Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

BIOLOGY

BIOMENTORS CLASSES ONLINE (MUMBAI)


Concept Booster MCQ Sheet – 20
26/10/2019

1. The inducer for switching 'on' the lac operon in bacteria is

(a) presence of lactose (b) number of bacteria

(c) presence of structural genes in the bacteria

(d) presence of sucrose

2. In lac operon system lac gene i codes for

(a) inducer (b)repressor

(c) promoter (d) beta -galactosidase

3. Which of the following events would occur in 'Lac operon' of E. coli when the growth medium has high
concentration of lactose?

(a) The repressor protein attaches to the promoter sequence and derepresses the operator.

(b) The structural genes fail to produce polycistronic mRNA.

(c) The inducer molecule binds to repressor protein and RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence.

(d) The repressor protein binds to RNA polymerase and prevents translation.

4. In lac operon, the genes a, i, y and z code respectively for

(a) repress or protein, permease, beta -galactosidase, transacetylase

(b) transacetylase, permease, beta- galactosidase, repress or protein

(c) permease, transacetylase, repressor protein, beta--galactosidase

(d) transacetylase, repressor protein, permease, beta-galactosidase


5. The metabolic, physiological or environmental condition that regulates the A An example is that if
lactose is no longer available for bacteria then the synthesis of ..... B ..... enzyme will no longer be
required. .

(a) A- beta -galactosidase; B- expression of genes

(b) A- induction of genes; B - beta - galactosidase

(c) A-beta -galactosidase; B-repression of genes

(d) A- Expression of a gene, B- beta- galactosidase

6. An environmental agent, which triggers transcription from an operon, is a

(a) regulator (b) inducer


(c) depressor (d) controlling element

7. Genes which are responsible for the synthesis of a polypeptide chain are called

(a) structural gene (b) operator gene

(c) promoter gene (d) regulator gene

8. Polycistronic mRNA is characteristic of

(a) prokaryotes (b) eukaryotic plasmon

(c) both the above (d) bacteria and viruses

9. Structural genes in lac operon are

(a) z, y, a (b) x, y, Z
(c) y, z, x (d)y, c, a

10. In prokaryotes, control of the rate of.. ... A ..... is the predominant condition for the control of gene
expression. In a transcription unit, the activity of.. ... B ..... at a given promoter is in turn regulated by
interaction with ..... C ..... proteins, which affects its ability to recognize the start sites.

(a) A-RNA replication, B-DNA polymerase, C-accessory

(b) A-transcriptional initiation, B- RNA polymerase, C-accessory


(c) A-DNA replication, B-RNA polymerase, C-accessory
(d) A-translational initiation. B-RNA 'polymerase, C-accessory

11. According to the operon concept, the regulator gene regulates chemical reactions in the
cell by

(a) inactivating enzyme in the reaction

(b) inhibiting the substrate in the reaction

(c) inhibiting transcription of m- RNA

(d) inhibiting the migration of mRNA into the cytoplasm.

12. Functioning of structural genes is controlled by

(a) operator (b) promoter

(c) ligase (d) regulatory gene

13. In operon concept, regulator gene functions as

(a) repressor (b) regulator

(c) inhibitor (d) all of these

14. The interaction of proteins with sequence regulates helps in accessing the promoter
regions of prokaryotic DNA in many cases.

(a) regulator (b) promoter


(c) operator (d) structural genes

15. In the lac operon, the structural genes are switched off when

(a) repressor binds to operator (b) repressor binds to promoter

(c) repressor binds to regular (d) repressor binds to inducer

16. Enzymes synthesized in lac operon are

(a) lactase, galactose and hexokinase

(b) permease, galactose and lactase


(c) lactase, perinease and galactosidase
(d) permease, galactosidase and transacetylase

17. In the lactose operon of Escherichia coli, what is the function of promoter?

(a) Binding of Gyrase enzyme (b) Binding of RNA polymerase


(c) Codes for RNA polymerase (d) Processing of messenger RNA

18. Number of regulatory and structural genes present in lac operon are

(a) one and two (b) one and three


(c) one and one (d) three and one

19. The enzyme BETA -galactosidase of lac operon is coded by

(a) z gene (b) y gene

(c) a gene (d) b gene

20. The lac operon is an example of


(a) arabinose operon (b) inducible operon

(c) repressible operon (d) overlapping genes

21. Repressor proteins of lac operon bind to

(a) exons (b) introns

(c) operator (d) structural genes

22. In lac operon, a repressor comprises


(a) DNA (b) RNA
(c) protein (d) lactose
23. A Operator works in the presence of repressor. Identify the type of operator and
repressor.

(a) specific; specific (b) unspecific; specific


(c) specific; unspecific (d) unspecific; unspecific
24. Jacob and Monad studied lactose metabolism in E. coli and proposed operon concept. Operon concept
is applicable for

(a) all prokaryotes (b) all prokaryotes and some eukaryotes

(c) all prokaryotes and all eukaryotes (d) all prokaryotes and some protozoan's

25. In lac operon, is regulated by common promoter and regulatory genes.

(a) monocistronic structural gene (b) polycistronic structural gene


(c) tricistronic structural gene (d) bicistronic structural gene

26. Regulatory gene are also called

(a) i-gene (b) r-gene

(c) s-gene (d) o-gene

27. The trp Operon is turned off when its repressor protein binds with co repressor which is a molecule of

(a) metabolite (b) specific amino acid


(c) tryptophan (d) all the above.

28. In lac operon model, as proposed by Jacob and Monod, how many structural genes are
controlled by a single operator gene?

(a) One (b) Two


(c) Three (d) None.

29. Lactose is a substrate for


(a) galactosidase (b) alfa- galactosidase

(c) beta- galactosidase (d) gama- galactosidase

30. RNA polymerase was isolated from E. coli by

(a) Ochoa (b) Chamberlin and Berg


(c) Kornberg (d) all above.

31. Tryptophan operon is an example of operon.


(a) inducible (b) repressible

(c) both above (d) none above.

32. Lactose is transported into cells through

(a) beta -galactosidase (b) permease


(c) transacetylase (d) transferase

33. The messenger RNA formed in lac operon model from the structural gene is

(a) monocistronic (b) dicistronic

(c) polycistronic (d) all of the above.

34. First artificial gene synthesized by Khorana was

(a) nif (b) restriction endon ucIease


(c) RNA synthetase (d) yeast alanine tRNA synthetase

35. In lac operon model, all time or constitutively working gene is

(a) operator (b) promoter

(c) regulator (d) structural

36. In the lac-operon model, lactose molecules function as


(a) inducers which bind with the operator gene

(b) repressors which bind with the operator gene

(c) inducers which bind with the repressor protein

(d) co repressors which bind with repressor protein.

37. Why cannot glucose and galactose act as an inducer for lacoperon?

(a) Because they cannot bind with the repress or.

(b) Because they can bind with the repressor.


(c) Because they can bind with the operator.

(d) Because they can bind with the regulator.

38. Lac operon consists of


I. three structural genes II. intermitted sequence

III. regulator IV. promoter

V. RNA polymerase VI. operator

Vll. DNA polymerase .VIII. inducer

IX. repressor

(a) I,III, IV, V, VI, IX (b) I, II, III, IV, V, VI


(c) I, II, IV, V, VI, VII (d) IV V, VI, VII, VIII, IX

39. E. coli cells with a mutated z gene of the lac operon cannot grow in medium containing only lactose as
the source of energy because

(a) in the presence of glucose, E. coli cells do not utilize lactose


(b) they cannot transport lactose from the medium into the cell

(c) the lac operon is constitutively active in these cells

(d) they cannot synthesize functional beta galactosidase

40. In lac operon model, feedback repression is

(a) when the end product starts the process (b) when the end product doesn't form

(c) when the end product halt the process (d) when the start product stop the process

41. Operon is

(a) a set of closely linked genes, regulating a metabolic pathway in prokaryotes

(b) the sequence of three nitrogen bases determining a single amino acid
(c) the sequence of nitrogen bases in mRNA, which codes for a single amino acid

(d) a gene responsible for switching on or off other genes

42. E.coli cells with a mutated gene of the lac operon cannot grow in medium containing only lactose as the
source of energy because
(a) the lac operon is constitutively active in these cells

(b) they cannot synthesize functional beta galactosidase

(c) in the presence of glucose, .E. coli cells do not utilize lactose
(d) they cannot transport lactose from the medium into the cell.

43. Identify the statements pertaining to the regulatory genes (R), associated with the lac operon that are
incorrect.

I. mRNA is transcribed from the R gene whether lactose is present or not.

II. mRNA is transcribed from the R gene only when the lactose is present.

III. mRNA is transcribed from the R gene only when the lactose is not present.

IV. Lactose inhibits the translation of R gene mRNA.

(a) I and II (b) II and III

(c) III and IV (d) II, III and IV

44. Repressor binds to

(a) operator site (b) repressor site


(c) promoter site (d) lac operon
45. According to Jacob and Monod (lac operon) model of gene regulation, inducer substances in bacterial
cells probably

(a) combines with the operator regions, activating the associated operons.

(b) combines with the promoter regions, activating RNA polymerase


(c) combines with the repressor proteins, inactivating the activated lac operon

(d) combines with the structural genes, stimulating them to synthesize messenger RNA

ANSWERS

1. (a) Lactose is the substrate for the enzyme beta-galactosidase and it regulates switching on and off of the
operon. It is termed as inducer,
2. (b) In lac operon lac gene-i codes for inhibitor or repressor. The repressor binds to operator gene and
stops the working of latter. It exerts a negative control over the working of structural genes.
3. (c) Lactose (or allolactose) acts as inducer in Lac operon model. When lactose is present in high
concentration in growth medium, it bins. to repressor protein, which then fails to bind to operator gene.
This results in RNA polymerase binding to promoter region in gene and transcription of structural genes.

4. (d) The lac operon consists of one regulatory gene (the i gene) and three structural genes (z,y, and a).
The igene codes for the repress or ofthe lac operon. The z gene codes for beta-galactosidase (- gal), which
is primarily responsible for the hydrolysis of the disaccharide, lactose into its monomeric units, galactose
and glucose. The y gene codes for permease, which increases permeability of the cell to- galactosidase.
The a gene encodes a transacetylase. Hence, all the three gene products in lac operon are-
required for metabolism of lactose.
5. (d) A- Expression of a gene, beta- galactosidase
6. (b) The inducer is an environmental agent, which triggers transcription from an operon. The inducer or
effectors molecule is small_ sized which can bind to a regular protein.
7. (a) Structural genes are the genes which are responsible for the synthesis of polypeptide chain (genes
for the enzymes, a- galactosidase permease, transacetylase, which also carry out the breakdown oflactose
into glucose and galactose). Structural genes transcribe to gi ve m- RNA which contains codons for amino
acids.
8. (c) Polycistronic mRNA is one bearing information from more than one gene. It is found in lower
eukaryotes (fungi) and prokaryotes
9. (a) z, y, a
10. (b) A-Transcription initiation, B-RNA polymerase, C-Accessory.
11. (c) In operon concept, the operator gene combines with repressor protein produced by the regulator
gene to switch off structural gene transcription.
12. (a) Operator gene allows the functioning of the operon. Operator genes are a region of DNA sequence
capable of interacting with a specific repressor molecule and in doing so it affects the activity of other
genes downstream from it.
13. (a) Regulator gene produces a biochemical for suppressing the activity of the operator gene. Regulator
gene is a gene whose function is to control the transcriptional activity of other genes, either adjacent or
distant in the genome. In the case of the lac operon of Ecoli the regulator gene lac produces a protein
product that represses the operator gene of the operon. In bacteria the same regulator gene may affect
a series of non-adjacent operons.

14. (c) In the operon system, the promoter is generally situated beside the operator genes. In the
prokaryotes, the working of promoter region (binding of RNA polymerase) is coordinated by the operator
genes, e.g., if operator genes are occupied by the repressor proteins then RNA polymerase does not bind
with the promoter gene.
15. (a) A short sequence of DNA where the repressor binds preventing RNA polymerase from attaching to the
promoter, this is called on/off switch of transcription.
16. (d) The lac operon consists of a promoter gene, an operator gene and structural genes. There are three
structural genes designated as Z, y and a, which code for the enzymes 13 -galactosidase, lac permease
and transacetylase respectively. It is an example of inducible operon. Bacteria growing in a lactose
containing medium contain about five molecules of galactosidase per cell. The appearance of
galactosidase is coordinated with the production of permease and transacetylase. On removing lactose
from the medium
synthesis of enzyme stops.
17. (b)Promoter gene (P) is the actual site of start of transcription and it is the site where RNA polymerase
binds to the DNA prior to beginning of transcription.
18. (b) One and three.
19. (a) Z-gene is one ofthe structural gene in lac operon. Ifit is mutated, then there is no production of
galactosidase.
20. (b) The lac operon consists of a promoter gene, an operator gene and structural genes. There are three
structural genes designated as Z, y and a, which code for the enzymes 13 -galactosidase, lac permease
and transacetylase respectively. It is an example of inducible operon. Bacteria growing in a lactose
containing medium. Contain about five moleculesof galactosidase per cell. The appearance of
galactosidase is coordinated with the reduction of permease and transacetylase. On removing lactose
from the medium synthesis of enzyme stops. Such enzymes whose synthesis can be induced by adding
the substrate are known as inducible enzymes and the genetic systems responsible for the synthesis of
such an enzyme are known as inducible operons.

21. .(c) Regulatory genes or i-gene produces mRNA, which makes repressor proteins bind to operator. Due
to the binding of repressor to operator, RNA polymerase can't bind with the promoter. As a result, the
working of operon stops.
22. (c) Repressor is a regulator protein, which is synthesised all the time by the regulator gene.
23. (a) Specific; specific.
24. (b)Gene regulation of eukaryotes is complex as compared to that of prokaryotes. Operon model was
given by Jacob and Monod (1961) for regulation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes. In bacteria, the
genes that contain the information for assembling the
enzymes for a metabolic pathway are usually clustered together on the chromosome in a functional
complex called an operon. Regulation of protein synthesis in eukaryotes is explained by gene battery
model given by Britten and Davidson. The model assumes the
presence of four classes of sequences - producer gene which is comparable to structural gene of
prokaryotic operon, receptor site which is comparable to operator gene, integrator gene which is
comparable to regulator gene and sensor site which regulates the activity of integrator gene.
25. (b)
26. (a) Regulatory gene is-also called i-gene. In lac operon, it is called i-gene as it produces inhibitor or
repressor.
27. (d) all the above.
28. (c) Genes that are involved in turning on or off the transcription of a set of structural genes are called
operator genes
29. (c) beta- galactosidase
30. (b) Chamberlin and Berg
31. (b) The tryptophan operon (trp operon) in bacteria is a repressible operon. Here repressor is inactive and
it becomes active as DNA binding protein only when complexed with a eo-repress or (tryptophan). In
absence of tryptophan, the operator site is open to binding by RNA polymerase, which transcribes the
structural genes of tryptophan operon, leading to production of enzymes that synthesize
tryptophan.When tryptophan becomes available, the enzymes of tryptophan synthetic pathway are no
longer needed and tryptophan (co-repressorj-repressor complex blocks transcription.
32. (b) Lactose is transported to the cells by the enzyme permease. Permease enzyme is produced by the
structural gene Y.
33. (c) Lac operon contains three (z, y and a) structural genes which transcribe a polycistronicm RNA molecule
that helps in the synthesis of 3 different enzymes.When
several genes (cistrons) are transcribed into a single mRNA molecule, it is described as
polycistronic or polygenic.
34. (d) yeast alanine tRNA synthetase
35. (c) In lac operon, the regulatory gene or i-gene keeps on synthesising the inhibitor. It is the inducer
(lactose) which inhibits the inhibitor by binding on its specific sites.
36. (c) Lactose in lac operon acts as inducer which after coming in contact with the repressor, changes the
latter into non-DNA binding state so as to free the operator gene. Operator gene directly controls the
synthesis ofmRNAs over structural gene.
37. (a)An inducer binds with the repressor protein and prevents the repressor protein to bind with operator.
Glucose and galactose cannot act as an inducer because they don't have the binding sites for attaching
the repressor protein.

38. (a) Lac operon consists of


(i) Three structural genes (ii) Regulatory genes
(iii) Promoter genes (iv) Operator

39. (d) they cannot synthesize functional beta galactosidase


40. (c) The end product is often utilised in some other reactions so, it rarely accumulates. However, it
accumulates or becomes available from outside source and stops the
operon system called feed-back inhibition.

41. (a) Operon is a set of closely linked genes regulating a metabolic pathway in prokaryotes.
42. (b) they cannot synthesize functional beta galactosidase
43. (d) In lac operon model, regulatory gene is constitutively working. Its translation product
(repressor) is inactivated by the presence of an in ducer (lactose).

44. (a) The repress or binds to the operator gene and stops the working of operon.
45. (c) Inducer binds with the repressor and make it unsuitable to bind with the operator.