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DESIGN ,ANALYSIS &MODELLING OF A

MULTI-STOREY COMMERCIAL BUILDING

BY
M.SUDHEER
C.SWATHI REDDY
S.YASEEN

UNDER THE GUIDANCE


OF:
M.CHANDRAIAH
CONTENTS

Plan

Preliminary design

Analysis

Design

Modelling
MULTI STOREY COMMERCIAL BUILDING (G+4) PLAN
ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEET’S AND INCHES
Column positioning

SLAB NUMBERING
BEAM NUMBERING
COLUMN NUMBERING
PRELIMINARY DESIGN

The main objective of the preliminary design is to fix


the various structural elements of the building such as
slabs, beams ,& columns.It is required to fix up the
dimensions to know self weights of the elements before
taking up analysis of the frame.Preliminary design
involves the determination of the form of structure ,the
material of the structure ,sizing of the elements
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF SLAB

Slabs are plane structural members whose thickness is quite


small as compared to its other dimensions. Slabs are classified
into two categories:

1.ONE WAY SLAB: The slab is said to be one way slab if it is


supported on two edges or even four edges where the ratio of
longer span to the shorter span is greater than two.

i.e., Ly /Lx>2

2.TWO WAY SLAB: The slab is said to be a two way slab if it is


supported on four sides and the ratio of longer span to shorter
span is less than or equal to two.

i.e., Ly /Lx <=2


Calculations :

Dimensions of slab = 3.05m×3.05m

Grade of concrete = M20

Grade of steel = Fe415

Edge conditions: Two adjacent Edges Discontinuous

Ly/Lx =3.05/3.05=1 < 2 (two-way slab)

Thickness of slab:

Assume effective depth of slab, d = 120 mm

Effective span:

Shorter direction, Lx = 3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m

Longer direction, Ly = 3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m

Ly/Lx =3.17/3.17 =1

Loads:

Dead load on slab = 0.12×1×25 = 3KN/m

Live load = 4×1 =4 KN/m

Floor finishes = 1×1 = 1KN/m

Partition load = 1×1 = 1KN/m

Total load W = 3+4+1+1 = 9 KN/m

Factored load Wu = 1.5×9= 13.5KN/m

As per IS: 456-2000(Clause D.2.1),

the bending moment coefficients are αx αy

-Ve moment at continuous edge 0.047 0.047

+Ve moment at mid-span 0.035 0.035

Negative B.M at continuous edge in shorter span = αxWlx2

= 0.047×13.5×3.172 = 6.37 KNm

Positive B.M at mid-span in shorter span = αxWlx2

= 0.035×13.5×3.172 = 4.74 KNm

Negative B.M at edge in longer span = αyWlx2

= 0.047× 13.5×3.172 = 6.37 KNm

Positive B.M at mid-span in longer span = αyWlx2

= 0.035×10.5×3.172= 4.74 KNm

Maximum bending moment = 6.37 KNm

Effective depth required d = (M/0.138fckb)1/2

=(6.37×106/0.138×20×1000)1/2

= 48.04mm < 120 mm

From deflection point of view provide 120 mm as overall depth of slab

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF BEAM

The main objective of the preliminary design is to fix


the various structural elements of the building such as
slabs, beams ,& columns.It is required to fix up the
dimensions to know self weights of the elements before
taking up analysis of the frame.Preliminary design
involves the determination of the form of structure ,the
material of the structure ,sizing of the elements
Calculation:

Span of beam=3.05+2×0.3/2=3.35m

Grade of concrete=M20

Grade of steel=Fe415

Assume dimensions of the beam as 300mm×300mm

Effective area of slab coming onto the beam

=(1/2×3.35×1.675)×2

=5.611m2

Load calculations

Dead load of slab=0.12×25=3KN/m2

Live load on slab=4.0 KN/ m2

Floor finishes=1 KN/ m2

Total load=8 KN/ m2

Load transferred from slab to beam=8×5.611=44.9 KN

Self weight of beam=0.3×0.3×3.35×25=7.53 KN

Weight of wall on beam=0.3×3.35×3.5×18=63.315 KN

Total load = 44.97+7.53+63.315= 115.75 KN

Factored load =1.5×115.75=172.125 KN

Factored load acting on beam=172.125/3.35=51.38 KN/m

Maximum bending moment = (51.38×3.35×3.35)/10=57.66 KNm

Effective depth required=(M/ (0.138fckb))1/2

=(57.66 / (0.138×20×300) )1/2=263mm

Assume nominal cover =25mm

Assume diameter of bar =12mm

Provide overall depth of beam =263+25+6=294mm

Hence the dimensions of the beam are 300mm×300mm

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF COLUMN


INTRODUCTION

A column may be defined as an element used primarily to


support axial compressive loads and with a height of at
least three times its least lateral dimension. all columns are
subjected to some moment which may be due to accidental
eccentricity or due to end restrain imposed by
monolithically placed beams or slabs. Column may be
classified based on different criteria such as shape of
cross-section, slenderness ratio, type of loading, pattern of
lateral reinforcement.
Calculation :

Assume size of the column=300mm×350mm

Unit weight of concrete=25 KN/m 2

Unit weight of masonry=18 KN/m 2

Effective area of slab coming onto the column

= (1.525+1.525) × (1.525+0.762)

=6.97 m 2

Weight of slab=0.12×25=3 KN/m 2

Floor finishes=1 KN/m 2

Dead load=4 KN/m 2

Dead load from slab=4×6.97=27.90 KN/m 2

Self weight of beam per floor

= (1.525+0.762) ×0.3×0.3×25+(1.525+1.525) ×0.3×0.3×25 = 12 KN

Dead load = 27.90+12=39.9KN

Self weight of column

= (4×3.5×0.3×0.35×25)+(1×0.3×0.35×25)

=39.375 KN

Load from wall = 0.3× (1.525+1.525+0.762+1.525) ×18×35 =100.87 KN

Dead load from top floor=39.88KN

Dead load from remaining floors= (100.87+39.9) ×4

=563.00KN ~ 565 KN

Live load from roof. =2×6.97= 13.95KN

Live load from floors =4×6.97= 28 KN

Total live load on bottom most column

= (4×(28+13.95)) × (1-0.3)

=117.46 KN

=117.5 KN

Total load = (39.88+565+39.4+101)= 761.78 KN

Factored load=1.5×761.78= 1142.67 KN

Assume percentage of reinforcement as 2% of gross area

Pu =0.4fckAc+0.67fyAsc

1142.67×1000=0.4×20× (Ag-0.02Ag) + 0.67×415×0.02Ag

1142.67×1000=7.84Ag+5.561Ag

Ag=85267 mm < 105000 mm


2 2

Provide the column size as 300mm×350mm


Self weight of column

= (4×3.5×0.23×0.35×25)+(1×0.23×0.35×25)

=30.187 KN

Load from wall

=0.3× (1.525+1.525+0.762+1.525) ×18×3.5 =100.87 KN

Dead load from top floor=39.9KN

Dead load from remaining floors= (100.87+39.9) ×4

=563.08KN = 565 KN

Live load from roof. =2×6.97= 13.95KN

Live load from floors =4×6.97= 28 KN

Total live load on bottom most column

= (4×(28+13.95)) × (1-0.4)

=100.68 KN

=101 KN

Total load = (39.88+565+30.19+101)= 736 KN

Factored load=1.5×736= 1105 KN

Assume percentage of reinforcement as 6% of gross area

Pu =0.4fckAc+0.67fyAsc

1105×1000=0.4×20× (Ag-0.06Ag) + 0.67×415×0.06Ag

1105×1000=7.52Ag+16.683Ag

Ag=45655 mm2 < 80500 mm2

Provide the column size as 230mm×350mm

Kani’s method

Kani’s method introduced by Dr.Gasper kani(1947).This method uses Gauss-


Seidell iteration procedure to solve slope deflection equations without


explicitly writing them down.It contains single simple numerical operation
perform repetedly at the joints of the structure ,in a chosen sequence.Unlike
moment distribution method where we iterate increments of moments ,here
we iterate end moments themselves and hence it provides more accuracy.

.
Procedure for Analysis a frame by Kani’s method
1.Calculation of loads that are imposed on to the respective beams and
convert them into U.D.L. The different loads effective on to the beams are
slab load ,floor finish ,wall load ,load of the beam and live load.

2.Calculation of fixed end moments.

3.Calculation of Rotation factors.

4.Calculation of Displacement factors if sway in the frame exists.

5.Place the R.F, Fixed end moments in the exact pattern for iterating moment
contributions also, displacement contributions if sway exists.

6.After we have obtained approximately same values for successive


iterations ,then calculate the final end moments.

Comparison values of Bending moments

Bending moments of Frame 1 using STAAD .pro

Design of structural elements


DEIGN OF SLAB

CALCULATIONS:

Dimensions of slab = 3.05 x 3.05 m

Grade of concrete = M20

Grade of steel = Fe415


Edge conditions: Two adjacent edge is discontinuous
Ly/Lx =3.05/3.05=1< 2 (two-way slab)
Thickness of slab:
Assume effective depth of slab, d = 120 mm
Effective span:
Shorter direction, Lx = 3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m
Longer direction, Ly =3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m
L /L =3.17/3.17=1
y x

Loads:
Dead load on slab = 0.12×1×25 = 3KN/m
Live load =4×1 =4 KN/m
Floor finishes = 1×1 = 1KN/m
Partition load = 1×1 = 1KN/m
Total load W = 3+2+1+1 = 9 KN/m
Factored load W = 1.5×7 = 13.5KN/m
u
As per IS: 456-2000(Clause D.2.1),
The bending moment coefficients are αx αy
-Ve moment at continuous edge 0.047 0.047
+Ve moment at mid-span 0.035 0.035
Negative B.M at continuous edge in shorter span = αxWl x2

= 0.047×13.5×3.17 = 6.37KNm
2

Positive B.M at mid-span in shorter span = αxWl x2

=0.035×13.5×3.17 = 4.74KNm 2

Negative B.M at edge in longer span = αyWl x2

= 0.047× 13.5×3.17 = 6.37KNm 2

Positive B.M at mid-span in longer span = αyWl x2

= 0.035×13.5×3.17 = 6.37KNm 2

Maximum bending moment = 6.37KNm


Effective depth required (d )= (M/0.138f b)
ck 1/2

= (6.37×10 /0.138×20×1000)
6 1/2

= 48.04mm < 120 mm


From deflection point of view provide 120 mm as overall depth of slab
• Reinforcement along shorter direction at edge:


M=0.87×fy×A ×d[1-(A ×fy/fck×b×d)]


st st

6.37×106=0.87×415×A ×120[1-(A ×415/20×1000×120)]


st st

A = 150.96 mm
st 2

• Minimum steel reinforcement = 0.12% x b x D


=0.12/100 x 1000 x 120 = 144 mm


2

· Let us consider 8mm bars

• Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π×8 ×1000/4×150.96= 333.002 mm



2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm


2. 3d =3 x 120 =360mm


3. 333.002 mm


Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing


• Reinforcement along shorter direction at mid-span:


M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d)


st st

4.74×106=0.87×415×A ×120[1-(A ×415/20×1000×120)]


st st

A = 111.6 mm
st 2

• Minimum steel reinforcement = 0.12% x b x D


=0.12/100 x 1000 x 120 = 144 mm


2

· Let us consider 8mm bars

• Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π/4×8 ×1000×111.6 = 450.44 mm



2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm


2. 3d =360mm


3. 300 mm


Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing


• Reinforcement along longer direction at edge: 


M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d)


st st

6.37×10 =0.87×415×A ×120[1-(A ×415/20×1000×120)]


6 st st

A = 150.96 mm
st 2

• Minimum steel reinforcement = 0.12% x b x D


=0.12/100 x 1000 x 120 = 144 mm


2

Let us consider 8mm bars

• Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π×8 ×1000/4×150.96 = 333.002 mm



2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm


2. 3d = 360mm


3. 333 mm


Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing


• Reinforcement along longer direction at mid-span: M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d)

st st

4.74×10 =0.87×415×A ×120[1-(A ×415/20×1000×120)]


6 st st

A = 111.6 mm
st 2

• Minimum steel reinforcement = 0.12% x b x D


=0.12/100 x 1000 x 120 = 144 mm


2

· Let us consider 8mm bars

• Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π×8 ×1000/4×111.6=450.44mm



2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm


2. 3d = 360mm


3. 300 mm


Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing


• Check for shear: 


V = W L / 2 =(13.5 × 3.17)/2=21.4 KN
u

τv =V /bd =21.4×10 /1000×120=0.178


u 3

P = A × 100/ bd =100×150.96/1000×120 =0.126


t st

From IS 456-2000

τC=0.28 N/mm 2

τC > τv

(no shear reinforcement is required)

Check for deflection:

For continuous slab( L/d) allowable =26

P = A × 100/ bd = 0.1258
t st

F = 0.58 f [Ast required /Ast provided]


s y

{where, Ast provided = 1000 x 50.3/300 = 167.66 mm } 2

F =0.58 × 415 x [150.96/167.60] = 216 N/mm


s 2
Modification factor =2.00

L/d allowable =2.0× 26 = 52

L/d actual = 3170/96 = 33.02

(L/d)actual < (L/d) allowable (Hence, safe and ok)


DESIGN OF BEAM:

Dimensions of beam = 300mm x 450mm

Effective cover = 20 mm

Effective depth = 450-20=430 m

Bending moment at end A = 85.74 KN-m

Bending moment at end B = 20.02 KN-m

Bending moment at mid section = 113.76 KN-m

M = 153.05 KN-m
u lim

M >M
u lim u

Hence beam is singly reinforced beam

 
M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d) st st

85.74×10 =0.87×415×A ×430(1-A ×415/20×230×480)


6 st st

A = 612.63 mm
st 2

Assume 16 mm dia bars

ast = π/4 x 16 = 201.06 mm 2 2

Number of bars = A st / ast = 612.63/201.06 = 3.04 ~ 4 bars


A st provided = 4 x 201.06 = 804.24 mm 2

REINFORCEMENT AT END A:

Bending moment=M = 85.74 KN-m u

M =0.36(X /d) (1-0.42( X /d))bd f


u lim u max u max 2 ck

Where, ( Xu max/d)=0.48

M = (0.36 x 0.48) (1-(0.42 x 0.48)) x 300 x 430 x 20


u lim 2
REINFORCEMENT AT END B:

Bending moment=M = 20.02 KN-m u

M =0.36(X /d) (1-0.42( X /d))bd f


u lim u max u max 2 ck

Where,( Xu max/d)=0.48

M = (0.36 x 0.48) (1-(0.42 x 0.48)) x 300 x 430 x 20


u lim 2

M = 153.05 KN-m
u lim

M >M
u lim u

Hence beam is singly reinforced beam

M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d) st st

20.02×10 =0.87×415×A ×480(1-A ×415/20×230×480)


6 st st

A = 131.74 mm
st 2

Assume 16 mm dia bars

ast = π/4 x 16 = 201.06 mm 2 2

Number of bars = A st / ast = 131.74/201.06 ~ 1 bars

A st provided = 1 x 201.06 = 201.06 mm 2


REINFORCEMENT AT MID SPAN :

Acts as T beam

Bending moment=M = 113.76KN-m


u

Effective span = 4.8 m (l ) o

Effective width of flange = b = (l /6)+(b )+(6D )


f o w f

b = (4800/6)+(300)+(6 x 120)
f

b = 1820 mm
f

Assume neutral axis lies in the flange

( Xu max/d)=0.48

( X /480)=0.48
u max

X u max =0.48 x 430 = 206.4 mm

Depth of neutral axis (X ) = u

M = 0.36 x f x b x X (d – 0.42 X )
u ck f u u

113.76 x 10 = 0.36 x 20 x 1820 x X (430 – 0.42 X )


6 u u

X = 20.46 mm
u

X >X
u max u
REINFORCEMENT:

Since beam is under reinforced

M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d)st st

113.76×10 =0.87×415×A ×430(1-A ×415/20×300×430)


6 st st

A = 848.57 mm
st 2

Assume 16 mm dia bars

ast = π/4 x 16 = 201.06 mm 2 2

Number of bars = A st / ast = 848.57/201.06 = 4.22 ~ 5 bars


A st provided = 5 x 201.06 = 1005.3 mm 2

SHEAR REINFORCEMENT :

V = W L / 2 =(57.895 × 4.8)/2=138.948 KN
u

τv =V /bd =138.948×10 /300×430=1.077 N/mm


u 3 2

P = A × 100/ bd =100×1005.3/300 × 430 = 0.779


t st

From IS 456-2000

τC=0.566 N/mm 2

τC < τv
shear reinforcement is required

Shear resistance = V –u τC b d = (138.948 x 1000) – ( 0.566 x 300 x 430 )


V = 65926 N = 65.926 KN
us

Assume 2 legged 8 mm dia vertical stirrups

A = 2 x π/4 x 8 = 100.5 mm
sv 2 2

Spacing = Sv = (0.87 x fy x Asv x d ) / (Vus)

Sv = (0.87 x 415 x 100.5 x 430 ) / (65927)

Sv = 236.74 ~ 230mm

The spacing should be lesser of the following

(i) 230mm

(ii) 0.75 x d = 0.75 x 430 = 322.5 mm

(iii) 300mm

Provide 2 legged 8 mm vertical stirrups of 230mm c/c spacing


CHECK FOR DEFLECTION:

For simply supported beam ( L/d )=20

P = A × 100/ bd = 0.779
t st

F =0.58 × 415 x (848.57/1005.3) = 203.17 N/mm


s 2

Modification factor =1.3

( L/d) allowable =1.3 × 20 = 26

( L/d) actual =4800/430 =11.16

(L/d)actual < (L/d) allowable (Hence, safe and ok)


DESIGN OF COLUMN

CALCULATION:
Dimensions = 300mm x 350mm
Design load = 927.789 KN
Moment in X X = 14.68 KNm
Moment in Y Y = 4.86 KNm

Calculation of actual eccentricities :


In XX direction
Mux / Pu = 14.68 x 10 / 927.789 x 10 = 15.822 mm
6 3

In YY direction

Mux / Pu = 4.86 x 10 / 927.789 x 10 = 5.238 mm


6 3

Calculation of minimum eccentricity :

In XX direction ,

e = L/300 + D/30
min both ends are fixed

where L is unsupported length of column

e = 0.8 x 3500 / 300 + 350 / 30 = 21mm > 20


min

Therefore , e = 20mm
min

In YY direction ,

e = 0.8 x 3500 / 300 + 300 / 30 = 19.33 mm < 20


min

Therefore , e = 19.33mm
min
ECCENTRICITIES AS PER CODE

In XX direction = 0.05×350 = 17.5mm

In YY direction = 0.05×300 =15 mm

Actual eccentricities are less than minimum eccentricity and eccentricities as per code

Hence the column is designed as axially loaded column

Design load = 927.789 KN

Design moment = 14.68 KN-m

Factored load = 1.5 x 927.789 = 1391.68KN

P = 0.4×f ×A +0.67 f A
u ck c y sc

1391.68×10 =0.4 ×20×105000-A )+0.67×415×A


3 sc sc

A = 2042.88mm
sc 2
Using 20 mm diameter bars,

a = /4x 20 = 314.5 mm
st 2 2

Number of bars required =2042.88/314.15 = 6.5 ~ 8

Provide 8 bars of 20 mm dia as longitudinal reinforcement.

A sc provided = 8 x /4 x 202 = 2513.27 mm2

CHECK :

% of the reinforcement = A sc provided /A


g

=2513.27 / 105000 x 100


= 2.39 % [0.8 - 4 %]

LATERAL TIES :

The lateral ties should be more than

(i) ¼ (dia of bars ) = ¼ (20) = 5 mm

(ii) 6 mm

Use 8mm dia as lateral ties.


SPACING OF TIES :

1)300mm [least dimension of the column]

2)16 times bar dia =16×20 =320mm [16 x diameter of the bar]

3)300mm

Provide 8 mm dia as lateral ties with a spacing of 300mm c/c


FOOTING DESIGN:

Load from column W = 927.789 KN


c

Column size = 300mm X 350mm

SBC of soil Q = 230 KN/ m


u 2

10% of load is taken as self-weight W = 0.1 x 927. 78 f

= 92.77 KN

Total load = W + W c f

= 927. 78 + 92.77

=1020.55KN

Soil bearing capacity = 230 KN/m 2

M concrete and Fe Steel X


20 415 umax / d = 0.48 and R = 2.76
u

Area of footing A = (W + W )/Q c s u

=1020.55/230

= 4.43m 2

Adopt Size of footing 2.3m x 2.1 m


Soil pressure due to column load = 989.72/2.3 X 2.1
=192.08 KN/m 2

Factored load q =192.08 x 1.5 = 288.13 KN/m


u 2

Calculation of depth of footing


i) One-way shear:

Shear force in shorter direction = q x Y x (X- a /2 - d )


u

= 288.13 x 2.3 x ( 2.1 - 0.3 / 2 -d)

=662.699(0.9-d)

= 596.42 - 662.699d

Shear in longer direction = q x X x ( Y-b/2-d)


u

= 288.13 x 2.1x ( 2.3 - 0.35 / 2 - d )

= 605.073(0.975-d) -(1)

Shear force is maximum in shorter direction

Shear force restricted by concrete = c X d

c =0.32N/mm2 for 2% of steel from code book

=0.32 x 10 /10 x 2.1x d


6 3

= 672d -(2)

Equating the equations

672d=589.94-605.07d

d=0.461m
ii) Two-way shear:

Shear force at critical section due to shaded area

= q × (XY-(0.23+d) x (0.5+d))
u

=288.13 x [( 2.3x 2.1)-(0.3+d) x (0.35+d)) ]

=1391.66 - 187.28d -288.13d 2 -(3)

Punching shear restricted by section

= c. A

c =0.25fck =0.2520 = 1.118 N/mm 2

A= area of critical section

=perimeter x d

=((0.3+d) +(0.35+d)) d

=(0.65+2d) d

Shear force restricted =1.118x10 /10 x(0.65d+2d )


6 3 2 -(4)

Equating (3) and (4)

1361.4 - 187.28d - 288.13 d = 726.7d + 22.36 d


2 2

d = 0.575 m
iii) Depth of footing by bending moment

Bending moment in longer direction = p X( y-b/2 ) ( y-b/4 )


u

=288.13 x2.1x (0.975/2 ) ( 0.975/4)

= 287.598KN-m

Bending moment in shorter direction = p x Y x ( x-a/2 ) (x-a/4


u

=288.13x 2.3 x (0.9/2 ) (0.9/4)

=268.39 KN-m

hence bending moment in longer direction is more

Maximum bending moment = 287.598KN-m

M =0.138 x f x b x d
u ck 2

287.598x 10 = 0.138 x 20 x 2100d


6 2

d=222.75mm~0.225 m

from above three depth consider the maximum depth

d=0.575mm

overall depth = 580 + 8 +50

=638 ~650 mm

Provide 650 mm as depth

Assume 16mm diameter bars

Effective depth = 650-8-50 = 592 mm


Reinforcement:

Longer direction M =0.87 x f A x d [1-f A / b x d x f ]


u y X st y st ck

287.598x 10 =0.87x415xAstx592(1-415 A /2100x592x20)


6 st

A =1377.19 mm
st 2

Assume 16 mm diameter bars

Spacing S = 201.06/1377.19 x 2100 =306.6mm ~ 300mm


v

Provide 16mm @300 mm c/c

Shorter direction M =0.87 x f A . x d [1-f A / b x d x f ]


u yX st y st ck

268 x 10 =0.87x415xAstx592(1-415 A /2300x592x20)


6 st

A =1280.66 mm
st 2

Minimum reinforcement =0.12%bd

=0.12/100 x2300 x 592

=2484 mm >1280mm 2 2

Reinforcement in central band:

Total reinforcement in shorter direction = 2/B+1 where,B=y/x = 2.3/2.1 =1.0952 Reinforcement in central band/2484 = 2/1.095+1

= 2371.13mm 2

Reinforcement is divided in 1.15 m in the central band

Spacing S =
v 201.06/2371.13 x 2100 = 178.00 ~170mm c/c

provide 16 mm diameter bars at 170 mm center to center spacing

balancing area of steel is to be distributed in the outer band

=2484 - 2371.13 =113 mm 2


Spacing of 16 mm bars = 201.06 /113 x 2100 = 3736.51mm

Consider lesser of the following

(ii) 300

(iii) d=592

Provide 16 mm bars at 300 mm center to center spacing

Check for development length

Ld = 0.87fy /4 bd =0.87x415x16/4x1.92 =752.2mm

Available length in shorter direction beyond face column

= 2100-300/2

=900mm >752.2mm

Hence Ok
DESIGN OF STAIR CASE

Staircase hall dimensions = 2.75m x 3.05 m

Height of each floor = 3.5 m

Height of flight =3.5/2 = 1. 75 m

Assuming Riser = 200 mm

Thread = 250 mm

Number of risers = 1750/ 200 =8.75 ~ 9

Number of threads =risers-1

=9 - 1= 8

Total going = number of treads x tread height

=8 x 250 =2000mm

Width of landing = 3.05-2= 1.05 m

Effective length = 3.35 m

Assume width of the staircase = 1.3 m

Check for depth

d =(M
req u lim /0.138 fck b) 1/2

= ( 28.28 x 10 /0.138 x 20 x 1000)


6 1/2

= 11.22 mm ~ 105mm

d = 170 – (20+6) = 144 mm


prov

d >d
prov req

Hence provided depth of slab is safe


DEPTH OF SLAB

L/D = 20 (simply supported slab)

D = L/20 i.e; D=3350/20

=167.5 mm ~170mm

Provide depth of waist slab = 170 mm

Dead load on waist slab=W = 0.17 x 1 x25 = 4.25 KN/m


s

Dead load on waist slab in horizontal =(W / T) (T +R )


s 2 2 1/2

= (4.25/0.25) (0.25 +0.2 )


2 2 1/2

= 5.44KN/m

Dead load on step = ½ x R X T x unit weight of concrete

= ½ x 0.2x 0.25 x 25

=0.625 KN/m

Dead load on step per meter length = 0.625/0.25

= 2.5KN/m

Floor finish = 0.5 KN/m

Total dead load = 5.44 + 2.5 + 0.5

=8.44 KN/m

Live load taken as 5KN/m 2

= 5 x 1 = 5 KN/m

Total load = 8.44 + 5 = 13.44 KN/m

Factored load =W= 13.44 x 1.5 = 20.16 KN/m

Maximum bending moment = (Wl )/8 2

=(20.16 X 3.35 )/82

= 28.28 KN- m
MAIN REINFORCEMENT

M =0.87 x f x A x d[1-fyAst / b x d x fck]


u y st

28.28x10 =0.87 x 415xAst x 144[1- 415 Ast/1000 x 144 x 20]


6

Ast = 594.94mm 2

Assume 12 mm diameter bars therefore, a = /4 x 12 =113.09 mm


st 2 2

Spacing Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 12 ) /A ) x 1000
2 st

Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 12 ) /594.94) x 1000
2

= 190.08mm ~ 190 mm

Consider lesser of the following

(i) 190mm

(ii) 450mm

(iii) 3 x d = 3 x 144 = 432mm

Provide 12 mm diameter bars at 190mm center to center spacing for main-reinforcement

DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT

Distribution reinforcement =0.12% b x d

=0.12 x (1/100) x 1000 x 170 =204 mm


2

Using 10mm diameter bar

Spacing Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 10 ) /A ) x 1000
2 st

Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 10 ) /594.94) x 1000
2

=384.95mm ~ 380 mm
Consider lesser of the following

(i) 380mm

(ii) 450mm

(iii) 5 x d = 5 x 144 =720mm

Provide 10mm diameter bars at a distance of 380 mm center to center spacing for distribution reinforcement
Modelling
Creating a Model

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The Exterior view of the model