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BIOLOGI UMUM

Priyambodo, M.Sc.
staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
KONSEP REPRODUKSI TUMBUHAN

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
KONSEP REPRODUKSI TUMBUHAN

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
Vegetatif vs generatif

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VEGETATIF VS GENERATIF

Menurut pendapat Anda, makanah jenis reproduksi yang


lebih baik bagi tumbuhan? Jelaskan alasan Anda!

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
REPRODUKSI LUMUT

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
REPRODUKSI PAKU

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
Reproduksi tumbuhan biji

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REPRODUKSI TUMBUHAN BIJI
Germinated pollen grain
(n) (male gametophyte)
Stigma Anther at
on stigma of carpel
Anther Carpel tip of stamen
Stamen
Style
Filament Ovary Ovary (base of carpel)
Pollen tube
Ovule

Embryo sac (n)


(female gametophyte)

Sepal

Egg (n) FERTILIZATION


Petal
Receptacle

Sperm (n) Zygote


(a) An idealized flower. Mature sporophyte Seed (2n)
plant (2n) with (develops
flowers from ovule)
Key Seed

Haploid (n)
Diploid (2n)

(b) Simplified angiosperm life cycle. Embryo (2n)


Germinating
See Figure 30.10 for a more detailed (sporophyte)
seed
version of the life cycle, including meiosis. Simple fruit
(develops from ovary)
Figure 38.2a, b

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
REPRODUKSI TUMBUHAN biji

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
REPRODUKSI TUMBUHAN biji

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
POLINASI vs fertilisasi

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
mikrosporogenesis

Pollen sac
(a) Development of a male gametophyte (microsporangium)
(pollen grain)

1 Each one of the


microsporangia Micro- MEIOSIS
contains diploid sporocyte
microsporocytes
(microspore
mother cells).
Micro-
spores (4)

2 Each microsporo-
cyte divides by
meiosis to produce Each of 4 MITOSIS
four haploid microspores
microspores,
each of which
develops into
Generative
a pollen grain.
cell (will Male
form 2 Gametophyte
sperm) (pollen grain)
3 A pollen grain becomes a
mature male gametophyte
Nucleus
when its generative nucleus
of tube cell KEY
divides and forms two sperm.
This usually occurs after a 20 m to labels
pollen grain lands on the stigma
of a carpel and the pollen Ragweed Haploid (2n)
tube begins to grow. (See pollen Diploid (2n)
Figure 38.2b.) grain
75 m
Figure 38.4a

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
megasporogenesis
(b) Development of a female gametophyte
(embryo sac)

Mega- 1 Within the ovule’s


sporangium megasporangium
Ovule is a large diploid
Mega-
cell called the
sporocyte
megasporocyte
MEIOSIS Integuments (megaspore
mother cell).
Micropyle
2 The megasporocyte divides by
Surviving meiosis and gives rise to four
megaspore haploid cells, but in most
species only one of these
Female gametophyte survives as the megaspore.
(embryo sac)
MITOSIS
Ovule Antipodel
3
Cells (3) Three mitotic divisions
of the megaspore form
Polar the embryo sac, a
Nuclei (2) multicellular female
gametophyte. The
Egg (1)
ovule now consists of
Integuments Synergids (2) the embryo sac along
with the surrounding
integuments (protective
tissue).
Key
to labels Embryo
sac
100 m

Haploid (2n)
Diploid (2n)
Figure 38.4b

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
Pembuahan ganda
Pollen grain Stigma

Pollen tube
1 If a pollen grain
germinates, a pollen tube 2 sperm
grows down the style
toward the ovary.
Style

Polar Ovary
nuclei
Ovule (containing
Egg female
gametophyte, or
embryo sac)

Micropyle

2 The pollen tube Ovule


discharges two sperm into Polar nuclei
the female gametophyte
(embryo sac) within an ovule. Egg
Two sperm
about to be
3 One sperm fertilizes discharged
the egg, forming the zygote.
The other sperm combines with
the two polar nuclei of the embryo Endosperm nucleus (3n)
sac’s large central cell, forming (2 polar nuclei plus sperm)
a triploid cell that develops into
the nutritive tissue called Zygote (2n)
endosperm. (egg plus sperm) Figure 38.6

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
Perkembangan embrio tumbuhan

Ovule

Endosperm
nucleus

Integuments

Zygote

Zygote

Terminal cell

Basal cell
Proembryo
Suspensor

Basal cell

Cotyledons
Shoot
apex

Root
Seed coat
apex
Endosperm
Figure 38.7 Suspensor

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Dikotil vs monokotil
Seed coat Epicotyl

Hypocotyl
Radicle

Cotyledons

(a) Common garden bean, a eudicot with thick cotyledons. The


fleshy cotyledons store food absorbed from the endosperm before
the seed germinates.

Pericarp fused
with seed coat
Scutellum
(cotyledon) Endosperm

Coleoptile Epicotyl

Hypocotyl
Coleorhiza Radicle

(c) Maize, a monocot. Like all monocots, maize has only one
cotyledon. Maize and other grasses have a large cotyledon called a
scutellum. The rudimentary shoot is sheathed in a structure called
the coleoptile, and the coleorhiza covers the young root.

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perkecambahan

Foliage leaves

Cotyledon

Foliage leaves
Epicotyl

Hypocotyl

Cotyledon Coleoptile Coleoptile


Hypocotyl Cotyledon

Hypocotyl

Radicle
Seed coat
Radicle
(a) Common garden bean. In common garden
beans, straightening of a hook in the (b) Maize. In maize and other grasses, the shoot grows
hypocotyl pulls the cotyledons from the soil.
straight up through the tube of the coleoptile.

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Bioteknologi dan reproduksi tumbuhan

• Kultur jaringan
• Fusi protoplasma
• GMO

staff.unila.ac.id/priyambodo priyambodo@fmipa.unila.ac.id
Kultur jaringan

(a) Just a few parenchyma cells from a (b) The callus differentiates into an entire
carrot gave rise to this callus, a mass plant, with leaves, stems, and roots.
of undifferentiated cells.
Figure 38.12a, b

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Fusi protoplasma

50 m

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GMO

Genetically modified rice

Ordinary rice

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