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# N1: N2

## ESc201, Lecture 15:  Unregulated

15:  Unregulated Power
Power Supply 1
Half Wave Rectifier +
D +
Ripple Voltage : Vr=Vmax-Vmin + C RL
i Vin 
Vs VS N 2
= VL
=Vs-Von-Vmin
(V)  Vin N1 
VL ≈ VDC + Vr(t) V
Vmax VDC  Vmax - r
2
VDC
Vr
Vmin
i
T Rectified
[Vin–(Von→0
→0)]
)] t
0 (t)
ID=0, Diode Conducts,
C discharges C charges

(A)
ID
peak
ID
ID
average

0 (t)

220V rms V→ 311.13 Peak V
ESc201, Lecture 15:
15:  Power
Power Supply 1
Vr + +
VDC  Vmax - + D
2 I T IL C RL
CVr  IL (T-Δt)  IL T or Vr  L  Vin  Vs VL
C ωC/2π  
For veryy small Vr , VDC  Vmax
v C (t)= v C ( )+
VL
Vr VDC
T-t t
t
{ v C (0 )-v C ( )} e
+
- 0 < t < T-
VL = VDC + Vr(t)
RC

Δt  T/2< T
Vmin  Vmax  Vr  Vmax e Vmax cos  ω  Δt   =Vmax -Vr
( t)) τ 
 (T-

T τ  1, e-T τ  1- T τ 
 Vmax e
T τ
 Vmax [1-T/τ] (V -V ) T
C  max on
For small θ, cos  θ   1- θ 2 / 2
T T
Vmax 1- ωΔt / 2   Vmax -Vr
Vr RL 2
Vr =Vmax =Vmax  
τ R LC 1 2Vr
IC, Δt 
C av =I
I D,
D av -I
I LL, av IL,L av  I L  Vmax R L
ID av ω Vmax
Charge conservation gives IL av
Gained Lost  1 2Vr  IL 2πI L
Δ   I D, av -II L  Δt
IC, av Δt Δ = CVr O  I D, av -II L  
Or  =I L T=
T 
ω Vmax ω/2π ω
KCL at the output node at t = - t  
 Vmax  I dVS
I D, av =II L 1+ π  D, max = C + I L = - CωVmax sin( Δtω)+ I L  CωVmax Δtω+ I L
sin(-Δtω)+
2Vr  dt t = - Δt
  2Vmax  V
I D, max =I L 1+2π  =I L 1+2π 2fCR L  Vr I L IL  max
VS =Vmax cos  ωt  Vr fC RL
 
ESc201, Lecture 15:
15:  Power
Power Supply 1

N1: N2
+ RS +
+ D C RL
Vin 
Vs VZ VL
 

## Still some ripple due to finite resistance of the Zener is observed.

ESc201, Lecture 16:
16:  Power
Power Supply v+s(t) D1 + +
DC Unregulated Power Supply +  RL
F ll Wave
Full Wa e Rectifier using
sing a Center VS  Vo VL
v+s(t) C
(V) Tapped Transformer. (Vmax -Von ) T
C
  
Vmax Vr 2R L D2
Vr VDC
Vmin
2Vr T
Rectified θ=ωΔt= I D, max =I DC
Vmax Δt
[Vin–(Von→0
→0)]
)]
0 (V  Von )T (t)
Vr = max
ID=0, Diode Conducts, R L 2C
C discharges C charges
PIV remains the same as HWR.
Initial Surge as the capacitor was initially discharged
An analysis similar to the HWR results in the same formulae for VDC, Vr, and t
(A)
except that the DISCHARGE time is T/2 rather than T. Hence Vr(FWR) <
ID V .
peak r(HWR)
ID
ID
average

0 (t)
VDC =Vmax -Von  Vmax for small Vr IL 
I D, max = 1+2π 2fCR  Δt= 1 T Vmax -Von  1 2Vr
2 
L
same ripple
ω R L C Vmax ω Vmax
ESc201, Lecture 16:
16:  Power
Power Supply
Crossover Distortion : For diodes, generally Von ≠ 0, even if rF=0 is
assumed, and cannot conduct until Vin=VD ≥ Von. This creates a dead dead--band of around
2Von at all the crossover points (i
(i..e., points where the input signal crosses zero in the
time axis).
axis)). This p
problem becomes more acute if Vmax is not much larger g than Von and
for Vmax ~ Von , the entire signal is mixed upup..
 = sin–1(Von/Vmax)= Angle of Crossover Distortion, appears 4 times in a complete cycle.
H
Hence the
th Total
T t l Crossover
C Di
Distortion (2/)x100%.
t ti = (2 ) 100%
(V) NOTE: The value of  shown here is amplified for clarity, but in practice the flat
portion on the t-
t-axis is relatively much smaller.
+ Vmax
Vin Vout
+ Von

(t)

- Von

- Vmax
Regions of Crossover Distortion
( )
Angle of no diode conduction (
ESc201, Lecture 16:
16:  Power
Power Supply

h = P.n ± 1
where:
n = an integer (1, 2, 3, 4… ∞).
h = harmonic order.
order
P = the number of pulses of
the rectifier.

## There are some residual non‐

non‐
characteristic
h i i harmonics
h i such h
as the 5th and 7th in 12 and
18‐‐pulse topologies due to the
18
non‐‐ideal behaviour of the
non
transformer causing angle
phase errors
characteristic harmonics