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travel

• Applications: Industrial heating, cooling and drying processes, energy conversion

methods – fossil fuel combustion and solar radiation

Unlike conduction and convection, heat transfer by radiation can occur between two

bodies, even when they are separated by a medium colder than both. It is assumed

that the participating medium does not have any role.

Solar radiation reaches the earth after passing through cold air layers at high altitudes.

Radiation – propagation of electromagnetic waves

Characteristics of E.M.Radiation

•Frequency (Hz – 1/sec) c

=

•Wavelength (m)

• Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of light

in vacuum co = 2.998 x 108 m/s co

c=

n – Index of refraction n

c – speed of propagation of wave in that medium

Material n

Air and most gases 1.0

Glass 1.5

Water 1.33

Electromagnetic Radiation: Propagation of a discrete packets of energy

called photons or quanta

Each photon of frequency is considered to have an energy of

hc

e = h =

h = 6.625 x 10-34 J.s – Planck’s Constant

Energy of the photon – inversely proportional to its wavelength

Shorter wavelength radiation possess larger photon energies

Hence, we try to avoid very short wavelength radiation such as gamma

rays and X-rays since they are highly destructive

Color Wavelength Band (μm) Solar radiation:

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by sun

Violet 0.40 - 0.44 Wavelength band – 0.3 - 3m

Blue 0.44 - 0.49 Half range is in the visible range

Green 0.49 – 0.54 Other half range is in the ultraviolet and

infrared range

Yellow 0.54 - 0.60

Orange 0.60 - 0.67

Red 0.63 - 0.76

• Radiation is a volumetric phenomena but radiation may be

considered as surface phenomena

Radiation by interior molecules – absorbed by adjoining molecules; radiation

that is emitted from a solid or a liquid originates from molecules that within a

distance of 1 m from the exposed surface

BLACK BODY RADIATION

• A body at an absolute temperature above zero emits radiation in all

directions over a wide range of wavelengths.

• The amount of radiation energy emitted from a surface at a given wavelength

depends on the

• Material of the body

• Condition of its surface

• Surface temperature

BLACK BODY

• A blackbody absorbs all incident radiation,

regardless of wavelength and direction

• For a prescribed temperature and wavelength,

no surface can emit more energy than a

blackbody

• Although the radiation emitted by a blackbody

is a function of wavelength and temperature, it

is independent of direction. That is, the

black body is a diffuse emitter.

STEFAN-BOLTZMAN LAW

Radiation energy emitted by a blackbody per unit time and per unit

surface area was determined experimentally by Joseph Stefan in 1879

and expressed as

Eb = T 4 W / m2

Stefan-Boltzman constant = 5.67 10-8 W/m2.K4

T – absolute temperature of the surface in K

Eb is blackbody emissive power

This gives the total blackbody emissive power which is the sum of the

radiation emitted over all wavelengths.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN IDEALISED BLACK BODY AND AN ORDINARY

BLACK SURFACE

• Any surface that absorbs light (the visible portion of radiation) would

appear in black to the eye and the surface that reflects it

completely would appear white

• Considering that visible radiation occupies a very narrow band of

spectrum from 0.4 to 0.76 m, we cannot make judgments

about the blackness of a surface on the basis of visual

observations.

•Snow and white paint reflect light and thus appear white. But they

are essentially black for infrared radiation since they strongly

absorb long wavelength radiation.

• Surfaces coated with lampblack paint approach idealised blackbody

behaviour

A large isothermal cavity at temperature T with a small opening of area

A closely resembles a blackbody of surface area A at the same

temperature

Radiation coming in through the opening of area A undergoes multiple

reflections, and thus it has several chances to be absorbed by the interior

surfaces of the cavity before any part of it can possibly escape.

If the surface of the cavity is isothermal at temperature T, the radiation

emitted by the interior surfaces passes through the opening after undergoing

multiple reflections, and thus it has diffuse nature.

CAVITY ACTS AS A PERFECT ABSORBER AND EMITTER

SPECTRAL BLACKBODY EMISSIVE POWER – is the amount of radiation

energy emitted by a blackbody at an absolute temperature T per unit

time, per unit surface area, and per unit wavelength about the

wavelength

2 hco2

E ,b ( , T ) = W/m2-µm

5 (exp hco kT − 1

OR

k = 1.3805 x 10-23 J/K – Universal Boltzmann Constant

Co = 2.998 x 108 m/s

T = Absolute temperature of the blackbody (K)

IMPORTANT FEATURES

• The emitted radiation is a continuous

function of wavelength. At any specified

temperature, it increases with

wavelength, reaches a peak, and then

decreases with increasing wavelength.

• At any wavelength, the amount of

emitted radiation increases with

increasing T

• As temperature increases, the curves

shift to the left to the shorter wavelength

region. Consequently, a larger fraction of

the radiation is emitted at shorter

wavelengths at higher temperatures.

• The radiation emitted by the sun, which

is considered to be a blackbody at 5780

K, reaches its peak in the visible region.

• On the other hand, surfaces at T 800 K

emit almost entirely in the infrared

region and thus are not visible to the eye

unless they reflect light coming from

other sources.

WEIN’S DISPLACEMENT LAW

with increasing temperature

• Solar radiation – middle of the spectrum ( = 0.5 m), since

sun emits as a blackbody at approximately 5800 K

• Blackbody at 1000 K, peak emission – 2.9 m

• With increasing temperature, shorter wavelengths become more

prominent.

STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW

C1

Eb = d = T 4

0 5 (exp C 2 T − 1

= 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2.K4 – Stefan-Boltzman Constant

Substitute x=1/ so that dx=(-1/2)d. Then series

(Maclaurin?) expansion and integration……..

BAND EMISSION

Fraction of the total emission from a blackbody

that is in a certain wavelength interval

𝜆 𝜆

𝜆𝐸 𝑜,𝑏 𝑑𝜆 𝜆𝐸 𝑜,𝑏 𝑑𝜆

𝐹(0−𝜆) = ∞ = 4

= 𝑓 𝑇

𝜆𝐸 𝑜,𝑏 𝑑𝜆 𝜎𝑇

f represents the fraction of radiation emitted from a blackbody at

temperature T in the wavelength band from 0 to .

Fraction of radiation between any two wavelengths 1 and 2

RADIATION INTENSITY

Radiation emitted by a surface propagates in all directions

Radiation incident on the surface may come from different directions

Response of the surface to the radiation depends on the direction

Directional effects – concept – RADIATION INTENSITY (I)

through a point is best described in

spherical coordinates in terms of

the zenith angle and the azimuth

angle , as shown in Figure.

describe how the emitted radiation

varies with the zenith and azimuth

angles.

Plain angle Solid angle

r r

dl

dl dS

d d =

r r2 dS

Solid angle

ω

Surface

area, S

Plain Angle, α

of plane angle d melon of solid angle d

dS is normal to the direction of viewing since dS is viewed

from the center of the sphere

dS

d =

r2

dS

dS = (rd )(r sin d ) d = 2 = sin d d

r

Solid angle of a sphere

2

S=

sphere

dS =

=0 =0

r 2 sin d d =2 r 2

=0

sin d = 2 r 2 (− cos ) =0 = 4 r 2

S = 4 r 2

Differential solid angle d subtended by a differential surface area dA when viewed

from a point at a distance r from dA is expressed as

dAn dA cos

d = 2 =

r r2

where is the angle between the normal to the surface and the direction of viewing,

and thus dAn= dAcos is the normal (or projected) area to the direction of viewing

Small surfaces viewed from relatively a large distances can be approximately treated

as differential areas in solid angle calculations. For example, the solid angle subtended

by 6 cm2 plane surface when viewed from a point at a distance of 90 cm along the

normal of the surface

S 6

= = = 7.41 10 −4

sr

r 2 902

INTENSITY OF EMITTED RADIATION

• Consider the emission of radiation by a differential area element dA1 of a surface

• Radiation is emitted in all directions into the hemispherical surface and the

radiation streaming through the surface area dS is proportional to the solid

angle d subtended by area dS

• Radiation is also proportional to the radiating area dA1 as seen by an observer on

dS , which varies from a maximum of dA1 when dS is at the top directly

above dA1 ( = 0) to a minimum of zero when dS is at the bottom ( = 90)

• The effective area of dA1for emission in the direction of is projection of dA1 on a

plane normal to , which is dA1cos

Radiation intensity for emitted radiation Ie(,) is defined as the rate at

which the radiation energy dq is emitted in the (,) direction per unit

area normal to this direction and per unit solid angle about this direction

I e ( , ) =

dq

=

dq

dA1 cos d dA1 cos sin d d

W m 2 sr ( )

EMISSIVE POWER (E) – rate at which radiation energy is emitted per unit

area of the emitting surface which is expressed in the differential form

= I e ( , ) cos sin d d

dq

dE =

dA1

Hemisphere above the surface intercepts all the radiation rays emitted by the

surface, the emissive power from the surface into the hemisphere surrounding

it is given by

2 / 2

E= dE = e

I ( , ) cos sin d (

d W m 2

)

hemisphere =0 =0

The intensity of radiation emitted by a surface, in general, varies with

direction (especially with zenith angle ). But, many surfaces in practice

can be approximated as DIFFUSE. For a diffusely emitting surface, the

intensity of emitted radiation is independent of direction and thus Ie=

constant

2 / 2

E = dE = I e ( , ) cos sin d d (W m 2 )

hemisphere =0 =0

E = Ie

For blackbody

Incident Radiation (Irradiation)

• All surfaces emit radiation, but they also receive radiation emitted or reflected by

other surfaces

• The intensity of incident radiation Ii (,) is defined as the rate at which radiation

energy dG is incident from the (,) direction per unit area of the receiving surface

normal to this direction and per unit solid angle about this direction. is the angle

between the direction of incident radiation and the normal to the surface

Irradiation G Incident I ( , ) i

radiation

2 / 2

G= dG =

hemisphere

I i ( , )cos sin d d

=0 =0

W / m2 n

dA

G = Ii W / m 2

RADIOSITY

Radiosity – accounts for all the radiant energy leaving a surface

Radiosity - The rate at which radiation energy leaves a unit area of a

surface in all directions

2 / 2

J=

=0 =0

I e+r ( , )cos sin d d W / m2

Radiosity, J If the surface is both a diffuse

reflector and a diffuse emitter,

Reflected Emitted

Ie+r is independent of and

Incident radiation radiation

radiation J = I e+ r W / m 2

E

G

Surface

SPECTRAL QUANTITIES – wavelength dependence

So far we considered total radiation quantities (quantities integrated

over all wavelengths), and made no reference to wavelength

dependence.

Spectral quantities – variation of radiation with wavelength as well as

direction, and to express quantities at a certain wavelength or per unit

wavelength interval about

Spectral Radiation intensity for emitted radiation I,e(,,) is defined as

the rate at which the radiation energy dq is emitted at the wavelength

in the (,) direction per unit area normal to this direction and per unit

solid angle about this direction

I ,e ( , , ) =

dq

W / m 2 .sr.m

dA1 cos d d

Spectral emissive power

2 / 2

E = ,e

I ( , , ) cos sin d d W (

m 2

)

=0 =0

the total radiation intensity I for emitted, incident, and emitted and

reflected radiation can be determined by integration over the entire

wavelength spectrum as

I ,e

I e = I ,e d

0 Area = I ,e d = I e

0

I i = I ,i d

0

I ,e

I e + r = I ,e + r d

0

d

2 / 2

E= I ,e ( , , )cos sin d dd (W m2 )

=0 =0 =0

2 / 2

G=

=0 =0 =0

I ,i ( , , )cos sin d dd W / m2

2 / 2

J=

=0 =0 =0

I ,e+r ( , , )cos sin d d d W / m2

wavelength are known, the total radiation fluxes can be determined by integration

over the entire wavelength spectrum

E= E d

=0

G= G d J= J d

=0 =0

When the surfaces and the incident radiation are diffuse, the spectral radiation fluxes

are related to spectral intensities

E = I , e G = I ,i J = I ,e + r

Problem: A small surface of area A1= 10-3m2 is known to emit diffusely and from

measurements the total intensity associated with emission in the normal direction is In

= 7000 W/m2sr. Radiation emitted from the surface is intercepted by other surfaces

of area A2= A3 =A4 = 10-3m2 ,which are 0.5 m from A1 and are oriented as shown. What

is the intensity associated with emission in each of the three directions ? What are the

solid angles subtended by the three surfaces when viewed from A1? What is the rate

at which radiation emitted by A1 is intercepted by the three surfaces ?

A3

0.5 m

Known: Normal intensity of diffuse

emitter of area A1 and orientation

A2

of three surfaces relative to A1

A1

Find

1. Intensity of emission in each of the three directions

2. Solid angles subtended by the three surfaces

3. Rate at which radiation is intercepted by the three surfaces

Assumptions

1. Surface A1 emits diffusely

2. A1, A2, A3 and A4 may be approximated as differential surfaces (Aj/rj2)

<<1

Analysis

1. From the definition of a diffuse emitter, we know that the intensity

of the emitted radiation is independent of direction. Hence

I = 7000 W/m2. sr

for each of the three directions

2. Treating A2, A3, and A4 as differential surface areas, the solid angles

may be computed by

dS

d = 2

r

where dS is the projection of the surface normal to the direction of the

radiation. Since surfaces A3 and A4 are normal to the direction of

radiation, the solid angles subtended by these surfaces can be directly

found from this equation

A3 10−3

3 −1 = 4 −1 = 2 = 2

= 4 10 −3

sr

r 0 .5

Since surface A2 is not normal to the direction of radiation, we use dAn,2

= dA2 cos2, where 2 is the angle between the surface normal and the

direction of the radiation. Thus

2 −1 = 2

= 2

= 3. 46 10 −3

sr

r 0.5

A3

r3 = 0.5 m

A2 n

1 = 60 4 = 45

r2 = 0.5 m r4 = 0.5 m

A2 ,n = A2 cos 2

A1

A2

2 = 30 A1 = A2 = A3 = A4 = 10-3 m2

2−1

3. Approximating A1 as a differential surface, the rate at which

radiation is intercepted by each of the three surfaces may be found

from the following equation

q1− j = I A1 cos j −1

where 1 is the angle between the normal to the surface 1 and the

direction of the radiation. Hence,

q1− 2

W

( )

= 7000 2 sr 10− 3 m 2 cos 60 3.46 10− 3 sr = 12.1 10− 3 W

m

q1− 3

W

( )

= 7000 2 sr 10− 3 m 2 cos 0 4 10− 3 sr = 28.0 10− 3 W

m

q1− 4

W

( )

= 7000 2 sr 10− 3 m 2 cos 45 4 10− 3 sr = 19.8 10− 3 W

m

Even though the intensity of the emitted radiation is independent of

direction, the rate at which radiation is intercepted by the three

surfaces differs significantly due to differences in the solid angles and

projected areas.

Problem:

What is the total irradiation

G

(W / m.m )

Find: Total irradiation

Analysis : The total irradiation may be obtained from

G = G d

0

5 m 20 m 25 m

G= G d + G d + G d + G d

0 5 20 m 25 m

1 1

G = 1000 2 .m (5 − 0)m + 1000 2 .m (20 − 5)m + 1000 2 .m (25 − 20)m + 0

W W W

2 m m 2 m

W

m2

W

G = 20000

m2

distribution for the irradiation. However, the procedure of computing the total

irradiation from knowledge of the spectral distribution remains the same, although

evaluation of the integral is likely to involve more detail.

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