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IOT Based Industrial Automation System

By
Digvijay Prajapati Narendrasinh Chauhan Gautam Thakor
160753109012 16075010900 16075109018

Internal Guide

Prof. Gajendra Dabhi

Assistant Professor,

SVBIT, Gandhinagar.

A Project Report Submitted to


Gujarat Technological University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Bachelors of Engineering in
Electrical Engineering

Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology


Gandhinagar-Mansa Road, Dist. Gandhinagar, Vasan, Gujarat 382650

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that A Report Submitted as a Project – 1 (one-year project) for the thesis
entitled “IOT Based Industrial Automation System” was carried out by following
students at Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology for partial fulfillment of B.E.
degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University. This research work has been
carried out under my supervision and is to my satisfaction.

Digvijay Prajapati Narendrasinh Chauhan Gautam Thakor


160753109012 1607501090004 16075109018

Date:

Place: Gandhinagar

Internal Guide Head of Electrical department

Prof. Gajendra Dabhi Prof. Kinal Patel


Electrical Engineering Department, Electrical Engineering
Department, SVBIT, Vasan Department, SVBIT, Vasan

Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu Institute of Technology


Gandhinagar Mansa road, Dist. Gandhinagar, Vasan, Gujarat 382650

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REPORT APPROVAL

This is to certify that research work embodied in this thesis entitled “ IOT Based Industrial
Automation System” was carried out by following students at Shankersinh Vaghela Bapu
Institute of Technology (075) is approved for award of the degree of B.E. in Electrical
Engineering by Gujarat Technological University.

Digvijay Prajapati Narendrasinh Chauhan Gautam Thakor


160753109012 1607501090004 16075109018

Date:

Place: Gandhinagar

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DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

We hereby certify that we are the sole author of this thesis and that neither any part of this
thesis nor the whole of the thesis has been submitted for a degree to any other University or
Institution. We certify that, to the best of our knowledge, our thesis does not infringe upon
anyone’s copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques,
quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis,
published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing
practices. We declare that this is a true copy of our thesis, including any final revisions, as
approved by our thesis review committee.

Digvijay Prajapati Narendrasinh Chauhan Gautam Thakor


160753109012 1607501090004 16075109018

Internal Examiner External Examiner

Date:

Place: Gandhinagar

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ABSTRACT

The aim of this project is to acquire real-time electrical Automation operation and monitoring
of it's status like voltage, current and alert if it abnormal over remote internet operate web page.
industrial system operating by electrical load like as transformer, generator, motor etc. which
operates remotely over internet falling under the category of Internet of Things-IOT. A TCP/IP
operate web page application over the Internet enables to collect, store, analyze, visualize and
act on the data received from sensors or electronic circuits.

For this real-time scenario we use here a Wi-Fi module(ESP8266) interfaced to an Arduino
family microcontroller. A Current sensor and voltage measuring circuit for electrical load is
also interfaced to the system for monitoring V, I data of the electrical system and then send
them to a remote location anywhere in the world. The analog output values of these sensors are
read by interfacing to A to D Convertor of microcontroller. These digital readings are then sent
directly through a Wi-Fi module (ESP8266) under TCP/ IP protocol to a dedicated IP address
that displays the data in real time on web page over internet connected PC / Laptop. The real
time data is also displayed on LCD interfaced to the microcontroller. The remotely operation
of four electrical load is also possible on this web page through a GUI touch button panel, it
sends on/off commands to wifi module over internet and according to command received the
microcontroller controls the load by operating the op-to isolated relay which is connected to
the particular electrical load.

The power supply consists of a step down transformer 230/12V, which steps down the voltage
to 12V AC. This is converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier and it is then regulated to +5V
using a voltage regulator 7805 which is required for the operation of the microcontroller and
Wi-Fi (ESP8266) module and other components.

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Table of Contetnts
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE
NO.
Acknowledgement
Abstract
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Problem summary
1.3 Aim & Objective
2 Brief History of Project
2.1 Block diagram
2.2 List of Components & in Brief
2.3 Working Algorithym
4 Literature Review
4.1 PAPER-1
4.2 PAPER-2
4.3 PAPER-3
4.4 PAPER-4
5 Implementation of Project work
5.1 Circuit diagram
5.2 Working technical Analysis
5.3 Simulation Circuit
5.4 Simulation Code
6 Result & Analysis
6.1 Future scope
6.2 Application & Advantages
7 Conclusion
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
PPR
PSAR
CANVAS SHEET
PLAGIARISM CERTIFICATE

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Back Ground:

Industrial Automation is the process of connecting various loads in different locations to a


Wi-Fi (LAN) network to perform the tasks automatically and handles different processes and
machineries in an industry to replace a human being. It increases the Quality and Flexibility
in the Manufacturing Process. Traditionally Manpower and Bluetooth are employed in
industries. In hazardous conditions there will be no production line safe for the employees and
in case of the Bluetooth the coverage range is very less. So by using Internet of Things (IoT),
Node MCU and Blynk application the above disadvantages can be turned into advantages.

INTERNET OF THINGS

The Internet of Things (IoT) can be described as connecting everyday objects like smart-
phones, Internet TVs, sensors and actuators to the Internet where the devices are intelligently
linked together enabling new forms of communication between things and people, and between
things themselves. Building IoT has advanced significantly in the last couple of years since it
has added a new dimension to the world of information and communication technologies. It is
expected that the number of devices connected to the Internet will accumulate from 100.4
million in 2011 to 2.1 billion by the year 2021, growing at a rate of 36% per year. In the year
2011, 80% machine to machine (M2M) connections were made over mobile networks such as
3G and 4G and it is predicted that by 2021, this ratio will increase to 93% since the cost related
with M2M over mobile networks are generally cheaper than fixed networks. Now anyone, from
anytime and anywhere can have connectivity for anything and it is expected that these
connections will extend and create an entirely advanced dynamic network of IoT. The
development of the Internet of Things will revolutionize a number of sectors, from automation,
transportation, energy, healthcare, financial services to nanotechnology. IoT technology can
also be applied to create a new concept and wide development space for smart homes to provide
intelligent, comfort and improvement in quality of life.

1.2.1 Problem Summary

To build the system which can control and monitor the industrial devices and its sensor data
and upload it over internet and also capable of taking some curical decision within industries
using the IoT.

The project aims at designing an advanced industrial automation system using normal IOT of
things web server and Wi-Fi technology. The devices can be switched ON/OFF and sensors
can be read using a Personal Computer (PC) through Wi-Fi. Automation is the most frequently
spelled term in the field of electronics. The hunger for automation brought many revolutions
in the existing technologies. These had greater importance than any other technologies due to
its user-friendly nature. These can be used as a replacement of the existing switches in home
which produces sparks and also results in fire accidents in few situations. Considering the
advantages of Wi-Fi an advanced automation system was developed to control the appliances

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in the house. Wi-Fi (Short for Wireless Fidelity) is a wireless technology that uses radio
frequency to transmit data through the air. Wi-Fi has initial speeds of 1mbps to 2mbps. Wi-Fi
transmits data in the frequency band of 2.4 GHz. It implements the concept of frequency
division multiplexing technology. Range of Wi-Fi technology is 40-300 feet.

1.2.2 Problem Solution:

The Arduino family microcontroller ATMega328 is used in our project for processing all user
commands. For the connection to the internet and to receive the user commands a Wi-Fi module
ESP8266 is used. WIFI module receives the commands which are sent through the internet.
The received information is decoded by the WiFi module and passed to the microcontroller.
The microcontroller then takes necessary actions as per user’s commands. The state of the
system is displayed on the LCD display. Thus the entire industry is automated using online
GUI for easy industry automation.

1.3 Aim & Objectives:

Since today is the generation of smart phones, people prefer smart work. Same goes with the
industries. The term automation has led to a great change in the world of industries. Some
industries are fully automated while other are partially automated. In short automation has
become an important term, whether at home or the industries. Our project focuses on the
industrial automation. The machines can be controlled manually from long distance as well.

• The goal of this project is to develop a industrial device automation system that gives
the user complete control over all remotely controllable aspects of industrial devices.

• The automation system will have the ability to be controlled from a central host PC,
mobile with the Internet, and also remotely accessed via a Pocket PC or mobile with a
web TCP/IP application.

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CHAPTER-2
Brief Histor of Project Work

2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

figure-1 Block diagram of project

1) ATmega328- ARDUINO Microcontroller :

A microcontroller board on which the Arduino Uno is based is ATmega328P. The


microcontroller has 14 digital input/output pins of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs, 6
analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and
a reset button. ATmega328P contains everything needed to support the microcontroller. It is
connected to computer using a USB cable or given a power supply with AC-to-DC adapter. In
case of any severe damage, it can be replaced with a new chip.

2) ESP8266-WIFI Module:

This project uses an advance compact and low power wi-fi device, ESP8266. The ESP8266 is
a low-cost Wi-Fi chip developed by Espressif Systems with TCP/IP protocol. This is reliable
and ultra-low cost module that is based on ESP8266 chipset and easy to use. It is used along
with a microcontroller that configures and communicates through AT commands.

The features of ESP8266 are extracted on Node MCU Development board. Node MCU
(LUA based firmware) with Development board/kit that consist of ESP8266 (wifi enabled

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chip) chip combines NodeMCU Development board which make it stand-alone device in IoT
applications.

3) Current Transformer :

Current transformer is the electrical device which produce an alternating current in the
secondary which is proportional to AC in the primary. Here, step down CT is used for the
protection purpose. The rating of the CT is 20 A to 20mA.

4) Relay Driver Circuit :

In this circuit, transistor array IC ULN2003 is used for controlling operation of relay.
Microcontroller sends trip signal to this circuit, The transistor darligton pair inside the IC
operate in switching region and Electrical device on/off from the main supply automatically.

5) Relay :

It is an electrically operated switch. In past several years solid state relays are used for
protection purpose, but due to advancement in technology microcontroller based relays are
used for protecting the devices.

All relay contains sensing unit, electric coil powered by AC or DC current. When current and
voltage exceed their limits, coil actuates which operate either to close open contacts or to open
close contacts. Electromechanical relays are electrically operated switch used to isolate circuit
and detect fault in the transformer.

It gives high reliability, relative simplicity, safe disconnection from the main supply. It has
longer life.

6) LCD Display :

It is used to display condition of overload and overheat as per changes in load and it will be
displayed on LCD display. So, we can see normal.

7) Power Supply:

The power supply consist a voltage regulated +5 volt and +12 volt , it uses a step down
transformer 230/12 vac and full wave rectifier bridge, filters cicuit and voltage regulator IC
7805/7812.

2.2 LIST OF COMPONENTS & SOFTWARE TOOLS

Hardware Tools Software Tools

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• Microcontroller- ATMega328/Arduino • Atmel Studio / Arduino IDE Compiler
• Wi-Fi Module ESP8266- Node MCU • Programming Language: C/Arduino
• Potential Transformer-230/12 vac • Proteus Simulation software
• Voltage sensing circuit • TCP/IP Web Page Application
• Current sensor- ACS712
• Op-to isolated Relay driver-ULN2003
• DC Relay - 4 nos.
• LCD Display 16*2
• Transformer -230/12 vac
• , Rectifier, Voltage Regulator -IC7805/7812
• Resistors, Diodes, Capacitors, LED’s
• Inductive Load- Lamp Load

1. POWER SUPPLY:

The ac voltage, typically 220V rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to
the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is
initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually
has some ripple or ac voltage variation. A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the
same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes.
This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units.

Fig -2 Power supply block

1.2 TRANSFORMER

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of power. Step-
up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power supplies use a
step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low voltage.

FIG : 4- A TYPICAL TRANSFORMER

The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is no electrical
connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the
soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core.
Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as
voltage is stepped down and current is stepped up. The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called

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the turn’s ratio, determines the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of
turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number
of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.

TURNS RATIO = (Vp / Vs) = ( Np / Ns )


Where,
Vp = primary (input) voltage.
Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current
Is = secondary (output) current.
Ideal power equation

figure-5-Transformer priciple of operation

The ideal transformer as a circuit element


If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is transmitted
from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly efficient; all the
incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary
circuit. If this condition is met, the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power:

giving the ideal transformer equation

Transformers normally have high efficiency, so this formula is a reasonable approximation.


If the voltage is increased, then the current is decreased by the same factor. The impedance in one circuit
is transformed by the square of the turns ratio. For example, if an impedance Zs is attached across the
terminals of the secondary coil, it appears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of (Np/Ns)2Zs.
This relationship is reciprocal, so that the impedance Zp of the primary circuit appears to the secondary
to be (Ns/Np)2Zp.

1.3 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7805

Features

• Output Current up to 1A.

• Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.

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• Thermal Overload Protection.

• Short Circuit Protection.

• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.

FIGURE -6- VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC 7805

The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220/D-
PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a Wide range of
applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe operating area
protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver
over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be
used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Absolute Maximum Ratings

TABLE :1- RATINGS OF THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

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1.4 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7812

Fig.-7 Voltage Regulator for 12 V


A fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage, Vi, applied to one input
terminal, a regulated dc output voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected
to ground.
The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts. Similarly,
the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.
For ICs, microcontroller, LCD --------- 5 volts
For alarm circuit, op-amp, relay circuits ---------- 12 volts

IC LM7812

This circuit provides ±12V regulated DC output based on LM7812 that are National Semiconductors’
two of the most popular positive and negative three terminal voltage regulators. The circuit is supported
by a handfull of capacitors. 12 volt power supply circuit is very simple and easy to make, all the
components readily available in the market. Quality of power supply output voltage of 12 volts is very
stable and capable of delivering up to 1 ampere current source.

DESCRIPTION SYMBOL VALUE UNIT


Input Voltage VIN 35 to 40 V
Power Dissipation PD 15 W

Operating Temperature Tamb -20 to +80 °C

Storage Temperature Tstg -55 to +150 °C


Range

Tabel:2- Absolute maximum ratings

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This power supply circuit can be used to supply voltage to the electronic device needs 12 volt input
voltage source. Complete image series and the components used to assemble the power supply 12 volt
LM7812 can be seen in the following.
Step-down section, this section serves lower voltage AC 220 volts to 18 volts. Components
used are18 volt transformer 2A without CT. Rectifier section, this section serves to rectify the
AC voltage from the Transformer. Component is used as a diode bridge rectifiers D1 4A and
electrolytic capacitors C1 µF/25V 3300. Part of regulators, this section serves to control the
output voltage of the Power supply voltage to be stable at 12 volts DC. Section is organized by
the Regulator.

1.5 RECTIFIER

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses
direction, to direct current (DC), current that flows in only one direction, a process known as
rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of
radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves,
and other components. The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into
pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier
is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. In positive half cycle only
two diodes (1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct, in negative half cycle remaining two diodes will
conduct and they will conduct only in forward bias only.

FIGURE -8- BRIDGE RECTFIER

1.6 FILTER

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens
the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained
constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore
a regulator is applied at the output stage.
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use of this filter is very
limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current power supplies for cathode-ray
and similar electron tubes that require very little load current from the supply. This filter is also used in
circuits where the power-supply ripple frequency is not critical and can be relatively high. Below figure
can show how the capacitor charges and discharges.

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FIGURE -9- RECTIFIER FILTER OUTPUT
1.7 DIODES

Diodes are used to convert AC into DC these are used as half wave rectifier or full wave rectifier. Three
points must he kept in mind while using any type of diode.
• Maximum forward current capacity
• Maximum reverse voltage capacity
• Maximum forward voltage capacity

FIGURE-10- DIODE CHARACTERISTIC DIODE IN4007

The number and voltage capacity of some of the important diodes available in the market are as
follows:

Diodes of number IN4001, IN4002, IN4003, IN4004, IN4005, IN4006 and IN4007 have maximum
reverse bias voltage capacity of 50V and maximum forward current capacity of 1 Amp.

2. Microcontroller (ATMEGA328 / ARDUINO)

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The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14
digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz
ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It
contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer
with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.The Uno differs
from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead,
it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial
converter.

The Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P. It has 14 digital input/output
pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a
USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything
needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or
power it with a AC-to-DC dapter or battery to get started. "Uno" means one in Italian and was
chosen to mark the release of Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0. The Uno board and version 1.0 of
Arduino Software (IDE) were the reference versions of Arduino, now evolved to newer
releases. The Uno board is the first in a series of USB Arduino boards.

Technical specifications:-

Microcontroller :ATmega328P
Operating Voltage :5V
Input Voltage (recommended) :7-12V
Input Voltage (limit) : 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins :14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
PWM Digital I/O Pins :6
Analog Input Pins :6
DC Current per I/O Pin :20 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin :50 mA
Flash Memory :32 KB (ATmega328P) 0.5 KB used by bootloader
SRAM :2 KB (ATmega328P)
EEPROM :1 KB (ATmega328P)
Clock Speed :16 MHz
Length :68.6 mm
Width :53.4 mm

Weight 25 g.

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PINLAYOUT ATMEGA328

Figure- ATMEG328 PIN LAYOUT

3. ESP8266-WIFI MODULE

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figure- ESP8266 BLOCK DIA

Microcontroller access to the Wi-Fi network is given by the ESP8266 which has self-contained
SOC with integrated TCP/IP protocol stack. Hosting an application or offloading all Wi-Fi
networking functions from another application processor is the function of this module. Every
ESP8266 module is pre-programmed with an AT command set firmware. With a huge, and
ever growing, community this module is extremely cost effective. This module can be
integrated with the sensors and other application specific devices due to its powerful enough
on-board processing and storage capability through its GPIOs with minimal development up-
front and minimal loading during runtime. Minimal external circuitry, including the front-end
module, is allowed by its high degree of on chip integration is designed to occupy minimal
PCB area. APSD for VoIP applications and Bluetooth co-existence interfaces; is supported by
the ESP8266.Its ability to work under all operating conditions, and require no external RF parts
is due to a self-calibrated RF

ESP8266 WIFI:

The ESP8266 WiFi Module is a self contained SOC with integrated TCP/IP protocol stack that
can give any microcontroller access to your WiFi network. The ESP8266 is capable of either
hosting an application or offloading all Wi-Fi networking functions from another application
processor. Each ESP8266 module comes pre-programmed with an AT command set firmware,
meaning, you can simply hook this up to your Arduino device and get about as much WiFi-
ability as a WiFi Shield offers (and that’s just out of the box)! The ESP8266 module is an
extremely cost effective board with a huge, and ever growing, community.

This module has a powerful enough on-board processing and storage capability that allows it
to be integrated with the sensors and other application specific devices through its GPIOs with
minimal development up-front and minimal loading during runtime. Its high degree of on-chip
integration allows for minimal external circuitry, including the front-end module, is designed
to
occupy minimal PCB area. The ESP8266 supports APSD for VoIP applications and Bluetooth
co-existance interfaces, it contains a self-calibrated RF allowing it to work under all operating
conditions, and requires no external RF parts.

There is an almost limitless fountain of information available for the ESP8266, all of which
has been provided by amazing community support. In the Documents section below you will

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find many resources to aid you in using the ESP8266, even instructions on how to transforming
this module into an IoT (Internet of Things) solution!

Features:

• 802.11 b/g/n
• Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP
• Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack
• Integrated TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network
• Integrated PLLs, regulators, DCXO and power management units
• +19.5dBm output power in 802.11b mode
• Power down leakage current of <10uA
• 1MB Flash Memory
• Integrated low power 32-bit CPU could be used as application processor
• SDIO 1.1 / 2.0, SPI, UART
• STBC, 1×1 MIMO, 2×1 MIMO
• A-MPDU & A-MSDU aggregation & 0.4ms guard interval
• Wake up and transmit packets in < 2ms
• Standby power consumption of < 1.0mW (DTIM3)

Specation of ESP 8266:

• Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP


• Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack
• Integrated TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network
• Integrated PLLs, regulators, DCXO and power management units
• 19.5dBm output power in 802.11b mode
• Power down leakage current of <10uA
• 1MB Flash Memory
• Integrated low power 32-bit CPU could be used as application processor

4.ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY

FIG-13- ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY

The relay is an electromechanical switch used as a protecting device and also as a controlling device
for various circuits, equipments, and electrical networks in a power system. The electromechanical relay
can be defined as an electrically operated switch that completes or interrupts a circuit by physical
movement of electrical contacts into contact with each other.

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ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY CONSTRUCTION

The flow of current through an electrical conductor causes a magnetic field at right angles to the current
flow direction. If this conductor is wrapped to form a coil, then the magnetic field produced gets oriented
along the length of the coil. If the current flowing through the conductor increases, then the magnetic
field strength also increases (and vice-versa).

fig-14- basic working of relay

The magnetic field produced by passing current through coil can be used for various purposes such as
inductors, construction of transformer using two inductor coils with an iron core. But, in
electromechanical relay construction the magnetic field produced in coil is used to exert mechanical
force on magnetic objects. This is similar to permanent magnets used to attract magnetic objects, but
here the magnetic field can be turned on or off by regulating current flow through the coil. Thus, we
can say that the electromechanical relay operation is dependent on the current flowing through the coil.

ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY WORKING


The electromechanical relay consists of various parts such as movable armature, movable contact &
stationary contact or fixed contact, spring, electromagnet (coil), the wire wrapped as coil with its
terminals represented as ‘C’ which are connected as shown in the below figure to form
electromechanical relay.

If there is no supply given to the coil terminals, then the relay remains in the off condition as shown in
the below figure and the load connected to relay also remains turned off as no power supply is given to
load

If the relay coil is energized by giving supply to the coil terminals at ‘C’, then the movable contact of
the relay is attracted towards the fixed contact. Thus, the relay turns on and the supply is connected to
the load as shown in the below figure.

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fig-15 ineranl construction of relay

There are various types of relays, the relays which are energized by electrical supply and performs a
mechanical action (on or off) to make or break a circuit are called as electromechanical relays. There
are various types of relays such as Buchholz relay, latching relay, polarized relay, mercury relay, solid
state relay, polarized relay, vacuum relay, and so on.

5. RELAY DRIVER ULN2003:

The ULN2003 represents to a maximum voltage and array IC of maximum current Darlington with
Darlington pairs of seven open collector and common emitters. The voltage IC ULN2003 is related
to family of ULN200X series of ICs and various versions is connecting to various logic families. The
ULN2003 is using for logic devices of CMOS and 5V TTL. When driving load with extensive range
and used as relay drivers, line drivers and display drivers by these ICs. We can normally use ULN2003
while driving Stepper Motors.

ULN2003 is a high voltage and high current Darlington array IC. It contains seven open collector
Darlington pairs with common emitters. It is an arrangement of a pair of bipolar transistors. Each
channel or pair in ULN2003 is rated at 500mA and can withstand a peak current of 600mA. The inputs
and outputs are provided opposite to each other in pin layout. Each driver additionally holds a
suppression diode to dissipate voltage spikes while driving inductive loads. The logical output for it is
a negation, i.e. it gives a low o/p for a high i/p and a high o/p for a low i/p. The logical diagram for the
IC is shown below.

FIG-17- ULN2003-IC PIN LAYOUT

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6. CURRENT SENSOR

This is a device that detects electric AC or DC current flowing in a conductor and gives out a
corresponding signal (analogue voltage/current/digital pulse). The detected signal can be
used for various purposes like measuring the amount of current in the conductor, controlling
of another device etc.

Figure-12- Allegro Microsystems ACCS712 Series

The current sensor used in this project is Allegro ACS712ELCTR-30A-T. It is popularly


used in diverse applications in motor control, electric vehicles and in power
distribution. It has the following features;

• Low-noise analogue signal path


• Device bandwidth is set via the new FILTER pin
• 5 μs output rise time in response to step input current
• 80 kHz bandwidth
• Total output error 1.5% at TA= 25°C
• Small footprint, low-profile SOIC8 package1.2 mΩ internal conductor resistance
• 2.1 kVRMS minimum isolation voltage from pins 1-4 to pins 5-8
• 5.0 V, single supply operation
• 66 mV/A output sensitivity
• Output voltage proportional to AC or DC currents
• Factory-trimmed for accuracy
• Extremely stable output offset voltage
• Nearly zero magnetic hysteresis
• Ratiometric output from supply voltage [16]

The Allegro ACS712ELCTR-30A-T has a low-offset linear Hall sensor circuit that has
a conduction path made of copper located next to the die. A magnetic field is caused
by the current flowing through the copper conductor. This magnetic field is detected
by the integrated Hall IC which converts it into a voltage proportional to the magnetic
flux. A current of 1A flowing in a conductor produces 66mV. The close proximity of the
magnetic signal to the Hall transducer optimizes the device accuracy. To attain
precision, in terms of voltage produced, a low-offset, chopper-stabilized Bi-CMOS Hall
IC is used. It is programmed for accuracy at the factory

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The sensor measures a maximum of 30A from the load current. This serves as its
primary current. The sensor output voltage is fed into the microcontroller as the
analogue input.

7.LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

FIGURE-18- LCD 16X2

The display used is 16x2 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display); which means 16 characters per line
by 2 lines.The standard is referred as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which
receives data from an external source (Here Atmega16) and communicates directly with the
LCD. Here 8-bit mode of LCD is used, i.e., using 8-bit data bus.

The three control lines are EN, RS, and RW.

The EN line is called "Enable." This control line is used for telling the LCD that we are sending
data. For sending data to the LCD, the program should make sure that the line is low (0) and
then set the other two control lines or put data on the data bus. When the other lines are ready
completely, bring EN high (1) and should wait for the minimum time required by LCD
datasheet and end by bringing it low (0) again.

LCD Pin Details

Pin No. Description


-----------------------------------
1 VSS Ground
2 VDD 5V supply voltage
3 N/A Contrast adjustment voltage
4 E0 Register Select signal
5 E1 Read/Write select signal
6 E2 Operation (read/write) enable
7 D0 Low byte data bit
8 D1 Low byte data bit
9 D2 Low byte data bit
10 D3 Low byte data bit
11 D4 High byte data bit
12 D5 High byte data bit
13 D6 High byte data bit
14 D7 High byte data bit
15 N/A Anode
16 N/A Cathode

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2.3 Working Algorithym:

➢ Initialize Power supply & Arduino setup function


➢ Initialize Serial communication using 9600 baud rate
➢ Initialize ESP8266 WiFi module.
➢ Enter IP address in the browser and press enter. ( IP address can be find using the IP
address scanner or Fing application on android mobile phone.)
➢ Wait for the web page to open. It will be having GUI for touch button for device on/off.
➢ Press ON/OFF button of particular device to operate it.
➢ Using TCP/IP protocol method, the concept of IOT will be implemented.
➢ The received ON/OFF command to WIFI is forward to microcontroller
➢ MCU loop function scan the command and operate the particular relay to switching
the device connected.
➢ LCD display shows the status of system

CHAPTER-3
Literature Reivew

1.International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics


Arduino based home automation using Internet of things (IoT)
Lalit Mohan Satapathy, Samir Kumar Bastia, Nihar Mohanty, Department of EEE
Siksha 'O' Anusandhan, Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a low cost flexible and reliable home automation system with additional
security using Arduino microcontroller, with IP connectivity through local Wi- Fi for accessing
and controlling devices by authorized user remotely using Smart phone application. The
proposed system is server independent and uses Internet of things to control human desired
appliances starting from industrial machine to consumer goods. The user can also use different
devices for controlling by the help of web-browser, smart phone or IR remote module. To
demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of this system, in this paper we present a home

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automation system using Arduino UNO microcontroller and esp8266-01 as a connectivity
module. It helps the user to control various appliances such as light, fan, TV and can take
decision based on the feedback of sensors remotely. We have tested our system through
conducted experiment on various environmental conditions.

2.ICRISEM-18- FEB-2018
IOT based Advanced Home Automation using Node MCU controller and Blynk App Miss.
Aboli Mane1, Miss. Pooja Pol2, Mr. Amar Patil3, Prof. Mahesh Patil4 1,2,3,4Nanasaheb
ahadik Collage of Engineering, Peth Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

ABSTRACT:

The project discuss in this paper is target to solve problems of common peoples in day to day
life. Atomizing home with using node MCU which is Wi-Fi model and using blynk app. Blynk
app is used as third party app. It provide open source to user make to design automation in less
price. Different sensors are connected to node MCU and can operate from any part of world
with help of Blynk app. This makes life of common man very easy. Key Words: Blynk app,
Home automation, Internet of Things, Node MCU

3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)


IOT based Industrial Automation
Sanyuta Swami1, Priyanka Nalawade2, Sayali Jadhav3, Prof N.C .Yadav4
1,2,3 Student of Electronics and Telecommunication, Dr.Daulatrao Aher, College of
ngineering, Karad

ABSTRACT:

IOT or internet of things is a technology that makes use of control systems such as computer
to control the physical devices over the internet. Here we propose efficient industry automation
system that allows user to efficiently control industry appliances/machines over the internet.
We use 3 loads as industrial appliances or machines and a motor to demonstrate as an industrial
motor.

4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)


Industrial Automation using IoT
BhosaleKiran Uttam1,Galande Abhijeet Baspusaheb2,Jadhav Pappu Shivaji3,
rof.Pisal.R.S.4
1,2,3B.E ,Dept. of E&tc Engineering, S.B. patil college,Indapur ,Maharashtra, India

ABSTRACT:

Internet of things(ioT) is rapidly incresasing technology.IOT is the network of physical objects


or things embeded with electronic software, sensors, and network connectivity which enables
these objects to collect and exchange data. In this paper, we are developing a system which
will automatically monitor the industrial applications and generate Alerts/Alarms or take
intelligent decisions using concept of IoT. Safety from leaking of raw gas and fire are the most

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important requirements of home and industries security system for people. A traditional
security system gives the signals in terms of alarm.
Keywords: (Arduino UNO R3, Sensor, DC motor driver, DC Motor, WiFi module
ESP8266).

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CHAPTER-4
Implementation of Project

4.1. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

LCD1
LM016L

VDD
B1
VEE

VSS
RW
RS
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0

12V
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7

6
5
4

3
2
1

RL3 L1
12V
12V

ARD1
ON
Reset BTN

RL2 L2
www.TheEngineeringProjects.com

12V
12V
AREF

13
PB5/SCK
12
PB4/MISO
RESET 11
~ PB3/MOSI/OC2A
10
~ PB2/OC1B
9
~ PB1/OC1A
8
PB0/ICP1/CLKO
RELAY DRIVER
ATMEGA328P-PU
1121

7
ANALOG IN

PD7/AIN1
6 9
COM
A0 ~ PD7/AIN1
5 1 16
PC0/ADC0 1B 1C
A1
PC1/ADC1
~ PD5/T1/OC0B
4 2
2B 2C
15 RL5 L3
A2 PD4/T0/XCK
3 3 14 12V
PC2/ADC2 3B 3C 12V
A3 ~ PD3/INT1/OC2B
2 4 13
PC3/ADC3 PD2/INT0
4B 4C
A4 1 5 12
PC4/ADC4/SDA PD1/TXD 5B 5C
A5 0 6 11
PC5/ADC5/SCL PD0/RXD 6B 6C
7 10
7B 7C
ULN2003A
ARDUINO UNO

RXD
VT52, VT100, ANSI RL1 L4
TXD 12V
12V

RTS
Xmodem, Ymodem, Zmodem
CTS

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4.2. SIMULATION RESULT

LCD1
LM016L

B1
VDD
VEE

VSS
RW
RS
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0

12V
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7

6
5
4

3
2
1

RL3 L1
12V
12V

ARD1
ON
Reset BTN

RL2 L2
www.TheEngineeringProjects.com

12V
12V
AREF

13
PB5/SCK
12
PB4/MISO
RESET 11
~ PB3/MOSI/OC2A
10
~ PB2/OC1B
9
~ PB1/OC1A
8
PB0/ICP1/CLKO
RELAY DRIVER
ATMEGA328P-PU
1121

7
ANALOG IN

PD7/AIN1
6 9
COM
A0 ~ PD7/AIN1
5 1 16
PC0/ADC0 1B 1C
A1
PC1/ADC1
~ PD5/T1/OC0B
4 2
2B 2C
15 RL5 L3
A2 PD4/T0/XCK
3 3 14 12V
PC2/ADC2 3B 3C 12V
A3 ~ PD3/INT1/OC2B
2 4 13
PC3/ADC3 PD2/INT0
4B 4C
A4 1 5 12
PC4/ADC4/SDA PD1/TXD 5B 5C
A5 0 6 11
PC5/ADC5/SCL PD0/RXD 6B 6C
7 10
7B 7C
ULN2003A
ARDUINO UNO
ESP8266 WIFI MODULE
RXD
VT52, VT100, ANSI RL1 L4
TXD 12V
12V

RTS
Xmodem, Ymodem, Zmodem
CTS

4.3 SIMULATION CODE(ARDUINO CODE)

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

LiquidCrystal lcd(6, 7, 8, 9,10,11 );

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int
led1 = 2, //Connect LED 1 To Pin #2
led2 = 3, //Connect LED 2 To Pin #3
led3 = 4, //Connect LED 3 To Pin #4
led4 = 5; //Connect LED 4 To Pin #5

//--------------------------Call A Function-------------------------------//
void allon(){
digitalWrite(led1, HIGH);
digitalWrite(led2, HIGH);
digitalWrite(led3, HIGH);
digitalWrite(led4, HIGH);
}
void alloff(){
digitalWrite(led1, LOW);
digitalWrite(led2, LOW);
digitalWrite(led3, LOW);
digitalWrite(led4, LOW);
}
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------//
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
pinMode(led1, OUTPUT);
pinMode(led2, OUTPUT);
pinMode(led3, OUTPUT);
pinMode(led4, OUTPUT);
lcd.begin(16, 2);
Serial.println("IOT BASED INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION");
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(" IOT AUTOMATION");

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}
//-----------------------------------------------------------------------//
void loop() {
while (Serial.available()){ //Check if there is an available byte to read
delay(10); //Delay added to make thing stable
char c = Serial.read(); //Conduct a serial read
//----------Control Multiple Pins/ LEDs----------//
if(c == '9') {allon();lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" ALL ON ");} //Turn ON All Pins
(Call Function)
else if(c == '0'){alloff();lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" ALL OFF ");} //Turn OFF All
Pins (Call Function)

//----------Turn On One-By-One----------//
else if(c == '1') {digitalWrite(led1, HIGH);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 1 ON
");}
else if(c == '3') {digitalWrite(led2, HIGH);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 2 ON
");}
else if(c == '5') {digitalWrite(led3, HIGH);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 3 ON
");}
else if(c == '7') {digitalWrite(led4, HIGH);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 4 ON
");}
//----------Turn Off One-By-One----------//
else if(c == '2') {digitalWrite(led1, LOW);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 1 OFF
");}
else if(c == '4') {digitalWrite(led2, LOW);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 2 OFF
");}
else if(c == '6') {digitalWrite(led3, LOW);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 3 OFF
");}
else if(c == '8') {digitalWrite(led4, LOW);lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(" DEVICE 4 OFF
");}

//-----------------------------------------------------------------------//
c='/0';}} //Reset the variable after initiating

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CHAPTER-5
Result Analysis
5.1 Future Scope:

Day by day, the field of automation is blooming and these systems are having great impact on
human beings. The project which is to be implemented is a industrial automation using Easy
IOT Webserver and WIFI and has very good future development. In the current system
webserver is installed on a windows PC so the appliances can be controlled using only by
using the device on which webserver is installed.This can be further developed installing
webserver on cloud .

Advantage of installing webserver on the cloud is that home can be controlled by using any
device which has WIFI 802.1 and a web browser. By visiting the IP address of the cloud the
control actions can be taken.

5.2 Advantages :

• Low cost and low power consuming system


• Long distance controlling and monitoring is possible.
• Faster production and cheaper labour cost.
• Can perform the task beyond the human capability.

5.3 Applications :

• Industries and offices: monitoring and controlling the machines and instruments
using the IoT technique
• Hospitals and labs: doctor can check the current status of the patient’s body using his
android phone by placing the sensors on patient’s body using the artificial
intelligence and IoT.

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• Home applications: we can monitor and control the home things like fans, TV, fridge
etc. by artificial intelligence.

CHAPTER-6
CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

Our proposed project design on Industrial Device Control method can reduce the man power
and its efforts. This project include the advance wifi device and microcontroller unit , which is
one of the innovative method to control loads using IOT system. By using this method we can
control any of the loads in industry located in various locations from a remote located control
room at a time. This method are very secured as Authenticated persons can only control the
loads. We can control the appliances from anywhere using wifi enable mobile phone, tablets
and PC system.

During first part of our project work in 7th semester, we have carried out the simulation of our
proposed system using Arduino microcontroller in proteus simulation software. We achieved
the satis factoly operation of simulation to controlling the four devices.

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REFERENCES:

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1.International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
Arduino based home automation using Internet of things (IoT)
Lalit Mohan Satapathy, Samir Kumar Bastia, Nihar Mohanty, Department of EEE
Siksha 'O' Anusandhan, Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India

2.ICRISEM-18- FEB-2018
IOT based Advanced Home Automation using Node MCU controller and Blynk App Miss.
Aboli Mane1, Miss. Pooja Pol2, Mr. Amar Patil3, Prof. Mahesh Patil4 1,2,3,4Nanasaheb
ahadik Collage of Engineering, Peth Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)


IOT based Industrial Automation
Sanyuta Swami1, Priyanka Nalawade2, Sayali Jadhav3, Prof N.C .Yadav4
1,2,3 Student of Electronics and Telecommunication, Dr.Daulatrao Aher, College of
ngineering, Karad

4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)


Industrial Automation using IoT
BhosaleKiran Uttam1,Galande Abhijeet Baspusaheb2,Jadhav Pappu Shivaji3,
rof.Pisal.R.S.4
1,2,3B.E ,Dept. of E&tc Engineering, S.B. patil college,Indapur ,Maharashtra, India

5.IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE)


IOT Based Industrial Automation Prof. Niranjan M, Madhukar N, Ashwini A, Muddsar J,
Saish M (Department of Electronics and Communication, Jain College of Engineering
elagavi, India)

6.AVR Microcontroller and programming by Mazidi


7. Fundamental of digital electronics by Anandkumar
8. www.alldatasheet.com
9. www.allaboutcircuits.com
10. www.arduino.cc
11. www.microchip.com/design-centers/8-bit/avr-mcus

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