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Assignments as a part of learning

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C George Thomas
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Dr. C. George Thomas, Professor & Head (Agronomy) &
Associate Dean, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara

In most universities, assignments are part of the internal evaluation process and marks are
set apart for them in both under graduate and post graduate programmes. Often, students and some
teachers have a hostile attitude towards assignments as though these are thrust upon them from
above without having any utility! If properly done, assignments would be of immense value as an
additional learning instrument. However, assignments would be a big headache for the students, if
they wait until the last minute to write their papers! Short essay assignments and long essays called
term papers are the usual types of assignments given to the students. Apart from these, there are
many other useful types, which can also be given to the students, depending upon the need and
leaning situations.
Types of assignments
As a part of undergraduate and post graduate teaching, students are entrusted with several
types of assignments, each having its own structure and features. Examples include:
Essay: Probably, essay is the most ubiquitous among assignments especially in UG classes.
Students are given specific topics, and the written essay must answer a question. The student is
expected to present an argument based on facts. Term papers are also essays but these are lengthy
essays on a subject submitted usually by the end of the term, the semester.
Literature review: A ‘review of literature’ is a critical and evaluative description of
publications on a chosen topic, and provides a narrative using the references in the bibliography.
Appropriate for understanding current level of thinking and gaps in research in a particular area,
this is ideal for PG classes.
Annotated bibliography: An annotated bibliography provides a brief account of the
available literature on a given topic along with a brief summary of content and a short evaluation
(usually about 150 words) in a paragraph, the annotation. This helps to evaluate the usefulness of
articles in relation to the topic by identifying key articles on a topic.
Critical review: This is similar to a peer review. Students are asked to critically review
some sample research articles and submit a report just like peer reviewers do. This is helpful to
evaluate or critique the data, research methods, and results of an article.
Case study: Appropriate to examine a situation by identifying positives and negatives and
finally to make recommendations. If you want to get a detailed background view of a particular
case or phenomenon, case study would be useful. The case may be a person, plant, group, process,
disease, event, community, or any other similar unit.
Reflective journal: Reflective journals or reflective dairies are personal records of students’
learning experiences. Students record learning-related incidents, for example, the people involved,
the purpose of the event, their reflections on the event, their feelings, and so on. Reflective journals
help to identify your understanding, reflect on your thinking, and realize how and what you have
learned. Ideal for study tours and experiential learning based courses.
Experiment write up: Sometimes, the assignment may be a small experiment. This is to
explain what you did and to draw conclusions out of it.
Project report: Project reports include the details of activities undertaken as part of a
specific work assigned to the student.
Herbarium: Herbarium preparation is a common assignment in plant taxonomy, weed
science, plant diseases, agrostology, and forest studies where large number of plants are involved.

Insect collection: Common in entomology courses, wherein students collect various insects
and present them in specially designed insect boxes after identification.
In addition, in some disciplines, assignments would be to make models, posters, popular
articles, leaflets, processed products, or others such as visual aids.
Each of these assignments has its own structure and features with unique writing styles.
Depending on the learning situations and training needs, any of these assignments can be given.
For PG students, the types like review of literature, annotated bibliography, critical review, case
study, etc. would be more appropriate rather than simple essays. For UG teaching, essays,
herbarium, insect collection, reflective journal, project reports, etc. are more common. Essay
assignment is covered in detail here as it is the most popular form of assignment.
Essay assignments
Essay assignments have two major motives. One is related to the specific subject of the
course; and the other one is based on your professional development. The first course-specific
motive is to increase your expertise in some particular subject area. You will be benefited gainfully
by doing literature search and by writing an essay on it. The effort will lead you in to the intricacies
of a specific topic far beyond what is possible from lectures. Understand that the goal of essay
writing is not to show off everything that you know about the topic, but to show that you understand
and can think critically about your topic. The second motive behind essay assignment extends
beyond the specific content of the course. The object is to refine your analytic and writing skills.
As a professional, you should be in a position to find information, evaluate, and convey your
conclusions and recommendations to others. You will learn to go through various source materials,
synthesize them, criticize them, and come to your own conclusions.
A casual attitude to essay assignments is prevalent among students. Some students question
the very usefulness of essays, going for blatant plagiarism by copying the entire essay of their
friends! While writing the essay, students are supposed to follow good academic practices. Students
must bestow special attention to avoid plagiarism. They should also learn the art of paraphrasing.
Some ideas, which may help students to write good essays are presented here.
The process of essay writing
Academic essays are different from literary essays. You must be able to answer a question
based on evidences available from different sources. Careful planning and note making will
facilitate the writing process easier. This may be a daunting task for the beginners. By practice,
anybody can master the art of essay writing in science. Essay writing involves, four phases –
analysis and planning, literature collection, drafting, and editing.
Analysis and planning
Analysis of the topic and effective planning make the essay writing job much easier for the
students. Immediately after receiving your topic, start analyzing it and try to understand the
problem. Decide your approach to the essay without postponing the preparation.
If the teacher has given you freedom to choose a topic, put some thought into it before
settling for one. Make sure that any topic you select fulfills the objectives of the assignment. If
possible, pick up a topic that interests you. Similarly, ensure that selected topic fits into the length
of essay that you intend to write and the reference resources are available to you. If you have trouble
in choosing what to write about, start with a few ideas and choose the best one after several steps.
You will get ideas by looking through the textbook, lecture notes, and journals and periodicals
pertaining to the subject. Do not select very broad subjects, but select specific ones. Once you have
a specific topic, you can write it as a question which your essay should answer. Identifying key
verbs in the title or question is essential before planning your answer. Essay titles may indicate key
verbs such as analyze, describe, compare, discuss, evaluate, examine, explain, and justify, which

inform you about how the question must be answered. Remember you can write essays as
argumentative, informative, or analytical depending on the question you frame.
Examine the topic critically. Ask yourself what you already know about this topic. Decide
on the time required to get the required information. If you require clarifications from the teacher
you can do it now. Maintain a positive attitude and work on the project. Understand that you may
not be able to write an essay quickly without a plan. Provide enough time to think and organize
thoughts before you start to write. Set a deadline for completion of background reading and
literature search. When you have done the necessary planning and preparation, you are ready to
involve thoroughly with actual literature collection. Decide how you proceed with literature
collection; the sources, the types, etc., and allot sufficient time for literature collection Sometimes,
you need to revise your strategy after collecting some of the information sources. Making a
framework for writing is also part of planning.
Literature collection
Locating the sources of information, both online and print sources, is an important step in
essay preparation. Two kinds of literature collection is necessary for an essay. For certain facts,
you may need to consult primary sources of information such as journal articles. You must also go
through secondary sources such as text books, reviews and monographs to find support for the
argument presented in your essay. The main points you have identified in your analysis of the essay
question should direct your literature hunt. Apply your critical reading skills during this phase of
literature reading. Do not believe everything an author says, but evaluate them in the light of
evidences collected. Sometimes, the chosen topic may involve contradictory views. You have to
use your own judgment in such cases.
Note down important points while reading journals and textbooks. If you want to quote
sentences as such, be careful to copy accurately and put quotation marks at the beginning and end
of the quote. See the section on note making notes described elsewhere.
Write the draft
Having completed literature search and satisfied that you have collected enough
background materials, it is time to write the draft copy. Examine the question carefully. This
should include your first thoughts on the question, and think what you already know about this
topic. By going through the literature you can identify the gaps. Write the draft with a logical
structure of information and ideas. Plan to write manageable, smaller chunks, and finally join them
together logically. While you go on writing, make sure that you are aware of word limits of the
essay. Further, ensure that you have a good idea of every paragraph or section, which you propose
to include. Ensure that the essay is structured well with an introduction and a conclusion apart from
the main points, which constitute the body. Write the draft in your own words avoiding the risk of
Parts of an essay
An essay should have an introduction, the body of the essay, and a conclusion. However,
you need not write the draft in that order. For example, you can write the introduction after
completing all other sections. Write freely, and attempt writing first those parts you find the easiest.
At this stage, do not bother much about impeccable grammar and style. What is important here is
to get your ideas down on the paper. The style and correct grammar can be addressed in the editing
phase. The introduction and conclusion must be structured well so that after reading them a reader
should be able to know what the essay is all about without having to read the main body of the text.
An ‘introduction’ should introduce the central issue of the topic and provide background
information to it. It must provide an outline of the main arguments. The ‘introduction’ is the key
to help readers understand where they are directed and what they will accomplish. State in concise
terms what the subject of the essay is, what you are going to discuss, and how you go about it. The

introduction of an essay is usually 1-2 paragraphs long; a bit longer for longer papers with
additional background information. You can start the introduction in many ways; for example,
using an anecdote that leads to your topic, with a surprising statement relating to the topic, or a
quotation from a famous person or expert.
The ‘main body’ of an essay should present the writer’s argument through paragraphs, and
sometimes as separate sections with headlines. In the body of essay, you examine, explain, and
describe; and provide supporting arguments citing sources. The main body is the major part of the
paper. It should have a logical organization. If the paper is long, it is often a good idea to divide the
main body into sections designated by headings and subheadings. Include all important
information, explain its significance, and detail your logic. Write your essay assignment as though
its readers would be reasonably intelligent and informed but not experts on the subject. Divide the
body of the essay into sections and subsections, depending on the coverage (Do not put ‘body’ as
a heading).
A ‘conclusion’ should summarize the main points presented in the body, and provide a
definitive statement of the writer’s position. The conclusion should sum up what you have found
and stress the evidence that supports your analysis. Based on what have already been discussed in
the body of the essay, you can also suggest recommendations.
Editing is the last phase of the essay writing process before taking the final copy. This
phase allows you to check that the essay is structured well, the argument is logical, and expression
is grammatically correct. It is suggested that you start the editing process one or two days after
writing the draft, so that you come to the editing task with a fresh mind. Editing stage is the time
to make alterations and modifications.
Take advantage of the tools and resources within your reach. If the teacher permitted you
to prepare the essays through computers, you are lucky. You can also ask for peer evaluations and
ask your friends, teaching assistants, or professors to provide feedback. Confirm that you have
satisfied all the essay requirements; the content is accurate, and the formatting and referencing are
correct. Ensure that every work cited in your essay is listed in Bibliography and vice versa, and that
the Bibliography entries are in alphabetical order following Name–Year system.
Take a print out, and do the final editing and proof reading on the printed copy. You will
definitely see mistakes that you might not see on a computer screen. Do not mix up American and
British spellings. In common wealth countries, British spellings are preferred. Point your pen or
pencil at each word, and think about the grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and
meaning of every word. Although the spellcheck and grammar check facility available through
computers is helpful, a manual check is inevitable as computers cannot detect all the errors.
For taking the final copy, use A4 size paper with 1.5 lines spacing. Give a margin of 38
mm (1.5”) on the left side of the paper and 25 mm (1”) on all other sides. All the pages must be
numbered. In KAU, remember essays for UG classes are to be written manually. Put the tile of
essay and your name, admission number, course title, etc. on a separate page.
Writing style
Essay writing requires a formal style. Eliminating redundant words and modifying phrases
to make them simple and short are widely accepted techniques in academic writing. Unlike
everyday writing, in academic writing, you should follow some additional rules and conventions
with respect to words, numbers, units, abbreviations, and grammar. Make sure that there is no
ambiguity in meaning due to improper use of words. Before finalising the manuscript, the language
should be scrutinized for usage, flow, and clarity by checking for awkward phrasing, biased
language, clichés, and jargons, which are inappropriate for an academic essay.

Ensure accuracy and precision in what you present in the essay. Transitional words and
phrases clearly state the relationship between two sentences. See common transitional words and
phrases used in essays.
 to show consequence/ effect — because, because of, due to, as a result of, so that, therefore,
accordingly, consequently, thereby, under the circumstances, provided that, hence, as, so,
 to introduce examples — for example, for instance, such as, like, including, thus, especially,
namely, particularly, notably
 to add comparison — similarly, alternatively, comparatively, likewise, in the same way,
in similar fashion
 to start with an idea — first, first of all, to begin with
 to add another idea — in addition, furthermore, and, also, moreover, besides, as well as,
likewise, similarly, secondly
 to add a more important idea — more importantly, what is worse, what is more
 to add your last idea — finally, most of all, most importantly
 to contradict / contrast with the previous idea — however, nevertheless, on the other hand,
although, though, but, whereas, notwithstanding, in spite of, despite
 to show the result of the previous idea — therefore, thus, consequently, as a result
 to emphasize an idea — in fact, in particular
 to show a time relationship between ideas — first, second, then, next, finally
 to generalize ideas — often, usually, normally, generally, in general
 to limit, restrict, and defining time -— as soon as, in the meantime, immediately, quickly,
eventually, now, at present, presently, shortly, instantly, after, since, formerly, during
 to qualify another point to the preceding statement-— perhaps, probably, nearly, possibly,
always, almost.
Note that ‘though’ and ‘but’ are frequent in speeches and informal writing, but should not
be used to start a sentence in formal writing. Instead use ‘although’ and ‘however’. Similarly, in
formal writing, ‘also’ and ‘and’ should not be used to begin a sentence, and consider revision of
sentences with ‘furthermore’, ‘in addition’, ‘moreover’ and ‘besides’ to start sentences.
Abbreviations shall be written in full for the first time they are used in the document,
followed immediately by the abbreviated form in parentheses. Always write in words one-digit
numbers from zero to nine, but two or more digit numbers (10 onwards) should be expressed as
figures only. However, spell out all the numbers occurring at the beginning of a sentence even if
they are two digits. Percent (or per cent) and percentage denote rate per hundred. Percent is used
with numbers and percentage without numbers, for example: a small percentage (not small
percent). It is recommended to spell out ‘%’as ‘percent’ in between sentences. However, you may
use the symbol for percent (%) for cases in parenthesis and tabular data.
In essays, words such as ‘cannot’ and’ do not ‘are written in their full form, instead of the
contracted forms, ‘can’t’ and ‘don’t’. When we speak, we often string large number of sentences
together without making a significant pause. Formal writing style does not allow this, but puts each
one in a separate sentence. You can also prune the length of sentences through restructuring. For
more information on style and grammar of academic wring, you may consult any of the books on
“scientific writing” such as Ruben (2004) and Thomas (2015).
Sources of information
You may get some sources of information for essay writing from the course outline
supplied. You can also use the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) of the library or databases
such as CAB Direct, PubMed, or Google Scholar for searching. Use key words for locating
literature. When you have located relevant sources, conduct a survey first—check the contents

pages, chapter titles, and the index to assess the relevance of the source to the topic. Get accustomed
with the library catalogue and various facilities such as CeRA (Consortium of e-Resources in
Agriculture) available in the library for faster literature search. Do not depend upon only one source
to write an essay. There may be contradictory views on the topic assigned to you. Therefore, for
searching the topic thoroughly, you must go through several books and articles.
In essays, you must justify the statements you make. A major form of justification is
through a reference to an authority who makes similar statements. Authoritative publications will
always specify the date of publication and address of publishing houses. This allows you to decide
whether the information they contain is current or out of date.
Avoid “predatory” publications lest they mislead you. The sources cited should be
permanently available and dependable; therefore, do not cite transient Internet sources. If readers
want, they must be able to check the accuracy of your writing, or find out more information on the
topic. A few types of source materials apt for students’ essays are mentioned here.
You may find several kinds of books such as textbook, handbook, monograph, treatise,
manual, review, and yearbook in the library, all of which are considered as secondary sources. A
textbook is an instruction book, which combines the works of many individuals. A handbook is a
type of reference book intended for providing ready reference. Monograph is a book containing
comprehensive information on a subject or commodity. A multi volume monograph on a subject is
called treatise. Yearbook is an annual volume of current information in descriptive as well as in
statistical form. Manual is an instruction book describing how to proceed with an experiment, how
to operate an equipment, and similar details. A review is a survey of primary literature over a
given period indicating the developments and trends during that period; this will be an excellent
starting point for anyone unfamiliar with the literature in the field.
Normally, before an authoritative book is published, the work is scrutinized by one or two
experts who are specialists in the relevant field. They may demand or suggest amendments in the
text before publication. This process called 'peer review' ensures that any publication of that kind
counts as authoritative for academic purposes. A recent trend is mushrooming of “predatory”
publishing houses, which publish books of mediocre authors without any scrutiny. Check the
credentials of both the authors and publishers before relying on any source for your assignment.
Scholarly journals publish results of original works. These journals wherein the results of
original scientific investigations first appear are the primary sources. Primary journals carry the
latest and often specific account of current research work, new techniques, and unusual and
interesting cases. These journals are published by government institutions, academies, professional
scientific societies, associations, or private publishing houses. Beware of predatory journals, which
disguise as the originals. Similar to books, there are umpteen number of predatory journals, which
purposefully avoid peer reviewing and indulge in unscrupulous practices.
Newspapers and popular magazines
Materials from the popular press such as newspapers and popular magazines may not
always be reliable or authoritative as academic publications. They are not peer-reviewed, and may
have been written by persons who are not experts in the field. It is better to avoid such sources, or
when used, exercise abundant caution. If the content is of academic importance, surely, you will
be able to locate it from a reliable academic source such as a journal.
Internet sources
The diversity and variety of materials available on the Internet is incredible. You may find
academically reliable materials on the Internet, but majority are not reliable. Before you use

materials from the Internet for an essay, use good judgment about whether it is reliable and suitable
for your purpose. You must ensure the possibility of the e-source continuing to be available, so that
if some readers follow up your cited reference on a later date, they would be able to find it. For
Internet materials, besides usual bibliographic details, you must also note the web address and date
of access.
Print publications available in e-form
Many academic books and journals which were first published in print form would be
available in electronic form too on a later date. These can be used with confidence, as they have
the same status as print publications.
Publications created in e-form
In some disciplines, books and journals are published only in electronic form. They are,
however, peer-reviewed before publication, and are thus just as reliable as print publications. These
e-journals specify the editors or editorial board with date of publication. You can confidently use
these sources for referencing.
E-publications by institutions
Presently, most government departments maintain websites with useful information. Many
publications in pdf format are available for free downloading. Sometimes, you may require the
latest area, production, and productivity of crops. The website of Directorate of Economics &
Statistics, Government of Kerala ( provides you the latest
information on these details pertaining to Kerala. If you require the latest all India figures, refer the
publications maintained by the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Govt.
of India ( For world figures, rely on FAO statistics. You can use these
materials without any hesitation. Similarly, you can use confidently books downloadable from the
sites of FAO, ICAR, and CGIAR sites such as IRRI.
When using the materials of private parties, exercise abundant caution. Sometimes, it may
be one sided, biased, or simply propaganda materials. Propaganda materials do not provide suitable
academic support. Such materials are likely to change or vanish from their sites without any reason.
These kinds of sites are frequently undated, and therefore, you cannot even determine whether the
material is currently valid or not. It is better not to use such information at all.
Wikipedia is a popular and free on-line encyclopaedia ( In
Wikipedia, readers can act as editors and improve the contents. Anybody can write a piece for
Wikipedia, even if they do not know much about the subject. While many of the articles in
Wikipedia may be correct and useful, lack of guarantee for genuineness is a problem. There is no
way to distinguish spurious materials from materials provided, for example, by a reputed scientist.
Wikipedia attempts to simplify entries, and this may lead to misrepresentation. For this reason, do
not cite Wikipedia in essays. That does not mean that Wikipedia is of no use at all; it may be a
valuable starting point for finding a suitable reference.
Citation and listing
Referencing involves two aspects; the first is the way in which the items are cited or
included in the text (in-text citation or in-text reference), and the second is the way in which the
references are listed at the end of the text (reference listing). We may use ideas of others in a
paraphrased form or include a direct quotation in our works; but in both cases, we have to
acknowledge the sources appropriately in the text. Citation is the name given to this process of
acknowledging a source of information in the text of our publication. As the Name-Year (N-Y)
style of referencing is widely followed in agricultural literature, it is recommended for use in essay
assignments too.

In the name-year system (N-Y system), also called the Harvard system or the Author-Date
system, citation of sources in the text is indicated by the surname or last name of the author/s
(without initials) followed by the year of publication. For example, a work by Norman E. Borlaug
in 1992 will be cited as Borlaug (1992) in a sentence or (Borlaug, 1992) at the end of a sentence in
the text. Then, authors’ names (based on surname or last name) will be listed in the “References”
section in alphabetical order. In addition to surname or last name, initials of other parts of the name
(first name, second name, etc.) should also be given preceded by a comma after the surname. The
year of publication then follows. For example, the above work by Norman E. Borlaug will be listed
in the “References” section as Borlaug, N.E. 1992.
Some examples of reference listing
Some typical cases of listing sources as per Name-Year style are given here as examples.
Take note of the style of writing surnames, initials, year, titles of books and articles, name of
publishers, page numbers, etc. In the case of Web sources, you should also indicate the URL and
date of access. When in doubt, refer Thomas (2015) or ask your teacher for specific guidance.
Text books
Thomas, C. G. 2015. Research Methodology and Scientific writing. Ane Books, New Delhi,
Leggett, G., Mead, C.D., Kramer, M.G., and Beal, R.S. 1985. Handbook for Writers.
Prentice- Hall, New Jersey, 558p.
Edition of a book
Thomas, C. G. 2008. Forage Crop Production in the Tropics (2nd Ed.). Kalyani Publishers,
Ludhiana, 333p.
Pauk, W. and Owens, R.J.Q. 2011. How to Study in College (10th ed.). Wadsworth, Boston,
USA, 406p.
Compiled or edited books
Gregory, P.J. 1988. Crop growth and development. In: Wild, A. (ed.), Russell’s Soil
Conditions and Plant Growth (11th Ed.). ELBS/Longman, London, pp. 31-68.
Jenkins, S.R. 1987. Searching the literature. In: Hawkins, C. and Sorgi, M. (eds), Research:
How to Plan, Speak and Write about It (4th Indian Reprint, 1993). Narosa Publishing House,
New Delhi, pp. 29-59.
Journal articles
Connolly, J. 1988. Experimental methods in plant competition research in crop weed
systems. Weed Res. 28: 431-436.
Cousens, R., Brain, P., O’Donovan, J.T., and O’Sullivan, A. 1987. The use of biologically
realistic equations to describe the effect of weed density and relative time of emergence on
crop yield. Weed Sci. 35: 720-725.
A thesis
Renu, S. 1999. Emergence and competition of ‘Polla’ (Sacciolepis interrupta (Willd.)
Stapf.) in semi-dry rice. MSc(Ag) thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 69p.
Printed book freely available on the Internet as PDF document
Heuperman, A.F., Kapoor, A.S., and Denecke, H. W. 2002. Biodrainage: Principles,
Experiences and Applications. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, 79p. Available: [11 Nov.2011].
Printed journal article freely available on the Internet

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Ranganathan, S. Kundu, D., and Vudayagiri, S. D. 2003. Protein evolution: intrinsic

preferences in peptide bond formation: a computational and experimental analysis. J.
Biosci. 28(6): 683-690. Available: dec2003/683.pdf. 08
Government report from a website
GOK [Government of Kerala].2017. Agriculture Statistics 2015-16 Department of
Economics & Statistics, Thiruvananthapuram, 232p. Available: http://ecostat.kerala. [05 June 2017].
Assignments are part of the internal evaluation process, which would be of immense value
as an additional learning instrument. Many types of assignments can be given to the students such
as essays, literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical reviews, reflective journals, and case
studies, depending upon the need and leaning situations. Essay assignment is the most common
among them. Academic essay writing increases the expertise of students in some particular subject
area, and is also helpful to refine their analytic and writing skills. Essay writing involves, four
phases – analysis and planning, literature collection, drafting, and editing. Use key words for
locating literature sources using databases such as CAB Direct, PubMed, or Google Scholar. Ensure
that the essay is structured well with an introduction and a conclusion apart from the main points
that constitute the body of the essay. In essays, the statements you make must be justified through
a reference to an authority who makes similar statements. Students must be thorough in
paraphrasing the ideas they read. Write the draft avoid plagiarism and verbatim copying. Take the
final copy only after conducting an editing. Essay writing requires a formal style, and bbefore
finalising the manuscript, the language should be scrutinized for usage, flow, and clarity


Cottrell, S. 2013. The Study Skills Handbook (4th ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 432p.
Davis, B.G. 2009. Tools for Teaching (2nd ed). John Wiley & Sons, 608p.
Greetham, B. 2001. How to Write Better Essays. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 285p.
Pauk, W. and Owens, R.J.Q. 2011. How to Study in College (10th ed.). Wadsworth, Boston, USA,
Race, P.2007. The Lecturer’s Toolkit: A Resource for Developing Assessment, Learning and
Teaching (3rd ed.). Routledge, Oxon, 264p.
Rubens, P. 2004. Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style (2nd Ed.). Routledge, New
York, 427p.
Thomas, C. G. 2015. Research Methodology and Scientific Writing. Ane Books, New Delhi, 531p.