. It is produced by a mixture of glucose and fructose. It is non-reducing in nature

whereas glucose is reducing. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in nature and their acidity can be measured by finding their pH value. The pH values also depend upon the acidic contents such as citric acid and phosphoric acid.

PROCEDURE:

DETECTION OF PH:

 

EXPERIMENT:

Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper. The change in colour of pH paper was noticed and was compared with standard pH scale.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 

SERIAL NO:

NAME OF THE DRINK:

COLOUR CHANGE:

PH VALUE:

1.

COCA COLA

   

2.

SPRITE

   

3.

LIMCA

   

4.

FANTA

   

INFERENCE:

Soft Drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of citric acid and phosphoric acid. pH values of cold drinks of different brand are different due to the variation in amount of acidic content

TEST FOR CARBON DIOXIDE:

 

EXPERIMENT:

As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the samples were passed through lime water. The lime water turned milky.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 

SERIAL NO:

NAME OF THE DRINK:

TIME TAKEN:

CONCLUSION:

INFERENCE:

 

All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water. The carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to form carbonic acid, which is responsible for its tangy taste.

CHEMICAL REACTION:

 

Balanced equation: CO2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq) = CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)

 

TEST FOR GLUCOSE:

 

Experiment:

 

Glucose is a reducing sugar acid. Its presence is detected by the following test:-

1.

Benedict’s Reagent Test:

 

Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a test tube and a few drops of Benedict’s reagent were added. The test tube was heated for few seconds. Formation of reddish colour confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks

.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 

SERIAL NO:

NAME OF THE DRINK:

OBSERVATION:

CONCLUSION:

INFERENCE:

All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedict’s reagent. Hence all the drinks contain glucose.

TEST FOR ALCOHOL

 

Samples of each brand of cold drinks are taken in sample test tube and iodine followed by potassium iodide and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution is added to each test tube. Then the test tube are heated in hot water bath for 30 minutes yellow colored precipitate confirmed the presence of alcohol in cold drinks

OBSERVATION TABLE:

 

SERIAL NO:

NAME OF THE DRINK:

OBSERVATION:

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSIONS:

 

• After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the different brands of cold drinks namely 1. Coca cola 2. Sprite 3. Limca 4. Fanta All contains glucose, alcohol sucrose, phosphate, ions and carbon dioxide. All are acidic in nature.

On comparing the pH value of different brands coca cola is most acidic and limca is least acidic of all the four brands taken. pH value of coca cola is nearly equal to disinfectant which is harmful for body.

CARBON DIOXIDE Among the four samples of cold drinks taken –sprite has maximum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has minimum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide.

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REFERENCES: