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Cyclone Fani

Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Fani (/ˈfɒniː/; Bengali: ফণী,


Extremely Severe Cyclonic
romanized: Phaṇī[a] ) was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike the Indian state
Storm Fani
of Odisha since Phailin in 2013. The second named storm and the first severe
cyclonic storm of the 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Fani Extremely severe cyclonic storm
originated from a tropical depression that formed west of Sumatra in the (IMD scale)
Indian Ocean on 26 April. Vertical wind shear at first hindered the storm's Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
development, but conditions became more favorable on 30 April. Fani rapidly
intensified into an extremely severe cyclonic storm and reached its peak
intensity on 2 May as a high-end extremely severe cyclonic storm—the
equivalent of a high-end Category 4 major hurricane. Fani weakened before
making landfall, and its convective structure rapidly degraded thereafter,
degenerating into a remnant low on 4 May,and dissipating on the next day.

Prior to Fani's landfall, authorities in India and Bangladesh moved at least a


million people each from Fani's projected path onto higher ground and into
cyclone shelters, which is thought to have reduced the resultant death toll.[3]
As of 12 May 2019, 89 people are known to have been killed by Fani in
eastern India and Bangladesh. Fani caused about US$1.81 billion in damages
in both India and Bangladesh, mostly in Odisha.[4][5][6]

Contents
Meteorological history Cyclone Fani at peak intensity on 2 May,
Preparations while approaching Odisha
Impact and aftermath Formed 26 April 2019
India
Dissipated 5 May 2019
Bangladesh
(Remnant low after 4 May)
See also
Notes
Highest winds 3-minute sustained:
215 km/h (130 mph)
References
1-minute sustained:
External links
250 km/h (155 mph)
Lowest pressure 937 hPa (mbar); 27.67

Meteorological history inHg


Fatalities 89 total
The IMD began tracking a depression located west of Sumatra on 26 April,
Damage $1.81 billion (2019
classifying it as BOB 02. Later that day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center
USD)
(JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system.[7]
Areas affected Sri Lanka, Odisha,
Afterward, the storm slowly coalesced while moving northward and was
Andhra Pradesh, East
upgraded to a deep depression at 00:00 UTC on 27 April.[8] At the same time,
India, Bangladesh,
the JTWC began warning on the system, designating it 01B.[9] Six hours later,
Bhutan
the IMD upgraded the system to a cyclonic storm and gave it the name
Fani.[10] Part of the 2019 North Indian Ocean
cyclone season
The system continued to
intensify until 18:00 UTC, after which it stagnated for over a day as convection
around the storm's center waxed and waned.[11] Fani resumed strengthening around
12:00 UTC, with the IMD upgrading it to a severe cyclonic storm.[12] At that time,
Fani began a period of rapid intensification as it was located within a very favorable
environment with sea surface temperatures of 30–31 °C (86–88 °F) and low vertical
wind shear. As a result, the JTWC upgraded Fani to aCategory 1-equivalent cyclone
late on 29 April.[13] Around 00:00 UTC on 30 April, Fani was upgraded to a very
severe cyclonic storm by the IMD.[14] The organization of the system continued to
Map plotting the track and the
intensity of the storm, according to improve, with tight spiral banding wrapping into a formative eye feature,[15]
the Saffir–Simpson scale resulting in Fani being upgraded to an extremely severe cyclonic storm by the IMD
around 12:00 UTC[16] while the JTWC upgraded the storm to a Category 3-
equivalent cyclone hours later.[17] Development proceeded more slowly over the
following days, with little improvement evident in the system's satellite presentation. On 2 May, however, the central dense overcast
became more symmetrical and the eye more distinct, and Fani was upgraded to a Category 4-equivalent cyclone by the JTWC at
06:00 UTC.[18] Shortly after, Fani started another period of rapid intensification, attaining 1-minute sustained winds of 250 km/h
(155 mph) just below Category 5-equivalent tropical cyclone intensity, according to the JTWC.[19] At 8:00 a.m. IST (02:30 UTC) 3
May, Fani made landfall near Puri, Odisha as a severe cyclonic storm, with 3-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph).[20]
This made Fani the most intense storm to make landfall in India's Odisha state since the 1999 Odisha cyclone.[21] Land interaction
quickly degraded Fani's convective structure; and it weakened to a Category 1-equivalent tropical cyclone soon after landfall.[22]
Fani continued to weaken after landfall, weakening to a cyclonic storm later that day,[23] before passing just north of Kolkata. On 4
May, Fani weakened to a deep depression and moved into Bangladesh,[24] before degenerating into a well-marked low later on the
same day.[25] On 5 May, Fani's remnant low dissipated overBhutan.

Preparations
The India Meteorological Departmenttracked the storm and issued numerous yellow warnings for much of the south-eastern portion
of India when the cyclone started to intensify.[26][27] In preparation for the storm's impact, the state government of Odisha evacuated
over 1.2 million residents from vulnerable coastal areas and moved them to higher ground and into cyclone shelters built a few miles
inland. The authorities deployed around a thousand emergency workers and 43,000 volunteers in these effort. It sent out 2.6 million
text messages to warn of the storm in addition to using television, sirens and public-address systems to communicate the message.
[28][29]
About 7,000 kitchens were operated to feed evacuees in 9,000 storm shelters.

The Indian Navy readied naval ships and aircraft at Arakkonam and Visakhapatnam air-bases to prepare for the storm's aftermath and
aid in reconnaissance, rescue and relief operations.[30] The Odisha government staged "300 power boats, two helicopters and many
chain saws, to cut downed trees" for the purpose.[29]

Authorities in Bangladesh were ordered to open shelter areas as well in 19 coastal districts.[31] Bangladesh Navy deployed 32 naval
ships to provide emergency relief and medical assistance to the coastal areas in case of any emergencies.[32] More than 1.2 million
[33]
people were evacuated in Bangladesh and moved to the cyclone shelters in coastal areas.

Impact and aftermath

India
At least 72 people have been killed by Fani in India; 64 in Odisha,[34] and 8 in two districts of Uttar Pradesh.[35] In Odisha, a
teenager was killed after being hit by a falling tree. One woman died when she was hit by flying debris, and another died of a heart
attack while in a cyclone shelter.[36] The cyclone adversely affected electricity supply and telecommunication in several coastal areas
of Odisha, and to a lesser extent, of West Bengal. Puri and Khordha district in Odisha were the worst hit.[28] The Jagannath Temple in
Puri suffered minor damage, the repairing cost were estimated to be ₹5.1 crore (US$738,000).[37] The Siksha 'O' Anusandhan
University also suffered a damage of about ₹30 crore (US$4.3 million).[38] Total damage in Odisha were estimated at ₹12,000 crore
[4]
(US$1.74 billion), mostly in property damage and the relief.

Although no fatalities occurred inAndhra Pradesh, Srikakulam and Vizianagaram districts reported an economic loss of ₹58.62 crore
(US$8.5 million).[5] The South Central Railwayalso suffered a damage of about₹2.98 crore (US$432,000).[39]

After the cyclone, Odisha required ₹17,000 crore (US$2.46 billion) for rebuilding the infrastructure.[40] Indian Prime Minister
Narendra Modi announced that the government had released over₹1000 crore (US$145 million) for the states affected by Fani.[41]

Bangladesh
Fani killed 17 people in ten districts of Bangladesh.[42] In Bagerhat District, a woman died after being hit by a falling tree, and 7 of
them were killed by lightning in two districts of Bangladesh.[43][44] The cyclone also destroyed about 63,000 ha (160,000 acres) of
farmland in 35 districts of the country, the agricultural loss were at ৳38.5 crore (US$4.6 million).[45] Total damage in Bangladesh
were up to ৳536.61 crore (US$63.6 million).[6]

The Bangladeshi government distributed rice, dried food, and৳1.97 crore (US$234,000) to those affected by the cyclone.[46]

See also
1999 Odisha cyclone – the strongest cyclone on record to strikeOdisha, also the most intense storm recorded in the
North Indian Ocean, which killed over 10,000 people
Cyclone Viyaru – took a similar path and affected Bangladesh and Myanmar in 2013
Cyclone Phailin – a powerful tropical cyclone that struck Odisha in 2013, which displaced over 1 million people

Notes
[1][2]
a. The name was contributed by Bangladesh and means 'hood of a snake'.

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. The Daily Star. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
46. "Fani damages 53,000 acres of cropland, 13,000 houses"(https://www.thedailystar.net/country/cyclonic-storm-fani-d
amages-53000-acres-crop-13000-houses-1738579) . The Daily Star. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.

External links
India Meteorological Department
01B.FANI from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory
ReliefWeb's main page for this event.

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cyclone_Fani&oldid=899396913


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