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Republic of the Philippines

Batangas State University


College of Engineering, Architecture and Fine Arts
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

EE 514 – Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems


A Case Study
“Study and Comparison of the effect of Conventional,
Low losses and Amorphous Transformers on the
Ferroresonance Occurrence in Electric Distribution Networks”

Submitted by:
Dimaculangan, John Wendell C..
EE-5101

Submitted to:
Engr. Rosalynn C. Hernandez
Instructor

September 03, 2019


Study and Comparison of the effect of Conventional,
Low losses and Amorphous Transformers on the
Ferroresonance Occurrence in Electric Distribution Networks

Mehrdad Hajizadeh , Iman Safinejad, Nima Amirshekari


Hormozgan Electrical Distribution Company, Bandar Abbas, Iran
E-mail: Mehr.haji@yahoo.com

Abstract: Ferroresonance phenomenon is one of the grid transients, which has devastating effects on
electric distribution networks. On the other hand, considering the increasing application of low-loss
transformers, especially the amorphous transformers, it is essential more than ever to study the effects and
consequences of application of this type of transformers comprehensively. In this study, the effects of the
ferroresonance phenomena on transformers with commonly used, low-loss and amorphous cores are
investigated. First, a segment of a real-case distribution system is simulated in PSCAD software, and then
the core characteristics are changed without any change in the other system elements. In each step, other
than recording the voltage and current waveforms, harmonic analysis on all phases have been conducted
and results are briefly presented and discussed. Also critical lengths for the occurrence of ferroresonance
phenomenon are calculated for all transformers with different capacities. The effects of the transformers
type on the ferroresonance phenomenon and also on the critical length for the occurrence of such
phenomenon are presented.

INTRODUCTION of n times the main source period (T ). This


The ferroresonance phenomenon is is known as sub-harmonic n. Sub-harmonic
typically referred to the series resonance ferroresonance mode usually contains the
between saturated magnetising inductance of odd harmonics. c) The quasi-periodic mode:
transformers and capacitance of transmission In this mode, the waveforms are not periodic.
lines and distribution network cables . In The frequency spectrum can be expressed by
many real-case networks, ferroresonance nf1+mf2, where n and m are integers and
phenomenon may cause significant over- f1/f2 is non-integer. (d) Chaotic mode: As
voltages. Over-voltages caused by this shown in Fig. 2, in this mode, frequency
phenomenon can include a wide range of spectrum is continuous and covers different
frequencies, which in turn result in sections of the plane.
degradation of power quality. Detection of
characteristics and features of the waveforms The transformer core structure plays a
associated with the ferroresonance substantial role in occurrence of
phenomenon highly depend on the accurate ferroresonance phenomenon, and can affect
simulation of distribution network thef intensity of this phenomenon and bring it
transformer models. Given the complexities, to any of the aforementioned modes.
difficulties and considerable consequences in Generally, the decrease in core loss and
the event of ferroresonance phenomenon, reduction in hysteresis curve area and its
several methods have been proposed in order inner loop increase the ferroresonance
to identify its characteristics. phenomenon intensity and its occurrence in
the chaotic mode. This feature, which can be
Fundamentals of Ferroresonance seen specifically in amorphous transformers’
Fig. 1 shows a simple RLC circuit. cores, is investigated in the upcoming
Based on the oscillation frequency, different discussions.
modes during the ferroresonance
phenomenon can be divided into four Low-loss transformers
categories. Low-loss transformers are designed
and manufactured in accordance with
(a) Basic mode: In this mode, voltage and standard DIN42500 and are divided to nine
current follows a periodic pattern at the different categories. Based on this standard,
system frequency. In this case, the voltage the transformer no-load loss falls into one of
waveform contains the fundamental three categories A′, B′ and C′. In this
frequency and the harmonics. (b) Sub- classification, category A′ has the highest and
harmonic mode: As shown in Fig. 3, in this C′ has the lowest no-load loss. Load losses
mode, the signals are periodic with a period are also categorized in three categories A, B
and C. Categories B and C have the highest in Table 1, for the conventional and low-loss
and lowest losses in full load condition, transformers of class AB′, with different
respectively. Design AA′ has an average load capacities [5]. Figs. 3 and 4 show magnetic flux
loss and relatively high no-load loss and density against core losses and saturation curve of
design CC′ has low no-load and load losses. the transformers of class AB′ with core of type
m150_30_s5, in logarithmic scale, respectively.
On average, in these transformers no-load
and load losses are 35 and 25% lower than Amorphous transformers
those for conventional transformers, Amorphous transformer cores are made
respectively. of amorphous alloy. This alloy, with a non-
crystalline property, accelerates the reversal of
AB′ transformers the magnetic flux and change in the direction of
AB′ transformers have an average magnetic poles. This means that less energy is
load and no-load losses with core sheets of consumed in each cycle for the magnetization and
code ‘m150_30_s5’ based on standard demagnetization, which reduces the core losses.
ICE1998 with maximum loss of (1.07 W/kg-1.7 The area restricted by the hysteresis curve of the
T). The loss values are presented amorphous core transformers is smaller
comparing to conventional transformers
used in distribution networks. This reduces the
no-load losses of

the transformer. The saturation point of the


common transformers’ core is about 2 T.
This point reduces to 1.6 T in amorphous
cores, which restricts the operating point of
these
transformers to 1.35 T. Amorphous cores’
saturation point generally occurs in 90% of
nominal load. The hysteresis curve of
amorphous core of type 2605As1 and the
inter loop are shown in Fig. 5. The magnetic
flux density in Tesla against the core losses in
watts per kilogram (W/kg) is shown in Fig. 6.
As can be seen in Fig. 6, the amorphous core
loss is lower comparing to the class AB′ and
conventional transformers.

System under study


Fig. 7 shows a single-line diagram of the
system under study which is a 20 kV power
distribution network. At the sending end of
the network, power switches have been
installed, which can be used to connect and
disconnect each phase at certain times. This
network includes 5 km of 20 kV underground during the ferroresonance phenomenon,
cables. A 315 kVA transformer has been respectively.
installed at the receiving end of the network.
To better understand the ferroresonance
concept and to investigate the effects of this
phenomenon more precisely, the transformer
secondary is left open. Fig. 8 shows the
system simulated using PSCAD software.
Figs. 9 and 10 show the information on the
cables used in the underground network and
the conductors used in the overhead lines,
respectively.

Investigation of ferroresonance
phenomenon
One of the most common situations in
ferroresonance phenomenon is disconnection
of one phase of transformer, which in the case
of open circuit secondary and core saturation,
intensifies the ferroresonance. To study the
ferroresonance phenomenon, the transformer
secondary is left open and the transformer
core is saturated. One second after initiation
of the system operation, switch b switches
from the closed position to the open position.
In order to investigate the ferroresonance
phenomenon more accurately, it is assumed
that the effect of inrush current caused by the
transformer magnetic flux is completely
damped during the first second. In the
upcoming discussions, the voltage and
current waveforms during the ferroresonance
phenomenon are presented and discussed for
conventional, low-loss and amorphous
transformers.

Ferroresonance in conventional
transformers Ferroresonance in low-loss class AB′
Conventional core transformers have transformers
the highest no-load loss. Given the flux According to the loss comparison
density of 1.65 T, the core loss is 1.2 W/kg. table for the conventional and low-loss
The knee point voltage is considered to be transformers, it can be concluded that the
1.55 pu. Considering the saturation curve and load, no-load
the loss curve, Figs. 11 and 12 give the
current and voltage waveforms for phase
and total losses are, respectively, 30, 15 and
27% lower for transformer of class AB′
comparing to the conventional transformers.
Considering this fact and also regarding the

saturation and loss curves, and with other


network components unchanged, the current
and voltage waveforms of phase b during the
ferroresonance phenomenon are presented in
Figs. 14 and 15, respectively.

Fig. 16 presents the THD for the voltage of


phase b.
6 Technical Manual of Baosteel GO
Effect of cable length on the occurrence of Silicon Steel Products: ‘Electrical steel’.
ferroresonance phenomenon Available at http://www.baosteel.com/
7 R. Hasegawa Metglas Inc: ‘Energy
Since the length of the medium efficiency of amorphous metal based
voltage cable affects the capacitance needed transformers’. Available at
for occurrence of the ferroresonance http://www.leonardo-energy.org/
phenomenon, separate simulations are 8 Firouzabadi, F.: ‘Introduction to
conducted for the three types of transformers structure and technology of amorphous core
under study with different capacities and the transformers’. Vice Chancellor for Research
critical cable lengths, which cause dangerous and Development, Iran Transfo Co
resonances, and are calculated and provided 9 Metglas® Magnetic Material:
in Table 2. ‘Amorphous alloys for transformer cores’,
April 2011. Available at
http://www.metglas.com/
References 10 Sedighi Anaraki, A.: ‘High
1 Milicevic, K., Emin, Z.: ‘Initiation impedance fault detection in electric energy
of characteristic ferroresonance states based distribution grids’. PhD thesis, Electrical
on flux reflection model’, IEEE Trans. Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares
Circuits Syst., 2013, 60, (1), pp. 1–2 University,2004
2 Lacerda Ribas, J.C., Lourenço, 11 Dogan, R.C., Mc Granaghan,
E.M., Leite, J.V., et al.: ‘Modeling M.F., Santos, S., et al.: ‘Electrical power
ferroresonance phenomena with a flux- systems
current Jiles-Atherton hysteresis approach’, quality’ (Mc Graw-Hill Companies,
IEEE Trans. Magn., 2013, 49, (5), pp. 1–2 2004, 2nd edn.)
3 Tokic´, A., Smajic´, J.: ‘Modeling 12 Tanggawelu, B., Mukerjee, R. N.,
and simulations of ferroresonance by using Ariffin, A.E.: ‘Ferroresonance studies in
BDF/NDF numerical methods’, IEEE Trans. Malaysian utility’s distribution network’.
Power Deliv., 2015, 30, (1), pp. 342–350 IEEE Power Engineering Society General
4 Moses, P.S., Masoum, M.A.S., Meeting, 2003
Toliyat, H.A.: ‘Impacts of hysteresis and
magnetic couplings on the stability domain of
ferroresonance in asymmetric three-phase
three-leg transformers’, IEEE Trans. Energy
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5 Oladi, M., Anbiaei, H., Moghise,
N.: ‘Techno-economic analysis of low-loss
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2015, p. 3
REACTION
In this study what I can say is that transformers has different variety of specifications
depending on the needs of supply of a certain industry, It is normal for a transformer to encounter
problems due to malfunctions caused by natural occurances and sometimes by human
interventions. In this study, there is a certain phenomena that is tackled, the effects of the
ferroresonance phenomena on transformers with commonly used, low-loss and amorphous cores
are investigated. The ferroresonance phenomenon is typically referred to the series resonance
between saturated magnetising inductance of transformers and capacitance of transmission lines
and distribution network cables . In many real-case networks, ferroresonance phenomenon may
cause significant over-voltages. Over-voltages caused by this phenomenon can include a wide
range of frequencies, which in turn result in degradation of power quality. In each step, other than
recording the voltage and current waveforms, harmonic analysis on all phases have been conducted
and results are briefly presented and discussed and this is essential to give an attention too.

CONCLUSION
In this paper, Ferroresonance phenomenon is one of the grid transients, which has
devastating effects on electric distribution networks. On the other hand, considering the increasing
application of low-loss transformers, especially the amorphous transformers, it is essential more
than ever to study the effects and consequences of application of this type of transformers
comprehensively, one of the most common situations in ferroresonance phenomenon is
disconnection of one phase of transformer, which in the case of open circuit secondary and core
saturation, intensifies the ferroresonance. a test distribution system was used to investigate the
ferroresonance phenomenon. With changing the system 315 kVA transformer core characteristics,
the effects of the conventional, low-loss (AB′ class) and amorphous transformers on the occurrence
of ferroresonance phenomenon were compared and investigated. Due to the high no-load loss, the
conventional transformers have least impact on the occurrence of ferroresonance phenomenon.
The amorphous core transformers with minimum no-load losses have the highest impact on the
occurrence of ferroresonance. The impact of the low-loss transformers of class AB′ is lower than
amorphous transformers and higher than the conventional transformers.

RECOMMENDATION

In actual operations, considering features and qualities of a transformer experiencing faults and
phenomenas such as ferroresonance phenomenon is important to fix problems that misleads the
performance of the transformer. In this study, to compare two kinds of transformer, conventional
and low lost transformer is talked about whenever they occur in a Ferroresonace phenomena. And
since the length of the medium voltage cable affects the capacitance needed for occurrence of the
ferroresonance phenomenon, separate simulations are conducted for the three types of
transformers under study with different capacities and the critical cable lengths, which cause
dangerous resonances, and are calculated and provided.