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# DESIGN ,ANALYSIS &MODELLING OF A

BY
M.SUDHEER
C.SWATHI REDDY
S.YASEEN

## UNDER THE GUIDANCE

OF:
M.CHANDRAIAH
CONTENTS

Plan

Preliminary design

Analysis

Design

Modelling
MULTI STOREY COMMERCIAL BUILDING (G+4) PLAN
ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEET’S AND INCHES
Column positioning

SLAB NUMBERING
BEAM NUMBERING
COLUMN NUMBERING
PRELIMINARY DESIGN

## The main objective of the preliminary design is to fix

the various structural elements of the building such as
slabs, beams ,& columns.It is required to fix up the
dimensions to know self weights of the elements before
taking up analysis of the frame.Preliminary design
involves the determination of the form of structure ,the
material of the structure ,sizing of the elements
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF SLAB

## Slabs are plane structural members whose thickness is quite

small as compared to its other dimensions. Slabs are classified
into two categories:

## 1.ONE WAY SLAB: The slab is said to be one way slab if it is

supported on two edges or even four edges where the ratio of
longer span to the shorter span is greater than two.

i.e., Ly /Lx>2

## 2.TWO WAY SLAB: The slab is said to be a two way slab if it is

supported on four sides and the ratio of longer span to shorter
span is less than or equal to two.

Calculations :

## Ly/Lx =3.05/3.05=1 < 2 (two-way slab)

Thickness of slab:

Eﬀective span:

## Longer direction, Ly = 3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m

Ly/Lx =3.17/3.17 =1

## Eﬀective depth required d = (M/0.138fckb)1/2

=(6.37×106/0.138×20×1000)1/2

## The main objective of the preliminary design is to fix

the various structural elements of the building such as
slabs, beams ,& columns.It is required to fix up the
dimensions to know self weights of the elements before
taking up analysis of the frame.Preliminary design
involves the determination of the form of structure ,the
material of the structure ,sizing of the elements
Calculation:

Span of beam=3.05+2×0.3/2=3.35m

## Eﬀective area of slab coming onto the beam

=(1/2×3.35×1.675)×2

=5.611m2

INTRODUCTION

## A column may be defined as an element used primarily to

support axial compressive loads and with a height of at
least three times its least lateral dimension. all columns are
subjected to some moment which may be due to accidental
eccentricity or due to end restrain imposed by
monolithically placed beams or slabs. Column may be
classified based on different criteria such as shape of
lateral reinforcement.
Calculation :

## Effective area of slab coming onto the column

= (1.525+1.525) × (1.525+0.762)

=6.97 m 2

## Self weight of column

= (4×3.5×0.3×0.35×25)+(1×0.3×0.35×25)

=39.375 KN

## Load from wall = 0.3× (1.525+1.525+0.762+1.525) ×18×35 =100.87 KN

=563.00KN ~ 565 KN

## Total live load on bottom most column

= (4×(28+13.95)) × (1-0.3)

=117.46 KN

=117.5 KN

## Assume percentage of reinforcement as 2% of gross area

Pu =0.4fckAc+0.67fyAsc

## 1142.67×1000=0.4×20× (Ag-0.02Ag) + 0.67×415×0.02Ag

1142.67×1000=7.84Ag+5.561Ag

2 2

## Provide the column size as 300mm×350mm

Self weight of column

= (4×3.5×0.23×0.35×25)+(1×0.23×0.35×25)

=30.187 KN

## =0.3× (1.525+1.525+0.762+1.525) ×18×3.5 =100.87 KN

=563.08KN = 565 KN

## Total live load on bottom most column

= (4×(28+13.95)) × (1-0.4)

=100.68 KN

=101 KN

## Assume percentage of reinforcement as 6% of gross area

Pu =0.4fckAc+0.67fyAsc

## 1105×1000=0.4×20× (Ag-0.06Ag) + 0.67×415×0.06Ag

1105×1000=7.52Ag+16.683Ag

Kani’s method

## Seidell iteration procedure to solve slope deflection equations without

explicitly writing them down.It contains single simple numerical operation
perform repetedly at the joints of the structure ,in a chosen sequence.Unlike
moment distribution method where we iterate increments of moments ,here
we iterate end moments themselves and hence it provides more accuracy.

.
Procedure for Analysis a frame by Kani’s method
1.Calculation of loads that are imposed on to the respective beams and
convert them into U.D.L. The different loads effective on to the beams are

## 4.Calculation of Displacement factors if sway in the frame exists.

5.Place the R.F, Fixed end moments in the exact pattern for iterating moment
contributions also, displacement contributions if sway exists.

## 6.After we have obtained approximately same values for successive

iterations ,then calculate the final end moments.

DEIGN OF SLAB

CALCULATIONS:

## Grade of steel = Fe415

Edge conditions: Two adjacent edge is discontinuous
Ly/Lx =3.05/3.05=1< 2 (two-way slab)
Thickness of slab:
Assume effective depth of slab, d = 120 mm
Effective span:
Shorter direction, Lx = 3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m
Longer direction, Ly =3.05+d= 3.05+0.12 = 3.17m
L /L =3.17/3.17=1
y x

Floor finishes = 1×1 = 1KN/m
Partition load = 1×1 = 1KN/m
Total load W = 3+2+1+1 = 9 KN/m
Factored load W = 1.5×7 = 13.5KN/m
u
As per IS: 456-2000(Clause D.2.1),
The bending moment coefficients are αx αy
-Ve moment at continuous edge 0.047 0.047
+Ve moment at mid-span 0.035 0.035
Negative B.M at continuous edge in shorter span = αxWl x2

= 0.047×13.5×3.17 = 6.37KNm
2

## Positive B.M at mid-span in shorter span = αxWl x2

=0.035×13.5×3.17 = 4.74KNm 2

## Positive B.M at mid-span in longer span = αyWl x2

= 0.035×13.5×3.17 = 6.37KNm 2

## Maximum bending moment = 6.37KNm

Effective depth required (d )= (M/0.138f b)
ck 1/2

= (6.37×10 /0.138×20×1000)
6 1/2

## = 48.04mm < 120 mm

From deflection point of view provide 120 mm as overall depth of slab
• Reinforcement along shorter direction at edge:

st st

st st

A = 150.96 mm
st 2

2

## • Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π×8 ×1000/4×150.96= 333.002 mm

2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm

2. 3d =3 x 120 =360mm

3. 333.002 mm

## Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing

• Reinforcement along shorter direction at mid-span:

st st

st st

A = 111.6 mm
st 2

2

## • Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π/4×8 ×1000×111.6 = 450.44 mm

2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm

2. 3d =360mm

3. 300 mm

## Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing

• Reinforcement along longer direction at edge:

st st

6 st st

A = 150.96 mm
st 2

2

## • Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π×8 ×1000/4×150.96 = 333.002 mm

2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm

2. 3d = 360mm

3. 333 mm

## Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing

• Reinforcement along longer direction at mid-span: M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d)
st st

6 st st

A = 111.6 mm
st 2

2

## • Spacing of 8mm dia. Bars = π×8 ×1000/4×111.6=450.44mm

2

Consider least of it

1. 300 mm

2. 3d = 360mm

3. 300 mm

## Therefore, provide 8mm dia. Bars at 300 mm @ c/c spacing

• Check for shear:

V = W L / 2 =(13.5 × 3.17)/2=21.4 KN
u

u 3

t st

From IS 456-2000

τC=0.28 N/mm 2

τC > τv

## For continuous slab( L/d) allowable =26

P = A × 100/ bd = 0.1258
t st

s y

## F =0.58 × 415 x [150.96/167.60] = 216 N/mm

s 2
Modification factor =2.00

DESIGN OF BEAM:

## Dimensions of beam = 300mm x 450mm

Effective cover = 20 mm

M = 153.05 KN-m
u lim

M >M
u lim u

## Hence beam is singly reinforced beam

M=0.87×fy×A ×d(1-A ×fy/fck×b×d) st st

6 st st

A = 612.63 mm
st 2

## Number of bars = A st / ast = 612.63/201.06 = 3.04 ~ 4 bars

A st provided = 4 x 201.06 = 804.24 mm 2

REINFORCEMENT AT END A:

## M =0.36(X /d) (1-0.42( X /d))bd f

u lim u max u max 2 ck

Where, ( Xu max/d)=0.48

## M = (0.36 x 0.48) (1-(0.42 x 0.48)) x 300 x 430 x 20

u lim 2
REINFORCEMENT AT END B:

## M =0.36(X /d) (1-0.42( X /d))bd f

u lim u max u max 2 ck

Where,( Xu max/d)=0.48

u lim 2

M = 153.05 KN-m
u lim

M >M
u lim u

6 st st

A = 131.74 mm
st 2

## A st provided = 1 x 201.06 = 201.06 mm 2

REINFORCEMENT AT MID SPAN :

Acts as T beam

u

## Effective width of flange = b = (l /6)+(b )+(6D )

f o w f

b = (4800/6)+(300)+(6 x 120)
f

b = 1820 mm
f

( Xu max/d)=0.48

( X /480)=0.48
u max

## Depth of neutral axis (X ) = u

M = 0.36 x f x b x X (d – 0.42 X )
u ck f u u

6 u u

X = 20.46 mm
u

X >X
u max u
REINFORCEMENT:

6 st st

A = 848.57 mm
st 2

## Number of bars = A st / ast = 848.57/201.06 = 4.22 ~ 5 bars

A st provided = 5 x 201.06 = 1005.3 mm 2

SHEAR REINFORCEMENT :

V = W L / 2 =(57.895 × 4.8)/2=138.948 KN
u

u 3 2

## P = A × 100/ bd =100×1005.3/300 × 430 = 0.779

t st

From IS 456-2000

τC=0.566 N/mm 2

τC < τv
shear reinforcement is required

## Shear resistance = V –u τC b d = (138.948 x 1000) – ( 0.566 x 300 x 430 )

V = 65926 N = 65.926 KN
us

## Assume 2 legged 8 mm dia vertical stirrups

A = 2 x π/4 x 8 = 100.5 mm
sv 2 2

## Sv = (0.87 x 415 x 100.5 x 430 ) / (65927)

Sv = 236.74 ~ 230mm

(i) 230mm

(iii) 300mm

## Provide 2 legged 8 mm vertical stirrups of 230mm c/c spacing

CHECK FOR DEFLECTION:

## For simply supported beam ( L/d )=20

P = A × 100/ bd = 0.779
t st

s 2

## (L/d)actual < (L/d) allowable (Hence, safe and ok)

DESIGN OF COLUMN

CALCULATION:
Dimensions = 300mm x 350mm
Moment in X X = 14.68 KNm
Moment in Y Y = 4.86 KNm

## Calculation of actual eccentricities :

In XX direction
Mux / Pu = 14.68 x 10 / 927.789 x 10 = 15.822 mm
6 3

In YY direction

6 3

## Calculation of minimum eccentricity :

In XX direction ,

e = L/300 + D/30
min both ends are fixed

## e = 0.8 x 3500 / 300 + 350 / 30 = 21mm > 20

min

Therefore , e = 20mm
min

In YY direction ,

## e = 0.8 x 3500 / 300 + 300 / 30 = 19.33 mm < 20

min

Therefore , e = 19.33mm
min
ECCENTRICITIES AS PER CODE

## In YY direction = 0.05×300 =15 mm

Actual eccentricities are less than minimum eccentricity and eccentricities as per code

## Factored load = 1.5 x 927.789 = 1391.68KN

P = 0.4×f ×A +0.67 f A
u ck c y sc

## 1391.68×10 =0.4 ×20×105000-A )+0.67×415×A

3 sc sc

A = 2042.88mm
sc 2
Using 20 mm diameter bars,

a = /4x 20 = 314.5 mm
st 2 2

CHECK :

g

## =2513.27 / 105000 x 100

= 2.39 % [0.8 - 4 %]

LATERAL TIES :

(ii) 6 mm

## Use 8mm dia as lateral ties.

SPACING OF TIES :

## 1)300mm [least dimension of the column]

2)16 times bar dia =16×20 =320mm [16 x diameter of the bar]

3)300mm

FOOTING DESIGN:

c

u 2

## 10% of load is taken as self-weight W = 0.1 x 927. 78 f

= 92.77 KN

Total load = W + W c f

= 927. 78 + 92.77

=1020.55KN

## M concrete and Fe Steel X

20 415 umax / d = 0.48 and R = 2.76
u

=1020.55/230

= 4.43m 2

## Adopt Size of footing 2.3m x 2.1 m

Soil pressure due to column load = 989.72/2.3 X 2.1
=192.08 KN/m 2

u 2

## Calculation of depth of footing

i) One-way shear:

u

## = 288.13 x 2.3 x ( 2.1 - 0.3 / 2 -d)

=662.699(0.9-d)

= 596.42 - 662.699d

u

## = 288.13 x 2.1x ( 2.3 - 0.35 / 2 - d )

= 605.073(0.975-d) -(1)

6 3

= 672d -(2)

## Equating the equations

672d=589.94-605.07d

d=0.461m
ii) Two-way shear:

## Shear force at critical section due to shaded area

= q × (XY-(0.23+d) x (0.5+d))
u

= c. A

## A= area of critical section

=perimeter x d

=((0.3+d) +(0.35+d)) d

=(0.65+2d) d

6 3 2 -(4)

## 1361.4 - 187.28d - 288.13 d = 726.7d + 22.36 d

2 2

d = 0.575 m
iii) Depth of footing by bending moment

u

= 287.598KN-m

u

=268.39 KN-m

## Maximum bending moment = 287.598KN-m

M =0.138 x f x b x d
u ck 2

## 287.598x 10 = 0.138 x 20 x 2100d

6 2

d=222.75mm~0.225 m

d=0.575mm

=638 ~650 mm

Reinforcement:

u y X st y st ck

6 st

A =1377.19 mm
st 2

v

u yX st y st ck

6 st

A =1280.66 mm
st 2

## =0.12/100 x2300 x 592

=2484 mm >1280mm 2 2

## Reinforcement in central band:

Total reinforcement in shorter direction = 2/B+1 where,B=y/x = 2.3/2.1 =1.0952 Reinforcement in central band/2484 = 2/1.095+1

= 2371.13mm 2

## Reinforcement is divided in 1.15 m in the central band

Spacing S =
v 201.06/2371.13 x 2100 = 178.00 ~170mm c/c

## =2484 - 2371.13 =113 mm 2

Spacing of 16 mm bars = 201.06 /113 x 2100 = 3736.51mm

(ii) 300

(iii) d=592

## Available length in shorter direction beyond face column

= 2100-300/2

=900mm >752.2mm

Hence Ok
DESIGN OF STAIR CASE

=9 - 1= 8

=8 x 250 =2000mm

## Check for depth

d =(M
req u lim /0.138 fck b) 1/2

## = ( 28.28 x 10 /0.138 x 20 x 1000)

6 1/2

= 11.22 mm ~ 105mm

prov

d >d
prov req

DEPTH OF SLAB

=167.5 mm ~170mm

s

s 2 2 1/2

2 2 1/2

= 5.44KN/m

## Dead load on step = ½ x R X T x unit weight of concrete

= ½ x 0.2x 0.25 x 25

=0.625 KN/m

= 2.5KN/m

=8.44 KN/m

= 5 x 1 = 5 KN/m

## =(20.16 X 3.35 )/82

= 28.28 KN- m
MAIN REINFORCEMENT

u y st

6

Ast = 594.94mm 2

## Assume 12 mm diameter bars therefore, a = /4 x 12 =113.09 mm

st 2 2

Spacing Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 12 ) /A ) x 1000
2 st

Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 12 ) /594.94) x 1000
2

= 190.08mm ~ 190 mm

(i) 190mm

(ii) 450mm

## Provide 12 mm diameter bars at 190mm center to center spacing for main-reinforcement

DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT

2

## Using 10mm diameter bar

Spacing Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 10 ) /A ) x 1000
2 st

Sv =( ( (π /4 ) x 10 ) /594.94) x 1000
2

=384.95mm ~ 380 mm
Consider lesser of the following

(i) 380mm

(ii) 450mm

## (iii) 5 x d = 5 x 144 =720mm

Provide 10mm diameter bars at a distance of 380 mm center to center spacing for distribution reinforcement
Modelling
Creating a Model

The interior