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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
In the modern age, we are trying to communicate with the outside of the world within a very short
duration as much as possible. In such manner, we are always not only to deal with the persons to fulfill
our correspondences but also to control the electrical and electronic machines, appliances, equipment’s
etc. Nowadays, the humidity control alarm system is widely used especially in warm countries. Usually
the conventional humidity is always keep cooling the room depending on the fixed humidity setting
and is not automatically adjusted for the comfort of the users. In the central humidity control field,
excellent real-time, high reliability, and good intelligence are proposed by many researchers. The
traditional PID algorithm is, in fact, still playing a main role in the control process. The humidity
control alarm system has becoming a field to be researched to improve the user convenience by
applying intelligent system such as Adaptive Fuzzy controller. to meet our daily requirements that
supports for comforts. The existing control system can be done manually by supplying the proper
manpower which becomes time & cost ineffective, disgusting and unsuitable as well. So the necessity
of automatic controlling is important.

Now a day's every system is automated in order to face new challenges. In the present days Automated
systems have less manual operations, flexibility, reliability and accurate. Due to this demand every
field prefers automated control systems. Especially in the field of electronics automated systems are
giving good performance.

The most existing automatic humidity control alarm systems are lagging to get precise and smooth
variation of output, and proper hysteresis. Otherwise, some are used to behave manually which is much
more hazardous. All of the alarm control systems, those are commercially available, are mostly
integrated to the high costly and sophisticated appliances and equipment. That deprives the people to
use this type of alarm control systems to their designs and daily necessary devices and appliances.
LED are simple way of circulating the humidity to maintain a humidity and comfortable humidity.
They in a wide range of different styles and sizes to suit your needs. Such as Speaker, LED. While the
enhanced Humidity control alarm system is being designed, the consideration of the type of control
alarm system must be included in a modeling design. In particular the controller must be able to avoid
the inefficiency of having the room operate all the time. Several control alarm system options were
considered at presence sensing circuit, which would turn the humidity control alarm system off when
people are not in the room with the humidity control alarm system and a humidity sensor input, which
would change the humidity operation depending on room humidity [1]. Based on the observation of
the using the present conventional humidity application, it always working all the time without a
systematic control. Therefore, the control of the humidity control alarm system is adjusted through a
feedback control system to monitor and maintain a constant humidity based on the data input from the
sensor.

Our main objective is to design an independent control alarm system which responses on the ambience
conditions. The proposed system is more reliable, easy to handle, cost effective that overcome the
drawbacks of existing systems. This alarm system provides the variation in output corresponding to
the change of surrounding humidity. It is more flexible, compatible and adjustable to any electrical
and electronic devices.

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1.2 Problem Statement
The existing automatic humidity controlling alarm system in market nowadays, is too complex
in term of its design and structure. Since the system is not tool complex, it needs regular
preventive maintenance to be carried out to make sure the system operates well. Meanwhile,
when the maintenance is being done to the existing system, it could raise the cost of using the
system. Therefore, the project is designed with a low cost and all level users can have one for
a safety purpose.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 General Objective


The main objective of the project is to design and implement simple microcontroller based automatic
humidity control alarm system using humidity sensor that can be produced at a low cost, easily
maintainable and highly efficient.

1.3.2 Specific objective


The specific objectives of this project are listed as follows: -

To develop the production of company and low cost simple automatic humidity control alarm
system.
To achieve the company goal.
To help the operators.
Introducing a technology with nearby available resources.
Make our country by making the system affordable and accessible at individual level.

1.4 Significance of the project


Low cost
This is one of the least expensive options as it basically involves relay and connecting them to main
circuitry board. Since the cost of the relay as compared to other it’s very least.
Not component intensive
This system basically involves relays driver connected together and the amount of components is
minimized.
Efficient and uncomplicated wiring
Implementing the system will involve efficient and uncomplicated wiring methods.
Can be implemented in any home, room and office automation system
Because of the relative simple design involved.

1.5 Scope of the Project


The scope of works in this project constructing simple circuit based only on humidity sensor by using
proteus program in the computer application. Due to lack of materials implementation is not installed
even in model size.

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CHAPTER TWO
METHODOLOGY

2.1Block Diagram
The block diagram of simple automatic humidity control alarm system:

MICRO LED

HUMIDTY CONTRO
POWER
SENSOR LLER
SPEAKER
SUPPLY
OPERATIONAL

AMPLIFIER

Fig 3.1 Block Diagram of humidity control alarm system.

2.2 Block Diagram Description


The figure shown above is the simple block diagram of our project. It is a simple illustration of how
we have implemented our project and the various parts involved in it. From the above representation
the power is supplied to both microcontroller and operational amplifier to provide offset voltage. Since
humidity sensor active device which doesn’t need any external calibration, the power is not supplied
to it. Since the humidity sensor is capable of generating voltage as output, its output is fed to
operational amplifiers to trigger it. Then, operational amplifier output is given to PIC microcontroller
and this PIC microcontroller output is combined and fed to the speaker. After the output is triggered
and the output will start operating.

2.3 Devices used and their Description

2.3.1 Micro controller


PIC microcontrollers (Programmable Interface Controllers) are electronic circuits that can be
programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. They can be programmed to be timers or to control a
production line and much more. They are found in most electronic devices such as alarm systems,
computer control systems, phones, in fact almost any electronic device.

2.3.2 PIC16F877A Microcontroller


Microcontroller PIC16F877A is one of the PIC Micro Family microcontrollers which is popular at this
moment, start from beginner until all professionals, because very easy using PIC16F877A and use
FLASH memory technology so that can be write-erase until thousand times. The superiority this Risk
Microcontroller compared to with other microcontroller 8-bit especially at a speed of and his code
compression. PIC16F877A have 40 pin by 33 path of I/O.

PIC16F877A perfectly fits many uses, from automotive industries and controlling home appliances to
industrial instruments, remote sensors, electrical door locks and safety devices. It is also ideal for smart
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cards as well as for battery supplied devices because of its low consumption. EEPROM memory makes
it easier to apply microcontrollers to devices where permanent storage of various parameters is needed
(codes for transmitters, motor speed, receiver frequencies, etc.). Low cost, low consumption, easy
handling and flexibility make PIC16F877A applicable even in areas where microcontrollers had not
previously been considered (example: timer functions, interface replacement in larger systems,
coprocessor applications, etc.). In System Programmability of this chip (along with using only two
pins in data transfer) makes possible the flexibility of a product, after assembling and testing have
been completed. This capability can be used to create assembly line production, to store calibration
data available only after final testing, or it can be used to improve programs on finished products.

2.3.2 Potentiometer
A potentiometer (pot) is very simple and cheap form of transducers and widely used. It converts
any number in measurement into a voltage.

potentiometers for the measurements of humidity and take numerous forms dependent on
intended application. The simplest and cheapest form is a single length of wire along which a slider
or other form of moving device contacts the wire. The humidity position of the slider determines
the effective number of the conductor. Hence a change in electrical resistance or voltage drop is
related to the measurement number of the slider.

2.3.3 Humidity Sensor


They are many series are precision integrated-circuit humidity sensors, whose output voltage is
linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) humidity. The series humidity thus has an advantage
over linear humidity sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large
constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The series humidity does not
require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of 40% at room humidity
and 60% over a full 0 to 100% humidity range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the
water level. The humidity’s sensor low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent
calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single
power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 μA from its supply, it has very
low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still humidity.
Features
Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
0.5°C accuracy guarantee able (at +25°C)
Rated for full 0 to 100 range
Suitable for remote applications
Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
Operates from 4 to 30 volts
Less than 60 μA current drain
Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air
Nonlinearity only ±1⁄4°C typical
Low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load

2.3.4 Light emitting diode (LED)


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that resembles a basic p n
junction diode, except that an LED also emits light, when an LED's anode lead has a voltage that is
more positive than its cathode leads by at least the LED's forward voltage drop, current flows.
Electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons.
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This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the
photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

CHAPTER THREE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DISCRIPTION

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3.1 Circuit Diagram

Fig. 3.2 Circuit Diagram Design

3.2 Circuit Description


The circuit is supplied with regular voltage 220v through the transformer and stepped down to required
voltage that the circuit operate with. Then the stepped down AC voltage is supplied to bridge rectifier
and converted to DC voltage. But the converted DC voltage is unregulated DC because it contains
some ripple (small oscillation of electrical current). In order to remove this ripple capacitor is used as
filter to cut off the unwanted signal. Then this DC signal is fed to Voltage Regulator to regulate the
voltage and then filtered by a capacitor. Since the circuit needs two different offset voltages to operate
three LED are connected in order to divide the voltage by using voltage division rule.

Humidity Sensor is the heart of this circuit. It supplies voltage to the circuit by converting the Humidity
it sensed into an electrical signal. And this generated voltage is given to the operational amplifiers.
These operational amplifiers are inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. The circuit operates between
40 and 60 %. The voltage generated by the sensor is given to the Op amp and the Op amp compares
between the voltage generated by the sensor and the offset voltage connected to the other terminal of
the Op amp.

When the Humidity is restored to where it is designed to be i.e. between 40 and 60 % the output starts
to decrease its speed and stops because it reached at Humidity Point which is pleasant to function in.

3.3. Software tools


In this project each of components are initially simulated using circuit simulations, such as PROTEUS.
Upon verification of fully functional circuit simulations, each hardware component can be susceptible
to being tested in a laboratory setting with precise measuring instrumentation. We have used
simulation and programming software to simulate and test our program such as micro C and
PROTEUS.
We use the ISIS schematic capture and simulator or PROTEUS simulator for microcontroller circuit
design and for testing the overall operation of circuits that contain microcontrollers. Our program is
written using the MICROC programming language. Micro C is a powerful, feature rich development
tool for PIC controllers. It is designed to provide the user with the easiest possible solution for
developing applications for embedded systems, without compromising performance or control. Micro
C allows quickly develop and deploy complex applications. We write our C source code program using

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the highly advanced micro C Code Editor and we use some of the library functions in micro C
compiler. The micro C libraries are used to speed up the development: data acquisition, memory,
displays and conversions function.

3.3.1 Microcontroller Routines


The microcontroller pic16F877A has five I/O ports namely PORTA, PORTB, PORTC, PORTD and
PORTE. Each port has its own pins. PORTA has six pins; PORTB, PORTC and PORTD have eight
pins whereas PORTE has three pins. Port A and port E are programmed to operate as input pins for
sensor.RB0, RB1 and RB2 are programmed to operate as output pin for LED module. RC3 is an output
pin to operate the speaker.

3.4 Project Design Implementation

Start

Literature review

Material required

Schematic diagram design

Simulation

Checking the result

NO

Hardware implementation

End
YES

Fig. procedure to do any project

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3.4.1 Hardware implementation
The hardware part of the work involves the circuitry design and implementation of real components
on bread board.

3.4.2 Software implementation


Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation, schematic capture, and printed circuit board (PCB).
It is mainly popular because of availability of almost all electrical components in it.

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Result and Discussion

Case 1: when the humidity is less than 40


If the humidity starts falling below the needed humidity the sensor sends signal to the amplifier and
the amplifier sends the signal to alarm system output.

Fig 4.1 when humidity < 40.

Case 2: when the humidity is between 40 and 60.


When the humidity reaches the desired interval i.e. the humidity needed by the user alarm system then
control the humidity.

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Fig 4.2 when humidity > 40 and < 60.

Case 3: when the humidity is greater than 60.


If the humidity rises above set point the alarm starts blowing LED and Speaker to send the output by
using alarm system to stabilize the rising on the humidity.

Fig 4.3 when the humidity is > 60.

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CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION, BUDGET AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion
The project’s main concern is developing system which can minimize the existing problems of the
company and developing such a system can minimize cost and easy use. The project is successful in
developing the prototypes proteus circuit simulation software. After rigorously working on the detail
analysis, results and discussion the following conclusion are drawn out:

The project presents successful means of controlling humidity controlling by using alarm
system automatically.
The project will have a capacity of solving multi socioeconomic problems witnessed in
society.
Finally, the project will have a promising technology transform for the coming works with
related and advanced transformation of technology.

5.2 Budget
This project used some material and we buy from electronics shop but we have not more many for
by those material so we estimated the value.

No Name of material Quantity Cost in $


1 PIC Microcontroller 1 16.9
2 Humidity Sensor 1 18-20
3 LED(Diode) 3 1
4 Speaker 1 6
5 Relay 1 7
Total price 51 in $

5.3 Recommendation
This project has already finalized, because of a great passion and devotion of the group members, in
manner expected to be accomplished on our premise. However, had it been some of the following
recommendation considered it will be more appealing to effectively use on our daily base where such
system is crucial and even can be marketed.

We recommend for future extent we recommend to develop a system that reject a false signal.
We recommend that it is more reliable to use microcontroller.

Reference

1. http://www.howstuffswork.com
2. http://www.EEEE.com
3. http://www.embedtronics.com

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