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• A positive (addition) process used for

assembling different members to get
desired the configuration.
• Joint can be temporary or permanent in FUSION WELD
nature produced by mechanical or atomic



• Joining processes can classified in different ways:
– Fusion or plastic state
• Fusion: Gas, arc
• Plastic: Friction and resistance welding
– Source of heat generation
• Gas, arc, laser, electron, friction, ultrasonic
– Composition of welds
• Heterogeneous: a filler material different from the parent
material is used. i.e. soldering and brazing
• Autogeneous: no filler (TIG with filler and resistance
• Homogeneous: filler is same as the parent i.e. arc, gas,
and thermit welding
➢ Unlike the Manufacturing Processes Employed to Produce a Single
Component, the Joining Processes are Used to Assemble Different
Members to Yield the Desired Complex Configuration.
➢ Joining of Different Elements can be Either Temporary or Permanent
in Nature. The Mechanism of Bonding may be either Mechanical
Bonding or Atomic Bonding.
➢ Another Criterion Used for Classifying the Joining Processes is Based
on the Composition of the Joint.
❖ Autogeneous: No Filler Material is Added During Joining.
i.e. All Types of Solid Phase Welding and Resistance Welding
❖ Homogeneous: Filler Material Used to Provide the Joint is the
Same as the Parent Material.
i.e. Arc, Gas, and Thermit Welding
❖ Heterogeneous: A Filler Material Different from the Parent
Material is Used.
i.e. Soldering and Brazing
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
Metallurgical Bonding
• Fusion welding: (welding melting of
plates being welded)
– Gas welding, arc welding
– Resistance welding processes
• Solid state
– Ultrasonic welding (usw)
– Friction welding
– Diffusion bonding

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Metallurgical bonding


• SOLDERING (Pb-Sb alloy with mp< 450 0C)

• BRAZING (Cu-Zn alloy with mp> 450 0C)

[4.2.1] Various Conventional Joining or Fabrication Processes
Bond Sub Sub-sub Categories, Examples, Remarks
Type Category
Mechanical Temporary Threaded Fasteners: Screws, Nuts, Bolts
Bonding ➢ Allow Easy Dissembling for Repair, Replace, and
➢ Convenient for Human Assembly Workers but
Difficult for Robots and Automated System
Permanent Riveting and Crimping:
or Press/Shrink Fit: Pulley or Gear on Shaft
Semi- ➢ Interference Fit Between Mating Parts
Snap Fit: C-Rings, Snap Rings, Retainers
➢ Temporary Interference of Mating Parts
Sewing, Stitching, Stapling: To Assemble Soft
Thin Materials
➢ For Fabrics, Cloth, Leather, Thin Flexible Plastics

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Atomic Solid ➢ Cold Welding: Pressure Welding , Explosive Welding,
Bonding State and Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
Welding ➢ Friction Welding
➢ Hot Forge Welding
➢ Diffusion Welding
Liquid Electrical Arc Consumable Electrode:
State Weld ➢ Manual or Shielded Metal Arc Welding
or ing (MMAW or SMAW)
Fusion ➢ Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) or
Welding Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding
➢ Flux Coated Arc Welding (FCAW)
➢ Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Non-Consumable Electrode:
➢ Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) or
Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding
➢ Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
➢ Stud Welding (SW)
Resistance Welding: Resistance Spot Welding
(RSW), Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW),
Resistance Projection Welding (RPW)
Induction Welding:
Chemical Gas Welding: Oxy-Acetylene Welding (OAW),
Pressure Gas Welding (PGW),
Thermit Welding (TW)

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Atomic Solid/ Brazing: Melting Point of Filler Material > 450 oC
Bonding Liquid Filler Material is Cu-Zn & Cu-Ag Alloys
State Soldering: Melting Point of Filler Material < 450 oC
Filler Material is Pb-Sn Alloy
Adhesive Thermoplastic Adhesives: Easy to Apply but
Bonding Cannot withstand High Temperature;

Thermosetting Adhesives: Epoxies

(More Stronger and Capable)

[4.2.2] Various Advanced Joining or Fabrication Processes

Unique Welding Processes: Welding Processes For Plastics:
➢ Electron Beam Welding (EBW) ➢ Spin Welding,
➢ Laser Beam Welding (LBW) ➢ Vibration Welding,
➢ Friction Stir Welding,
➢ Hot-Plate Welding,
➢ Hot-Gas Welding,
➢ Implant Welding,
➢ Infrared Welding ,
➢ Micro-Wave Welding
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.3.1] Edge Preparations for Butt Joints
➢ Single or Double U-, V-, J-, and Bevel Edges

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.3.2] Various Weld Procedures

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.3.3] Types of Welding Positions

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.3.4] Types of Fusion Welds

Slot Weld
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
Common Weld Terminologies
• Base plate
• Weld bead
• Backing plate
• Puddle
• Bead geometry
• Penetration
• Tack weld
• Weld toe
• Weld root
• Weld face
• Weld pass
• Crater
Welded Joint Terminology
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
➢ Backing: It is the Material Support Provided at the Root Side of a
Weld to Aid in the Control Of Penetration.
➢ Base Material: The Material to be Joined or Cut is Termed as the
Base Material.
➢ Bead or Weld Bead: Bead is the Material Added during a Single
Pass of Welding. The Bead Appears as a Separate Material From
the Base Material.
➢ Crater: In Arc Welding, a Crater is the Depression in the Weld
Material Pool at the Point Where the Arc Strikes the Base Material.
➢ Deposition Rate: The Rate at which the Weld Material is
Deposited Per Unit Time, is the Deposition Rate and is Normally
Expressed as Kg Per Hour.
➢ Fillet Weld: The Metal Fused into the Corner of a Joint Made of
Two Pieces Placed at Approximately 90° to Each Other is Termed
Fillet Weld.
➢ Penetration: It is the Depth Up to Which the Weld Combines with
the Base Material as Measured from the Top Surface of the Joint.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ Puddle: The Portion of the Weld Joint that Melted by the Heat of
Welding is Called Puddle.
➢ Root: It is the Point at which the Two Pieces to be Joined by Welding
are Nearest.
➢ Tack Weld: A Small Weld, Generally Used to Temporarily Hold
the Two Pieces Together during Actual Welding, is the Tack Weld.

➢ Toe of Weld: It is the Junction Between the Weld Face and Base
➢ Torch: In Gas Welding, the Torch Mixes the Fuel and Oxygen and
Controls its Delivery to Get the Desired Flame.
➢ Weld Face: It is the Exposed Surface of the Weld
➢ Weld Material: The Material that is Solidified in the Joint is Called
Weld Material. It may be only Base Material or a Mixture of Base
Material and Filler Material.
➢ Weld Pass: A Single Movement of the Welding Torch or
Electrode Along the Length of the Joint which Results in a Bead, is a
Weld Pass.
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
➢ Gas Welding, also Called as Oxy-Fuel Gas Welding (OFW), Derives
the Heat from the Combustion of a Fuel Gas such as Acetylene in
Combination with Oxygen.
➢ This Process is a Fusion Welding Process wherein the Joint is
Completely Melted to Obtain the Fusion. The Heat Produced by the
Combustion of Gas is Sufficient to Melt Any Metal.
➢ Fuel Gas Generally Used is Acetylene Because of the High
Temperature Generated in the Flame. This Process is Called Oxy-
Acetylene Welding (OAW).

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.5.1] Chemical Reactions:
Production of Acetylene

Reactions in First Stage (Produce Inner White Cone ~31000C)

Reactions in Second Stage (Combining with Atmospheric Oxygen

Giving Rise to Bluish Flame ~ 1200-20000C)

[4.5.2] Types of Flames: Three Types

(A) Neutral Flame

➢ Complete Combustion
of Acetylene Present
➢ Most Desirable Flame

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

(B) Carburizing Flame:
➢ Less Oxygen
➢ Part of Combustible Matter Left
➢ Presence of Additional Third Phase in Between the Outer Blue
Flame and Inner White Cone (Intermediate Flame Feather)
Reddish in Color.
➢ Metal Appears to Boil (Due to Presence of Unburnt Carbon).
➢ Excess Carbon Causes the Steel to Become Extremely Hard and
➢ Useful for Material which are Readily Oxidized (by Providing
Reducing Atmosphere)
➢ Welding High Carbon Steels, Cast Irons and Hard Surfacing
with High Speed Steel & Cemented Carbides.
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
(C) Oxidizing Flame:
➢ Oxygen in Excess
➢ Smaller Inner White Cone (Higher Tip Temperatures ~3300 0C).
➢ Excess Oxygen Oxidizes the Weld Metal
➢ Weld Metal Foams and Sparks (because of Burning of Metal)
➢ Loud Noise
➢ Useful for Welding some Non-ferrous Alloys (Cu and Zn Based
Alloys), Cast iron, Manganese Steel
➢ Presence of Excess Oxygen in the Oxidizing Flame Causes an Oxide
Film to Form Quickly which Provides a Protective Cover Over
the Base Material Pool.
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
[4.5.3] Oxy Acetylene Welding Equipment

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ Oxygen Normally Stored in Strong Cylinders at a Pressure Ranging
from 13.8 MPa to 18.2 MPa.
➢ Acetylene is Normally Made Available in the Two forms: Acetylene
Storage cylinder, and Acetylene Generator.
➢ Free Acetylene is Highly Explosive, if Stored at a Pressure >
200 kPa then it Becomes Very Unstable and Likely to Explode.
➢ Acetylene Stored in a Strong Cylinder, Filled with 80 to 85%
Porous Material such as Calcium Silicate and then Filled with
Acetone which can Absorb up to 420 times its Volume of
Acetylene at a Pressure of 1.75 MPa.
➢ Acetylene Molecules Fit in Between the Acetone Molecules. This
helps in Storing Acetylene at a much Higher Pressure than
Permitted when in Free Form.
➢ Acetylene is Released from Acetone at a Slow Rate and thus
would not Form Any Pockets of High Pressure Acetylene. The Rate of
Release Depends on the Temperature of the Gas.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ Rate of Consumption of Acetylene should be Less than the Rate of
Release which is Normally about One-Seventh of the Capacity of the
Cylinder per Hour.
➢ If Acetylene is Drawn at a Rapid Rate, Acetone may also Come Out
Along with the Acetylene. Presence of Acetone in the Flame Gives it
a Purple Colour. It is Not Desirable since it Reduces the Flame
➢ It is also Possible to
have an Acetylene
Generator in Place of
an Acetylene
➢ Acetylene is Normally
Produced by a
Reaction between
Calcium Carbide and
Water which is

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Oxy Acetylene Welding Technique
➢ To light the flame, acetylene valve on the torch is
slightly opened first and lighted and adjust the needed
flow rate.
➢ Flame draws the oxygen from the atmospheric air and
thus results in a reducing flame.
➢ Then adjust the oxygen valve opening to get desired
➢ Choice of the torch size depends on the thickness of
the material to be joined.
❖ larger torch tip sizes for thicker materials, larger tip
radii are used.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Metal vs flame
Welding Parameters for Welding Carbon Steel

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Welding techniques
➢ Torch tip should be positioned above the base plate so
that the white cone is at a distance of 1.5 to 3.0 mm from
the plate.
➢ Torch should be held at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees from
the horizontal plane and given either oscillating or
circular movement.

Welding techniques

➢ Forehand: for hardening ferrous metal system

➢ Backhand: for thick plates
➢backhand welding allows a better penetration as well as
form a bigger weld bead so good for thicker materials.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Forehand welding: torch is
moved in the direction of
the tip which preheats the
parent material before
melting .

Backhand welding: torch

points opposite to direction of
welding so outer flame is
directed on the already welded
joint which helps (PWHT)
relieving the welding stresses.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Preheating of filler and its melting
➢ Filler rod is held at a distance of 10 mm from the flame
and 1.5 to 3.0 mm from the puddle when dipped into the
puddle, it readily gets melted.
➢ Preheating of the welding rod should be maintained by
keeping it at a proper distance from the flame.
➢Too far distance makes the rod cooler and would chill
the puddle when dipped.
➢Too little distance makes the tip melt with the result that
the molten material would be blown away by the flame
causing uneven bead and poor penetration.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Suggested Butt
Joint Edge
Preparations for

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE


➢ Arc welding uses of the heat of the electric arc for fusion of
plates for welding.
➢ Physic of arc: a) starting arc and stabilizing the same
➢Connect power supply to anode and cathode
➢Close the circuit by touching electrode together
➢Short circuiting: thermo ionic emission followed by
electro magnetic field emission on separation
➢Increased conductivity of gap facilitates to establishing
the arc
➢Ionization of gases is arc gap due to electron collision
➢Thus continuous flow of electron i.e. arc
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
Physics of arc
• Cope with heat and electron losses
• Collisions of electrons with anode
results in large amount of heat
generation (6000 °C).
• In case of DC, about 2/3rd of the
total arc heat is liberated at the
• Balance 1/3rd heat is generated at
• In case of AC, polarity reverse in
each which results equal distribution
of heat both sides.
Electrode, Arc and Arc-Shielding in SMAW process
Effect of arc gap
• Increase in gap increases the resistance for flow
of current and so potential difference.

• Excessive gap can extinguish the arc due

increased loss of electrons from arc surfaces and
heat by convection
Welding Power source

(A) Alternating Current (AC) Machines

(i) Transformer, OR
(ii) Motor OR Engine Driven Alternator
(B) Direct Current (DC) Machines
(i) Transformer with DC Rectifier, OR
(ii) Motor OR Engine Driven Generator.
➢ In DC Welding Machine use Stepped Down Transformer
to the Required Voltage then Silicon Controlled
Rectifiers to Convert AC to DC.
➢ DC Generator power/engine driven system

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

• DC allows better control over Polarity
heat input using either straight
(DCEN) or reverse polarity
• DCEN is used for thicker plates
of higher thermal conductivity
• DCEP for thinner sections and
shallow penetration
• DC is preferred for odd
(vertical, overhead) position
AC Arc Welding Set Up

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.6.4] Electrodes
➢ Electrodes Used For Providing Heat Input in Arc Welding are of Two
Types: Consumable and Non-consumable.
➢ When Consumable Electrodes are Used, the Welding Process is Called
Metal Arc Welding
➢ Weld Metal Under the Arc Melts as also the Tip of the Electrode. The
Molten Material from the Electrode and that Obtained from the Parent
Material Gets Intimately Mixed Under the Arc and Provides the
Necessary Joint After Solidification.
➢ Once the Arc is Initiated, Electrode is Continuously Consumed
therefore Electrode should be Moved Continuously Towards the
Workpiece to Maintain the Constant Arc Length.
➢ Electrode Acts as a Filler Rod and Provides Filler Material to the Joint.
➢ Wide Ranges of Electrodes and Welding Machines are Available for
Different Heat Input as well as the Material Deposition Required.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ Type of Material of Consumable Electrodes Depends on the
Purpose and Chemical Composition of the Material to be Welded.
➢ Consumable Electrodes may be Made of Steel, Cast Iron, Copper,
Brass, Bronze, or Aluminium.
➢ A Consumable Electrode, Used in Welding, can be Either Bare Or
➢ Coated Electrode also called Stick Electrode, is Used for the
Manual Arc Welding Process.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Function of electrode coatings
– To introduce alloying elements in
weld to Sp. properties.
– Control the slag viscosity for
vertical/overhead welds to avoid
falling down of molten metal and
better control over puddle. ➢ Common stick
– Coating extending beyond the Electrodes are
Available in
electrode core wire concentrates diameters of 1.6,
the arc and directs the filler 2.0, 3.2, 4, 5, 6, 8
material at desired position and 9 mm and the
length is 350 Or
– Act as insulator to avoid short 450 mm.
circuiting in narrow gap welding ➢ Baking of
– Increase DR by adding iron powders electrode done to
remove Moisture
from the Coating
as they are mostly
➢ These Are Made of Carbon, Graphite Or Tungsten.
❖ Carbon and Graphite Electrodes are Used Only in DC Welding,
❖ Tungsten Electrodes are Used for Both AC and DC Welding.
➢ Filler Material Required has to be Deposited Through a Separate
Filler Rod. Therefore, in this Welding Method it is Possible to
Properly Control the Heat Input as Well as the Amount of Filler
Material Deposited, Since both are Separately Controlled.
➢ When Non-Consumable Electrodes are Used, the Welding Process is
Termed by the Electrode Material Used, for example, Carbon Arc
Welding Or Tungsten Arc Welding.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Main Factors to be Considered in Proper Selection of Electrodes
➢ Composition of the Base Metal (Determining The Electrode

➢ Tensile Strength of the Required Joint.

➢ Thickness of the Base Metal. For Thinner Metals the Current

Setting should be Lower.

➢ Required Metal Deposition Rate.

➢ Type of Arc Welding Equipment Used: DC Arc Welding

Equipment Would Be Preferable For Overhead Welding.

➢ Weld Position: Flat, Horizontal, Vertical Or Overhead. A Flat

Position Can Accommodate A Larger Size Electrode. Also To
Increase Metal Deposition Rate Coatings With Iron Powder Can Be
Used (Necessary In Case Of Vertical And Overhead Positions)

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) Or Shielded Metal
Arc Welding (SMAW) Process

Electrode, Arc and

Arc-Shielding during
SMAW process

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) Or Shielded Metal Arc
Welding (SMAW) is the Most Extensively Used Manual Welding
Process Which is done with Stick (Coated) Electrodes.
➢ It is Highly Versatile and can be Used Extensively, For Both Simple
and Sophisticated Jobs. The Equipment is Least Expensive
Compared to that Being Used in another Arc Welding Processes.
➢ Welds by this Process can be Made in any Position. Job of any
Thickness can be Welded by Shielded Metal Arc Welding. But Very
Small Thickness (Less than 3 mm) May Give Rise to Difficulty in
Welding Because of their Lack of Rigidity. Similarly Very Large
Thicknesses Above 20 mm may Take a Long Time for Filling Up the
Joint Groove.
➢ Shielded Metal Arc Welding can be done with Either AC Or DC
Power Source. Typical Value of the Current Used may Vary from 50 to
500 A with Voltages from 20 to 40 V.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ Main Disadvantage of the Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process is the
Slow Speed. Critical Metal Deposition Rates may be in the Range
of 1 to 8 Kg/hr in the Flat Position (Less in Vertical and Overhead

➢ A Lot of Electrode Material is Wasted in the Form of Unused End,

Slag and Gas. There are More Chances of Slag Inclusions in the
Bead. Also Special Precautions are Needed to Reduce Moisture Pick-

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) or Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA or
MMAW), flux shielded arc welding or informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding
process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric
current, in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power
supply, is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined.
As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that
serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld
area from atmospheric contamination.

Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its equipment and
operation, shielded metal arc welding is one of the world's most popular welding
processes. It dominates other welding processes in the maintenance and repair industry,
and though flux-cored arc welding is growing in popularity, SMAW continues to be used
extensively in the construction of steel structures and in industrial fabrication. The
process is used primarily to weld iron and steels (including stainless steel) but
aluminium, nickel and copper alloys can also be welded with this method
Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG)
welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten
electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric
contamination by an inert shielding gas (argon or helium), and a filler metal is
normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require
it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is
conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal
vapors known as a plasma.

GTAW is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-
ferrous metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process
grants the operator greater control over the weld than competing processes
such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding, allowing for
stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW is comparatively more complex
and difficult to master, and furthermore, it is significantly slower than most other
welding techniques. A related process, plasma arc welding, uses a slightly
different welding torch to create a more focused welding arc and as a result is
often automated.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes

metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a
welding process in which an electric arc forms between a consumable
wire electrode and the workpiece metal(s), which heats the workpiece
metal(s), causing them to melt, and join. Along with the wire electrode, a
shielding gas feeds through the welding gun, which shields the process
from contaminants in the air. The process can be semi-automatic or
automatic. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most
commonly used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as
alternating current, can be used. There are four primary methods of metal
transfer in GMAW, called globular, short-circuiting, spray, and pulsed-
spray, each of which has distinct properties and corresponding
advantages and limitations.
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) - CO2 welding

Originally developed for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous materials in

the 1940s, GMAW was soon applied to steels because it provided faster
welding time compared to other welding processes. The cost of inert gas
limited its use in steels until several years later, when the use of semi-inert
gases such as carbon dioxide became common. Further developments
during the 1950s and 1960s gave the process more versatility and as a result,
it became a highly used industrial process. Today, GMAW is the most
common industrial welding process, preferred for its versatility, speed and
the relative ease of adapting the process to robotic automation. Unlike
welding processes that do not employ a shielding gas, such as shielded
metal arc welding, it is rarely used outdoors or in other areas of air volatility.
A related process, flux cored arc welding, often does not use a shielding gas,
but instead employs an electrode wire that is hollow and filled with flux.
GMAW Circuit diagram. (1) Welding
GMAW torch nozzle torch, (2) Workpiece, (3) Power source,
cutaway image. (1) Torch (4) Wire feed unit, (5) Electrode source,
handle, (2) Molded (6) Shielding gas supply.
phenolic dielectric (shown
in white) and threaded
metal nut insert (yellow),
(3) Shielding gas diffuser,
(4) Contact tip, (5) Nozzle
output face

GMAW weld area. (1) Direction of travel, (2) Contact

tube, (3) Electrode, (4) Shielding gas, (5) Molten weld
metal, (6) Solidified weld metal, (7) Workpiece.
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process. The first patent on
the submerged-arc welding (SAW) process was taken out in 1935 and covered an
electric arc beneath a bed of granulated flux. Originally developed and patented by
Jones, Kennedy and Rothermund, the process requires a continuously fed
consumable solid or tubular (metal cored) electrode. The molten weld and the arc
zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being "submerged" under a
blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica, manganese oxide, calcium
fluoride, and other compounds. When molten, the flux becomes conductive, and
provides a current path between the electrode and the work. This thick layer of flux
completely covers the molten metal thus preventing spatter and sparks as well as
suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and fumes that are a part of the
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process.

SAW is normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode, however, semi-

automatic (hand-held) SAW guns with pressurized or gravity flux feed delivery are
available. The process is normally limited to the flat or horizontal-fillet welding
positions (although horizontal groove position welds have been done with a special
arrangement to support the flux). Deposition rates approaching 45 kg/h (100 lb/h)
have been reported — this compares to ~5 kg/h (10 lb/h) (max) for shielded metal arc
welding. Although currents ranging from 300 to 2000 A are commonly utilized,[2]
currents of up to 5000 A have also been used (multiple arcs).
Submerged Arc Welding ( SAW)

▪ Welding arc is shielded by a granular flux consisting of

lime, silica, manganese oxide, calcium fluoride
▪ Flux: insulates weld area, allows deep thermal penetration
▪ Prevents spatter and spark over molten metal
▪ Shielded glass etc. is not required
▪ 300–2000 Amp (max 5000 Amp for multi arc)
▪ Speed 5 m/min
Submerged Arc Welding ( SAW)

• Thick plate welding – 4 to 10 times more weld material than SMAW.

– SAW Deposition rate 45 kg/h
– SMAW Deposition rate 5 kg/h
• Generally automatic or mechanized
• Pressurized or gravity flux feed.
• DC or AC power
• SAW filler material
– Standard wire (1.6 - 6 mm)
– Twisted wire (oscillating movement)

➢ High deposition rates

➢ No arc flash or glare
➢ Minimal smoke and fumes
➢ Flux and wire added separately - extra dimension
➢ of control
➢ Easily automated
➢ Joints can be prepared with narrow grooves
➢ Can be used to weld carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels,
chromium-molybdenum steels, nickel base alloys
Electroslag welding (ESW)
Electroslag welding (ESW) is a highly productive, single pass welding
process for thick (greater than 25 mm up to about 300 mm) materials in a
vertical or close to vertical position. (ESW) is similar to electrogas
welding, but the main difference is the arc starts in a different location. An
electric arc is initially struck by wire that is fed into the desired weld
location and then flux is added. Additional flux is added until the molten
slag, reaching the tip of the electrode, extinguishes the arc. The wire is
then continually fed through a consumable guide tube (can oscillate if
desired) into the surfaces of the metal workpieces and the filler metal are
then melted using the electrical resistance of the molten slag to cause
coalescence. The wire and tube then move up along the workpiece while a
copper retaining shoe that was put into place before starting (can be
water-cooled if desired) is used to keep the weld between the plates that
are being welded. Electroslag welding is used mainly to join low carbon
steel plates and/or sections that are very thick. It can also be used on
structural steel if certain precautions are observed. This process uses a
direct current (DC) voltage usually ranging from about 600A and 40-50V,
higher currents are needed for thicker materials. Because the arc is
extinguished, this is not an arc process.
Electroslag welding (ESW)
Electroslag Welding(ESW)
• Arc is created
• Flux is added and melted by arc
• Electrode submerges in molten slag and arc is
• 600 A at 40-50 V
• 50 mm – 900 mm
• Travel speed 12 – 36 mm/min
• Used for heavy structural steel, Pressure vessels
➢ To Start the Arc, First the Welder has to Make a Contact Between
the Electrode and the Workpiece so that Current Flow is
Established. Then the Electrode should be Moved Away From The
Workpiece by a Very Small Amount so that the Arc is Established.
To Accomplish this Generally Two Different Methods are Employed,
which are Shown in the Following Figure

➢ After Establishing the Correct Arc Length, the Welder should Move
the Electrode Along the Length of the Joint Maintaining the
Arc. Intense Heat Generated Under the Arc Starts Melting the Metal,
with the Metal at the Centre of the Arc being at the Highest
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
Details Edge Preparation of Butt Joint for Manual Metal Arc Welding
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
[4.6.7] ARC BLOW
➢ Predominant Problem Faced with the DC Arc Welding is the Arc
Blow, Deflection of the Arc by the Magnetic Fields Setup due
to the Flow of the Welding Current.
➢ Magnetic Flux Lines Move with the Electrode, when the Weld
Comes to the Edge of the Plate, or Taking a Turn, the Flux Lines
Move Out of the Base Material which is Not Possible. This Causes
High Magnetic Pull on the Arc which Results in a Backward Arc
➢ Result of an Arc Blow is an Excessive Spatter (Throwing Out the
Tiny Droplets of Weld Metal Out of the Joint on to the Base Material
which Appear as Tiny Dots on the Base Material) and Incomplete
Fusion and Reduced Welding Speed.
➢ When a Large Slag is Produced, the Arc Blow Melts the Slag
Causing Still More Excessive Spatter.
➢ Problem of Arc Blow Gets Multiplied when Welding the Strongly
Magnetic Materials such as Nickel Alloys because of the Strong
Magnetic Fields Set Up by These Metals.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Arc Blow in DC Arc Welding
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
Some Methods Used to Reduce the Severity of Arc Blow Problem:
1. Change to AC Welding, because of the Continuous Change in the
Polarity, the Effect of Magnetic Field is Nullified,
2. Reduce the Current Used so that the Strength of the Magnetic
Field is Reduced,
3. Use a Short Arc Length so that the Filler Material would not be
Deflected but Carried Easily to the Arc Crater,
4. Put Steel Blocks Near the End of the Plate in Contact with the Base
Material so that the Magnetic Flux Lines would Flow through them
and Reduce the Arc Blow

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Electrode designation
• Electrode are designated using a set of 6 characters which
combines alphabets and numbers
– First is alphabet E/R indicates method of manufacturing (E:
extruded and R: reinforced)
– Second is number (1-9) indicates type of coating on
– Third is number (1-9) indicates welding position on
– Forth is number (1-9) indicates welding current on
– Fifth is a set of three numbers indicating ultimate strength
of weld
– Sixth is a alphabet indicating type of electrode
[4.6.6] Electrode Designation


MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Details Edge
of Butt Joint
for SMAW

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Controlling arc blow
– Use AC Welding alternate polarity change nullifies the the
effect of magnetic field
– Use a Short Arc Length to reduce extent of deflection
Avoid localization of strong magnetic field
Reduce the Current so effect of magnetic field is reduced but
not advisable for given conditions
– Use proper ground connections to avoid the localization
of electro-magnetic field by change the direction of flow
of current
– Put steel blocks near the end of the plate being welded so
that the magnetic flux lines can flow through them and reduce
the localization of field
MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE
Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
Electron beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which
a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to two materials to be joined.
The workpieces melt and flow together as the kinetic energy of the
electrons is transformed into heat upon impact. EBW is often performed in
conditions of vacuum in order to prevent dissipation of the electron beam.
It was developed by German physicist Karl-Heinz Steigerwald, who was at
the time working on various electron beam applications; Steigerwald
conceived and developed the first practical electron beam welding
machine, which began operation in 1958.
Desktop micro EBW
Physics of electron beam heating
Electrons are elementary particles possessing a mass m = 9.1E10−31 kg and
negative electrical charge e = 1.6E10−19 C. They exist either bound to an atomic
nucleus, as conduction electrons in the atomic lattice of metals, or free electrons in
Free electrons in vacuum can be accelerated and their orbits controlled by electric
and magnetic fields. In this way we can form narrow beams of electrons carrying
high kinetic energy, which upon collision with atoms in solids transform their kinetic
energy into heat. Electron beam welding provides excellent welding conditions
because it involves:
▪ Strong electric fields, which can accelerate electrons to a very high speed.
Thus, the electron beam can carry high power, equal to the product of beam
current and accelerating voltage. By increasing the beam current and the
accelerating voltage, the beam power can be increased to any practically
desirable value.
▪ Using magnetic lenses, by which the beam can be shaped into a narrow cone
and focused to a very small diameter. This allows for a very high surface power
density on the surface to be welded. Values of power density in crossover
(focus) of the beam can be as high as 104 – 106 W/mm2.
▪ Shallow penetration depths in the order of hundredths of a millimeter. This
allows for a very high volumetric power density, which can reach values of
the order 105 – 107 W/mm3. Consequently, the temperature in this volume
increases extremely rapidly, 108 – 1010 K/s.

The effect of the electron beam is dependent upon many conditions. The
most important factors in determining the effectiveness of EBW are:
➢ Physical properties of the material to be welded, especially the ease with
which the material is melted or turned to gas in low-pressure conditions.
➢ Electron beam welding can be so intense that loss of material due to
evaporation or boiling during the process must be taken into account when
welding. At lower values of surface power density (in the range of about 103
W/mm2) the loss of material by evaporation is negligible for most metals,
which is favorable for welding.
➢ In the upper region of the power density the material affected by the
beam may be evaporated totally in a very short time; while unsuitable for
welding, this is occasionally used in machining to remove material.
Beam formation
Cathode - the source of free electrons

Fig. Tungsten cathodes: strap - wire

Conduction electrons (that are not bound to the nucleus of atoms) move in
crystal lattice of metals with velocities distributed according to Gauss law,
depending on temperature. They can not leave the metal unless their
kinetic energy (in eV) is higher than the potential barrier at the metal
surface. Number of electrons fulfilling this condition increases with
increasing temperature of the metal exponentially, according to
Richardson's rule.
As a source of electrons for electron beam welders, the material must fulfill
more requirements:
▪ to achieve high power density in the beam, the emission current density
[A/mm2], hence the working temperature, should be as high as possible,
▪ to keep evaporation in vacuum low, the material must have low enough
vapour pressure at working temperature.
The emitter must be mechanically stable, chemically not sensitive to gases
present in vacuum atmosphere (like oxygen and water vapour), easily
available, etc.
These and some other conditions limit the choice of material for the emitter to
metals with high melting points, - practically only two of them, tantalum and
tungsten. With tungsten cathodes, emission current densities about 100
mA/mm2 can be achieved, but only a small portion of emitted electrons
takes part in beam formation, depending on the electric field produced by
anode and control electrode voltages. The type of cathode most frequently
used in electron beam welders is made of tungsten strip, about 0.05 mm
thick, shaped as shown in Fig. 1a. The appropriate width of the strip
depends on the highest required value of emission current. For the lower
range of beam power, up to about 2 kW, the width w=0.5 mm is
Acceleration of electrons, current control

The potential differences

that are used are of the The current levels are
order of 30 kV to 175 kV. low ranging between 50
The higher the potential mA to 1000 mA
difference, higher would
be the acceleration.

Fig. Beam Generator

Electrons emitted from the cathode possess very low energy of only a few eV. To give
them the required high speed, they are to be accelerated by strong electric field
applied between the emitter and another, positively charged, electrode, - the
anode. The accelerating field must also navigate the electrons to form a narrow
converging “bundle” around the axis. This can be achieved by an electric field in
the proximity of the emitting cathode surface, which has, in addition to an axial
component also a radial one, forcing the electrons in the direction to the axis. Due
to this effect, the electron beam converges to some minimum diameter in a plane
close to the anode.

Depending on the accelerating voltage, the electrons

would travel at the speed of 50, 000 to 2, 00, 000 km/s
For practical applications the power of the electron beam must, of course, be
controllable. This can be accomplished by another electric field produced
by another, with respect to the cathode negatively charged
At least this part of electron gun must be evacuated to "high" vacuum, to
prevent "burning" the cathode and emergence of electrical discharges.

Magnetic lens
Beam deflection system

Correction & deflection co

As mentioned above, the beam spot should be very precisely positioned to the
joint to be welded. This is commonly accomplished mechanically, by
moving the workpiece with respect to the electron gun, but sometimes it is
preferable to do this by deflecting the beam. Most often a system of 4 coils
positioned symmetrically around the gun axis behind the focusing lens,
producing magnetic field perpendicular to the gun axis, are used for this
There are more practical reasons why the most appropriate deflection system
is such that is used in TV CRT or PC monitors. It applies to both the
deflecting coils, as well as to the necessary electronics. Such a system
enables not only “static” deflection of the beam for positioning purposes
mentioned above, but also precise and fast dynamic control of the beam
spot position by a computer. This enables e.g.:
▪ welding joints of complicated geometry,
▪ image enlarged pictures of objects in the working chamber on TV or PC
Both possibilities do find many useful applications in EB welding practice.
Applications of electron beam for welding
To explain the capability of the electron beam to produce deep and narrow
welds, we have to explain the process of "penetration". First of all let us
consider the process for a "single" electron.
When electrons of the beam impact the surface of a solid, some of them may
be reflected (as "backscattered" electrons), and others penetrate under the
surface, where they collide with the particles of the solid. In non-elastic
collisions they lose their kinetic energy. It has been proved, both
theoretically and experimentally, that they can "travel" only a very small
distance under the surface before they transfer all their kinetic energy into
heat. This distance is proportional to their initial energy and inversely
proportional to the density of the solid. Under conditions usual in
welding practice the "travel distance" is on the order of hundredths of a
millimeter. Just this fact enables, under certain conditions, the fast
penetration of the beam.
Penetration of the electron beam: The contribution of single electrons to heat
is very small, but they can be accelerated by very high voltage, and by
increasing their number (the beam current), the power of the beam can be
increased to any desired value.
By focusing the beam to a small diameter on the surface of a solid object,
values of planar power density as high as 104 up to 107 W/mm2 can be
reached. Due to the fact that electrons transfer their energy into heat in very
thin layer of the solid, as explained above, the power density in this volume
can be extremely high. The volume density of power in the small volume in
which the kinetic energy of electrons is transformed into heat, can reach
values of the order 105 – 107 W/mm3. Consecutively, the temperature in this
volume increases extremely rapidly, by 108 – 109 K/s.
Resulting effect of electron beam under such circumstances depends on
conditions; -first of all on physical properties of the material. Any material in
very short time can be melted, or even evaporated. Depending on
conditions, the intensity of evaporation may vary, - from negligible to
essential. At lower values of surface power density (in the range of about
103 W/mm2) the loss of material by evaporation for most metals is
negligible, which is favorable for welding. In the upper region of the power
density the material may be evaporated totally in a very short time, which
can be applied for machining.
Results of the electron beam application

Fig. Various forms of melted zone

The results of the beam application depend on several factors: Many

experiments and innumerable practical applications of electron beam in
welding technology prove that the resulting effect of the beam, i.e. the size
and shape of the zone influenced by the beam depends on:
(1) power of the beam,
(2) power density (focusing of the beam) but also on:
(3) welding speed,
(4) material properties, and in some cases also on
(5) geometry (shape and dimensions) of the joint.
(ad 1) – The power of the beam [W] is the product of the accelerating voltage
[kV] and beam current [mA], parameters easily measurable and precisely
controllable. The power is controlled by the beam current at constant
accelerating voltage, usually the highest accessible.
(ad 2) – The power density in the spot of incidence of the beam with the
“workpiece” depends on more factors, like the size of electron source on
the cathode, “optical quality” of the accelerating electric lens and the
focusing magnetic lens, alignment of the beam, on the value of the
accelerating voltage, and on the focal length. All these factors are
dependent (except the focal length) on the design of the machine.
(ad 3) – The construction of the welding equipment should enable to adjust the
speed of relative motion of the workpiece with respect to the beam in wide
enough limits, e.g. between 2 and 50 mm/s.
The final effect of the beam depends on combination of these
a) Action of the beam at low power density or in a very short time will
result in melting only a thin surface layer.
b) A defocused beam will not penetrate and the material at low
welding speed will be heated only by conduction of the heat from
the surface, producing a hemispherical melted zone.
c) At higher power density and lower speed a deeper and slightly
conical melted zone will be produced. In case of very high power
density the beam (well focused) penetrates deeper, proportionally
to its total power.
For welding thin walled parts, generally, some appropriate welding
aids are needed. Their construction must provide the perfect
contact of the parts and prevent their deformation during welding.
Usually they have to be designed individually for the given
Several advantages of EBW:
• The penetration of the beam is high. The depth to
width ratios between 10:1 to 30:1 can be easily
realized with EBW.
• Possibility of closely control penetration by
controlling the accelerating voltage, beam current
and beam focus.
• The process can be used at higher welding speeds
typically 125 and 200 mm/s.
• No filler metal nor flux need to be used in this
• The heat liberated is low and also is in a narrow
zone, thus the heat affected zone is minimal as well
as weld distortions are virtually eliminated.
• It is possible to carry the EBW machine in open
atmosphere, in partial vacuum (0.13 to 123 kPa)
or in a hard vacuum (0.13 to 133 mPa).
• Using in vacuum is more suitable because
scattering effect of the electron beam decreases,
and hence, penetration increases, otherwise
electron beam moves in normal atmosphere,
would be impinging with the gas molecule and
scattered, which increse the spot size of the
electron beam and lower penetration.
• Weld metal is not contaminated.

Welded membranes
• Not all materials could be welded by electron beam in vacuum. This
technology can not be applied to materials with high vapour
pressure at the melting temperature, like zinc, cadmium,
magnesium and practically all non-metals.
• Another limitation of weldability may be the change of material
properties inflicted by the welding process, as e.g. the high speed
of cooling. As detailed discussion of this matter exceeds the scope
of this article, the reader is recommended to look for more
information to other literature.
Joining dissimilar materials

Joining two metal components by welding, i.e. by melting part of both in the
vicinity of the joint, in case of two materials with very different properties is often
not applicable because of unsuitable properties of their alloy, due to creation of
brittle inter-metallic compounds. This fact cannot be changed even by electron
beam heating in vacuum, but nevertheless it makes possible to realize joints
meeting high demands on mechanical compactness that are perfectly vacuum-
tight. The principal rule of the method is not to melt both parts, but only that one
with lower melting point, while the other remains in solid state. Advantage of the
electron beam is in the possibility to localize the heating to a proper point and to
control exactly the energy needed for the process. High vacuum atmosphere, no
doubt, substantially contributes positively to the success. General rule of the
construction of joints that should be made in the way mentioned above is that the
part with the lower melting point should be directly accessible for the beam.
Possible problems and limitations

• The material melted by the beam shrinks during cooling after solidification,
which may have unwanted consequences, like cracking, deformations and
changes of shape, depending on conditions.
• The butt weld of two plates will result in bending of the weldment due to
the fact that more material has been melted at the head than at the root of
the weld. This effect is of course not as substantial as by arc welding.
• Another potential danger is the emergence of cracks in the weld. If both
parts are rigid, the shrinkage of the weld produces high stress in the weld
which may lead to cracks if the material is brittle (even if only after
remelting by welding). Consequences of the weld contractions should
always be considered by the construction of the parts to be welded.
Electron beam welding equipment
Any electron beam equipment
1 - : electron gun, generating the
electron beam,
2 - : working chamber, mostly
evacuated to "low" or "high" vacuum,
3 - : work-piece manipulator
(positioning mechanism),
4 - : supply and control/monitoring

Electron gun
In the electron gun, the free electrons
are gained by thermo-emission from a
hot metal strap (or wire), which are then
accelerated and formed into a narrow
After passing the anode opening the electrons move with constant speed in
a slightly divergent cone. For the technological applications the divergent
beam has to be focused, which is realized by the magnetic field of a coil, the
"magnetic focusing lens.
For the proper function of the electron gun, it is necessary that the beam is
perfectly adjusted with respect to the optical axes of the accelerating
electrical lens and the magnetic focusing lens. This can be done by applying
magnetic field of some specific radial direction and strength, perpendicular to
the optical axis before the focusing lens. This is usually realized by a simple
correction system consisting of two pairs of coils. By adjusting the currents in
these coils any required correcting field can be produced.
After passing the focusing lens the beam can be applied for welding directly
or after being deflected by the deflection system. This consists of two pairs
of coils, each pair for one of the X and Y directions. These can be used for
"static" or "dynamic" deflection. The static deflection is useful for exact
positioning of the beam by welding. The dynamic deflection is realized by
supplying the deflection coils by currents which can be controlled by the
computer. This opens new possibilities of electron beam applications, like
e.g. surface hardening or annealing, exact beam positioning, etc.
The fast deflection system can also be applied (if provided with appropriate
electronics) for imaging and engraving. In this case the equipment is
operated similarly as a scanning electron microscope, with the resolution of
about 0.1 mm (limited by the beam diameter). In a similar mode the fine
computer controlled beam can "write" or "draw" a picture on the metal
surface by melting a thin surface layer.
• Working chamber
Since the publication of the first electron beam welding machines at the end of
1950s, the application of electron beam welding spread rapidly into industry and
research in all highly developed countries. Up to nowadays uncountable number of
various types of electron beam equipment have been designed and realized. In
most of them the welding takes place in the working vacuum chamber in high or
low vacuum environment.
The vacuum working chamber may have any desired volume from a few liters up
to hundreds of cubic meters. They can be provided with electron guns supplying
electron beam with any required power up to 100 kW, or even more if needed. In
micro-electron beam devices the components in the tenths of a millimeter
dimension range can be precisely welded. In welders disposing with high enough
power electron beams, welds up to 300 mm deep can be realized.
There are also welding machines in which the electron beam is brought out of
vacuum into the atmosphere. With such equipment very large objects can be
welded without huge working chambers.

• Work-piece manipulators
The electron beam welding can never be "hand-manipulated", even if not realized
in vacuum, as there is always strong X-radiation. The relative motion of the beam
and the work-piece is most often rotation or linear travel of the work-piece. In some
cases the welding is realized by the beam being moved by the computer controlled
deflection system. The work-piece manipulators are mostly designed individually to
meet specific requirements of the welding equipment.
• Power supply and control/monitoring electronics
Any electron beam equipment must be provided with appropriate
supply of power for the beam generator. The accelerating voltage
may be chosen between 30 and 200 kV. Usually it is about 60 or
150 kV, depending on various conditions. With rising voltage the
technical problems and the price of the equipment are rising
rapidly, hence, whenever it is possible the lower voltage about 60
kV is to be chosen. The maximum power of the H.V. supply
depends on the maximum depth of weld required.
The high voltage equipment must also supply the low voltage above 5
V for the cathode heating, and negative voltage up to about 1000 V
for the control electrode.
The electron gun also needs low voltage supplies for the correction
system, the focusing lens, and the deflection system. The last one
may be very complex when it should provide the computer
controlled imaging, engraving and similar applications of the beam.
Complex electronics may also be needed for the control of the work-
piece manipulator.
Laser Beam Welding (LBW)
Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding
technique used to join multiple pieces of metal
through the use of a laser. The beam provides
a concentrated heat source, allowing for
narrow, deep welds and high welding rates.
The process is frequently used in high volume
applications, such as in the automotive
Like electron beam welding (EBW), laser beam welding has high power density
(on the order of 1 MW/cm2) resulting in small heat-affected zones and high
heating and cooling rates. The spot size of the laser can vary between 0.2
mm and 13 mm, though only smaller sizes are used for welding. The depth of
penetration is proportional to the amount of power supplied, but is also
dependent on the location of the focal point: penetration is maximized when
the focal point is slightly below the surface of the workpiece.
A continuous or pulsed laser beam may be used depending upon the
application. Millisecond-long pulses are used to weld thin materials such as
razor blades while continuous laser systems are employed for deep welds.
LBW is a versatile process, capable of welding carbon steels, HSLA steels,
stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium. Due to high cooling rates, cracking is
a concern when welding high-carbon steels. The weld quality is high, similar
to that of electron beam welding. The speed of welding is proportional to the
amount of power supplied but also depends on the type and thickness of the
workpieces. The high power capability of gas lasers make them especially
suitable for high volume applications. LBW is particularly dominant in the
automotive industry.
Some of the advantages of LBW in comparison to EBW
are as follows:
• the laser beam can be transmitted through air rather
than requiring a vacuum,
• the process is easily automated with robotic machinery,
• x-rays are not generated, and
• LBW results in higher quality welds.
A derivative of LBW, laser-hybrid welding, combines the
laser of LBW with an arc welding method such as gas
metal arc welding. This combination allows for greater
positioning flexibility, since GMAW supplies molten metal
to fill the joint, and due to the use of a laser, increases
the welding speed over what is normally possible with
GMAW. Weld quality tends to be higher as well, since
the potential for undercutting is reduced
• The two types of lasers commonly used are solid-
state lasers and gas lasers (especially ruby lasers
and Nd:YAG lasers).
• The first type uses one of several solid media,
including synthetic ruby and chromium in aluminum
oxide, neodymium in glass (Nd:glass), and the
most common type, crystal composed of yttrium
aluminum garnet doped with neodymium (Nd:YAG).
• Gas lasers use mixtures of gases like helium,
nitrogen, and carbon dioxide (CO2 laser) as a
• Regardless of type, however, when the medium is
excited, it emits photons and forms the laser beam.
Solid state laser
Solid-state lasers operate at wavelengths on the order of 1
micrometer, much shorter than gas lasers, and as a result
require that operators wear special eyewear or use special
screens to prevent retina damage. Nd:YAG lasers can
operate in both pulsed and continuous mode, but the other
types are limited to pulsed mode. The original and still
popular solid-state design is a single crystal shaped as a
rod approximately 20 mm in diameter and 200 mm long,
and the ends are ground flat. This rod is surrounded by a
flash tube containing xenon or krypton. When flashed, a
pulse of light lasting about two milliseconds is emitted by
the laser. Disk shaped crystals are growing in popularity in
the industry, and flashlamps are giving way to diodes due
to their high efficiency. Typical power output for ruby lasers
is 10–20 W, while the Nd:YAG laser outputs between 0.04–
6,000 W. To deliver the laser beam to the weld area, fiber
optics are usually employed.
Gas laser
Gas lasers use high-voltage, low-current power sources
to supply the energy needed to excite the gas mixture
used as a lasing medium. These lasers can operate in
both continuous and pulsed mode, and the wavelength
of the laser beam is 10.6 μm. Fiber optic cable absorbs
and is destroyed by this wavelength, so a rigid lens and
mirror delivery system is used. Power outputs for gas
lasers can be much higher than solid-state lasers,
reaching 25 kW.
Fiber laser
In fiber lasers, the gain medium is the optical fiber itself.
They are capable of power up to 50 kW and are
increasingly being used for robotic industrial welding.
Laser beam delivery
Modern laser beam welding machines can be grouped
into two types. In the traditional type, the laser output is
moved to follow the seam. This is usually achieved with
a robot. In many modern applications, remote laser
beam welding is used. In this method, the laser beam is
moved along the seam with the help of a laser scanner,
so that the robotic arm does not need to follow the seam
any more. The advantages of remote laser welding are
the higher speed and the higher precision of the welding
Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique
whereby high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic
vibrations are locally applied to workpieces
being held together under pressure to create a
solid-state weld. It is commonly used for
plastics, and especially for joining dissimilar
materials. In ultrasonic welding, there are no
connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or
adhesives necessary to bind the materials
For joining complex injection molded thermoplastic parts, ultrasonic
welding equipment can be easily customized to fit the exact specifications
of the parts being welded. The parts are sandwiched between a fixed
shaped nest (anvil) and a sonotrode (horn) connected to a transducer,
and a ~20 kHz low-amplitude acoustic vibration is emitted. (Note:
Common frequencies used in ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics are 15
kHz, 20 kHz, 30 kHz, 35 kHz, 40 kHz and 70 kHz). When welding
plastics, the interface of the two parts is specially designed to
concentrate the melting process. One of the materials usually has a
spiked energy director which contacts the second plastic part. The
ultrasonic energy melts the point contact between the parts, creating a
joint. This process is a good automated alternative to glue, screws or
snap-fit designs. It is typically used with small parts (e.g. cell phones,
consumer electronics, disposable medical tools, toys, etc.) but it can be
used on parts as large as a small automotive instrument cluster.
Ultrasonics can also be used to weld metals, but are typically limited to
small welds of thin, malleable metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, nickel.
Ultrasonics would not be used in welding the chassis of an automobile or
in welding pieces of a bicycle together, due to the power levels required.
Ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics causes local melting of the plastic
due to absorption of vibration energy. The vibrations are introduced
across the joint to be welded. In metals, Ultrasonic welding occurs due to
high-pressure dispersion of surface oxides and local motion of the
materials. Although there is heating, it is not enough to melt the base
materials. Vibrations are introduced along the joint being welded.

Practical application of ultrasonic welding for rigid plastics was

completed in the 1960s. At this point only hard plastics could be welded.
The patent for the ultrasonic method for welding rigid thermoplastic parts
was awarded to Robert Soloff and Seymour Linsley in 1965.[2] Soloff,
the founder of Sonics & Materials Inc., was a lab manager at Branson
Instruments where thin plastic films were welded into bags and tubes
using ultrasonic probes. He unintentionally moved the probe close to a
plastic tape dispenser and the halves of the dispenser welded together.
He realized that the probe did not need to be manually moved around
the part but that the ultrasonic energy could travel through and around
rigid plastics and weld an entire joint. He went on to develop the first
ultrasonic press. The first application of this new technology was in the
toy industry.
The first car made entirely out of plastic was assembled using ultrasonic
welding in 1969. Even though plastic cars did not catch on, ultrasonic
welding did. The automotive industry has used it regularly since the
1980s. It is now used for a multitude of applications.
Ultrasonic welding can be used for both hard and soft plastics, such as
semicrystalline plastics, and metals. Ultrasonic welding machines also
have much more power now. The understanding of ultrasonic welding
has increased with research and testing. The invention of more
sophisticated and inexpensive equipment and increased demand for
plastic and electronic components has led to a growing knowledge of
the fundamental process. However, many aspects of ultrasonic welding
still require more study, such as relating weld quality to process
parameters. Ultrasonic welding continues to be a rapidly developing
Scientists from the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering
(WKK) of University of Kaiserslautern, with the support from the German
Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), have
succeeded in proving that using ultrasonic welding processes can lead
to highly durable bonds between light metals and Carbon-fiber-
reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets.
The benefits of ultrasonic welding are that it is
much faster than conventional adhesives or
solvents. The drying time is very quick, and the
pieces do not need to remain in a jig for long
periods of time waiting for the joint to dry or cure.
The welding can easily be automated, making
clean and precise joints; the site of the weld is very
clean and rarely requires any touch-up work. The
low thermal impact on the materials involved
enables a greater number of materials to be
welded together.
All ultrasonic welding systems are composed of the same basic elements:
• A press to put the two parts to be assembled under pressure
• A nest or anvil where the parts are placed and allowing the high
frequency vibration to be directed to the interfaces
• An ultrasonic stack composed of a converter or piezoelectric
transducer, an optional booster and a sonotrode (US: Horn). All three
elements of the stack are specifically tuned to resonate at the same
exact ultrasonic frequency (Typically 20, 30, 35 or 40 kHz)
• Converter: Converts the electrical signal into a mechanical vibration
• Booster: Modifies the amplitude of the vibration. It is also used in
standard systems to clamp the stack in the press.
• Sonotrode: Applies the mechanical vibration to the parts to be welded.
• An electronic ultrasonic generator (US: Power supply) delivering a high
power AC signal with frequency matching the resonance frequency of
the stack.
• A controller controlling the movement of the press and the delivery of
the ultrasonic energy.
• Computer and electrical industries - Electric motors,
field coils, transformers and capacitors may also be
assembled with ultrasonic welding.
• Aerospace and automotive industries - Ultrasonic
welding is generally utilized in the aerospace
industry when joining thin sheet gauge metals and
other lightweight materials. Aluminum is a difficult
metal to weld using traditional techniques because
of its high thermal conductivity. However, it is one of
the easier materials to weld using ultrasonic welding
because it is a softer metal and thus a solid-state
weld is simple to achieve.
• Medical industry - In the medical industry ultrasonic welding is
often used because it does not introduce contaminants or
degradation into the weld and the machines can be
specialized for use in clean rooms. The process can also be
highly automated, provides strict control over dimensional
tolerances and does not interfere with the biocompatibility of
parts. Therefore, it increases part quality and decreases
production costs. Items such as arterial filters, anesthesia
filters, blood filters, IV catheters, dialysis tubes, pipettes,
cardiometry reservoirs, blood/gas filters, face masks and IV
spike/filters can all be made using ultrasonic welding.
• Packaging industry - Ultrasonic welding is also applied in the
packaging of dangerous materials such as explosives,
fireworks and other reactive chemicals. These items tend to
require hermetic sealing but cannot be subjected to high
temperatures. One simple example of this application is the
container for a butane lighter. This container weld must be
able to withstand high pressure and stress and must be
airtight to contain the butane.
• Safety- Ultrasonic welding machines, like most industrial
equipment, pose the risk of some hazards. These include
exposure to high heat levels and voltages. This equipment
should always be operated using the safety guidelines
provided by the manufacturer in order to avoid injury. For
instance, operators must never place hands or arms near the
welding tip when the machine is activated. Also, operators
should be provided with hearing protection and safety
➢ Weld thermal cycle experienced by base metal causes
many undesirable microstructural changes apart from
➢ Common welding discontinuities that affect weld
quality are:
❖ Porosity
❖ Slag inclusions
❖ Incomplete fusion
❖ Incomplete penetration
❖ Poor weld bead profile
❖ Cracks

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.7.1] Porosity
➢ CAUSES: Porosity in Welds is Caused by
❖ By Trapped Gases that are Released during Melting of the Weld
Zone, but Trapped during Solidification
❖ By Reactions during Welding
❖ By Contaminants (Generally spherical in shape or in the form of
elongated pockets)
❖ By Presence of Hydrogen is an Important Factor which may be
due to the Use of Damp Fluxes or Environmental Humidity
➢ REMEDIES: Porosity in Welds can be Reduced by
❖ Proper Selection of Electrodes and Filler Material
❖ Improvement of Welding Techniques, such as by Preheating
the Weld Area or Increasing the Rate of Heat Input
❖ Proper Cleaning of the Weld Zone
❖ Prevention of Contaminants from Entering the Weld Zone
❖ Slowing the Welding Speed to Allow Time for Gas to Escape.
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[4.7.2] Slag Inclusions

❖ Slag Inclusions are Compounds such as Oxides, Fluxes, and Electrode
Coating Materials that are Trapped in the Weld Zone.

❖ If the Gases Used are Not Effective During Welding, Contamination

from the Environment may also Contribute to Slag Inclusions.


❖ Maintenance of Proper Welding Conditions and Proper Techniques

❖ Cleaning the Weld Bead Surface before the Next Layer is Deposited
by Using a Hand or Power Wire Brush

❖ Providing Adequate Shielding Gas

❖ Redesigning the Weld Joint to Permit Sufficient Space for Manipulation

of the Puddle of Molten Weld Material
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[4.7.3] Incomplete Fusion
❖ Improper Fusion of Weld within itself or
with the Base Material
❖ Production of Poor Weld Beads.
❖ Raising Temperature of Base Material
❖ Cleaning Weld Area Before Welding
❖ Changing the Weld Joint Design
❖ Changing Type of Electrode
❖ Providing Adequate Shielding Gas

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.7.4] Incomplete Penetration
➢ CAUSES: Insufficient Depth of the Welded Joint
➢ REMEDIES: Penetration can be Improved by:
❖ Increasing the Heat Input
❖ Decreasing Welding Speed
❖ Modifying Design of the Weld Joint
❖ Ensuring that the Surfaces to be Joined Fit Properly

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

[4.7.5] Weld Profile
➢ Weld Profile Affects Strength and Appearance of the Weld and can
Indicate Incomplete Fusion or Presence of Slag Inclusions in
Multiple-Layer Welds.
➢ Underfilling Results when the Joint is Not Filled with the Proper
Amount of Weld Material.
➢ Undercutting Results from Melting Away of the Base Material
and Subsequent Generation of a Groove in the Shape of a Sharp
Recess or Notch.
➢ Overlap is a Surface Discontinuity Generally Caused by Poor
Welding Practice and Selection of the Wrong Materials.

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Typical poor weld beads
Poor weld bead and causes
[4.7.6] Cracks
➢ Cracks Occur in Various
Locations and Directions in
the Weld Area.
➢ Typical Types of Cracks:
❖ Longitudinal
❖ Transverse
❖ Underbead
❖ Toe cracks
❖ Crater

➢ Cracks can Also be Classified

❖ Hot Cracks (Develop
when Joint is Still at
Elevated Temperatures)
❖ Cold Cracks (Develop
After the Weld Metal
has Solidified)

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

Types of Crater Cracks in Welded Joints.
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[4.7.6] Cracks (Contd..)
❖ Temperature Gradients that Cause Thermal Stresses in the
Weld Zone
❖ Variations in the Composition of the Weld Zone that Cause
Different Contractions
❖ Embrittlement of Grain Boundaries by Segregation of
Elements, such as Sulfur, to the Grain Boundaries.
❖ Hydrogen Embrittlement
❖ Inability of the Weld Metal to Contract during Cooling, a
Situation Similar to the Development of Hot Tears in
Castings, due to Excessive Restraint of the Workpiece
➢ REMEDIES: Some Crack Prevention Measures are:
❖ Modify the Design of the Weld Joint to Minimize Thermal
Stresses from Shrinkage during Cooling
❖ Change Welding Process Parameters, Procedures, and
❖ Preheat Components Before Welded
❖ Avoid Rapid Cooling of the Components after Welding
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• These can be classified on the basis of
their location and conditions under which
Weld Crack
these occur
• Conditions of their occurrence
– Hot cracks or solidification cracks (near
the end of solidification)
– Cold cracks or hydrogen induced cracks
(caused by H2 at room temperature)
– Liquation cracks (partial melting)
• Location based cracks are
– Longitudinal cracks
– Transverse cracks
– Under bead cracks
– Toe crack
– Crater crack
• Most of the cracks in weld joints occur due Causes of
to development tensile residual stresses
except cold cracks or hydrogen induced cracks
cracks conversely “no stress, no cracks”.
• Stresses arise mainly due to shrinkage of Hot crack
the weld and HAZ under restraint
conditions. (no restraint, no stress)
• While conditions based cracks are caused
by improper composition of the base metal
– High solidification temperature range of
alloy increases hot cracking e.g. S & P in
steel/cast iron encourage hot cracks
– Cold cracks occur in hardenable steel in
presence of hydrogen

Cold crack
Control of cracks
• Reduce tensile residual stresses
– Reduce volume of (shrinking) weld metal by modifying groove
design (e.g. from V to U groove)
– Balance the shrinkage stresses (use double V or U groove)
– Proper filler of low yield strength if acceptable
– Post weld stress relieving heat treatment
– Preheat of the base metal to avoid rapid cooling
• Control the composition and impurities of the weld metal
– Avoid hydrogen in weld
– Control the low melting point elements S, P, Pb within limits
– Add enough Mn to reduce effect of S (Mn/S>7)
[4.7.7] Surface Damage
❖ Spattering of Some of the Metal and its Deposition as Small
Droplets on Adjacent Surfaces during the Welding
❖ In Arc Welding, the Electrode may Inadvertently Contact the
Parts being Welded at Places Outside the Weld Zone (Arc
➢ These Surface Discontinuities may be Objectionable from the
Point of View of Appearance or Subsequent Use of the Welded
➢ Severe Surface Damage may Adversely Affect the Properties
of the Welded Structure, Particularly for Notch Sensitive Metals.
❖ Follow the Proper Welding Procedures

[4.7.8] Residual Stresses

❖ Localized Heating and Cooling During Welding
❖ Expansion and Contraction of the Weld Area
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Residual Stresses (RS)
➢ These are stresses present in weld even in absence of
external load and occurs due to:
❖ Non-uniform expansion and contraction caused by
weld thermal cycle i.e. localized heating and cooling of
base metal called thermal stresses
❖ Differential cooling rate at top and bottom of groove
called quench stress

➢Effect of RS on performance of weld:

❖ Distortion of weld joints
❖ Stress Corrosion Cracking (in corrosive environment)
❖ Reduced tensile and fatigue performance

MI-102: Manufacturing Techniques I. I. T. ROORKEE

➢ CONSEQUENCES: Residual Stresses can Cause the Following
Detrimental Effects:
❖ Distortion, Warping, and Buckling of the Welded Parts
❖ Stress Corrosion Cracking (Environmental Factors)
❖ Further Distortion if a Portion of the Welded Structure is
Subsequently Removed say by Machining or Sawing
❖ Reduced Fatigue Life

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