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# ESCUELA POLITECNICA NACIONAL

Transferencia de Calor I
2019-B
Nombre:

Grupo: Gr1

1. A square silicon chip (k = 150 W/m K) is of width w = 5 mm on a side and of thickness t = 1 mm. The chip is mounted in a substrate
such that its side and back surfaces are insulated, while the front surface is exposed to a coolant. If 4 W are being dissipated in circuits
mounted to the back surface of the chip, what is the steady-state temperature difference between back and front surfaces?

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2. The case of a power transistor, which is of length L = 10 mm and diameter D = 12 mm, is cooled by an air stream of temperature T∞ =
25°C. Under conditions for which the air maintains an average convection coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 K on the surface of the case,
what is the maximum allowable power dissipation if the surface temperature is not to exceed 85°C?

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3. Chips of width L = 15 mm on a side are mounted to a substrate that is installed in an enclosure whose walls and air are maintained at a
temperature of Tsur = T∞ = 25°C. The chips have an emissivity of ε = 0.60 and a maximum allowable temperature of Ts = 85°C.
a) If heat is rejected from the chips by radiation and natural convection, what is the maximum operating power of each chip? The
convection coefficient depends on the chip-to-air temperature difference and may be approximated as h = C(Ts – T∞)1/4, where C =
4.2 W/m2K5/4.
b) If a fan is used to maintain air flow through the enclosure and heat transfer is by forced convection, with h = 250 W/m2 K, what is
the maximum operating power?

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4. A hair dryer may be idealized as a circular duct through which a small fan draws ambient air and within which the air is heated as it
flows over a coiled electric resistance wire.
a) If a dryer is designed to operate with an electric power consumption of Pelec _ 500 W and to heat air from an ambient temperature
of Ti _ 20_C to a discharge temperature of To _ 45_C, at what volumetric flow rate should the fan operate? Heat loss from the casing
to the ambient air and the surroundings may be neglected. If the duct has a diameter of D _ 70 mm, what is the discharge velocity
Vo of the air? The density and specific heat of the air may be approximated as _ _ 1.10 kg/m3 and cp _ 1007 J/kg _ K, respectively.
b) Consider a dryer duct length of L _ 150 mm and a surface emissivity of _ _ 0.8. If the coefficient associated with heat transfer by
natural convection from the casing to the ambient air is h _ 4 W/m2 _ K and the temperature of the air and the surroundings is T_
_Tsur _ 20_C, confirm that the heat loss from the casing is, in fact, negligible. The casing may be assumed to have an average surface
temperature of Ts _ 40_C.

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5. In considering the following problems involving heat transfer in the natural environment (outdoors), recognize that solar radiation is
comprised of long and short wavelength components. If this radiation is incident on a semitransparent medium, such as water or glass,
two things will happen to the nonreflected portion of the radiation. The long wavelength component will be absorbed at the surface of
the medium, whereas the short wavelength component will be transmitted by the surface.
The number of panes in a window can strongly influence the heat loss from a heated room to the outside ambient air. Compare the single-
and doublepaned units shown by identifying relevant heat transfer processes for each case.

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6. Consider a 150-W incandescent lamp. The filament of the lamp is 5 cm long and has a diameter of 0.5 mm. The diameter of the glass
bulb of the lamp is 8 cm. Determine the heat flux, in W/m2:
a. on the surface of the filament and,
b. on the surface of the glass bulb, and
c. calculate how much it will cost per year to keep that lamp on for eight hours a day every day if the unit cost of electricity is
\$0.08/kWh.

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7. One way of measuring the thermal conductivity of a material is to sandwich an electric thermofoil heater between two identical
rectangular samples of the material and to heavily insulate the four outer edges, as shown in the figure. Thermocouples attached to the
inner and outer surfaces of the samples record the temperatures. During an experiment, two 0.5-cm-thick samples 10 cm x 10 cm in size
are used. When steady operation is reached, the heater is observed to draw 35Wof electric power, and the temperature of each sample is
observed to drop from 82°C at the inner surface to 74°C at the outer surface. Determine the thermal conductivity of the material at the
average temperature.

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8. The roof of a house consists of a 15-cm-thick concrete slab (k 2 W/m · °C) that is 15 m wide and 20 m long. The emissivity of the outer
surface of the roof is 0.9, and the convection heat transfer coefficient on that surface is estimated to be 15 W/m2 · °C. The inner surface
of the roof is maintained at 15°C. On a clear winter night, the ambient air is reported to be at 10°C while the night sky temperature for
radiation heat transfer is 255 K. Considering both radiation and convection heat transfer, determine the outer surface temperature and
the rate of heat transfer through the roof.
If the house is heated by a furnace burning natural gas with an efficiency of 85 percent, and the unit cost of natural gas is
\$0.60/therm (1 therm = 105,500 kJ of energy content), determine the money lost through the roof that night during a 14-hour period.

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9. Steady-state, one-dimensional conduction occurs in a rod of constant thermal conductivity k and variable cross-sectional area 𝐴𝑥 (𝑥) =
𝐴0 𝑒 𝑎𝑥 , where Ao and a are constants. The lateral surface of the rod is well insulated. Write an expression for the conduction heat rate,
qx(x). Use this expression to determine the temperature distribution T(x) and qualitatively sketch the distribution for T(0) > T(L). Now
consider conditions for which thermal energy is generated in the rod at a volumetric rate 𝑞̇ = 𝑞̇ 0 exp(−𝑎𝑥) 𝐴, where 𝑞̇ 0 is a constant.
Obtain an expression for qx(x) when the left face (x = 0) is well insulated.

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10. Passage of an electric current through a long conducting rod of radius ri and thermal conductivity kr results in uniform volumetric heating
at a rate of 𝑞̇ . The conducting rod is wrapped in an electrically nonconducting cladding material of outer radius ro and thermal
conductivity kc, and convection cooling is provided by an adjoining fluid.
For steady-state conditions, write appropriate forms of the heat equations for the rod and cladding. Express appropriate boundary
conditions for the solution of these equations.

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11. In a manufacturing process, a transparent film is being bonded to a substrate as shown in the sketch. To cure the
bond at a temperature T0, a radiant source is used to provide a heat flux q 0´´ (W/m2), all of which is absorbed at the
bonded surface. The back of the substrate is maintained at T1 while the free surface of the film is exposed to air at T∞ and a convection
heat transfer coefficient h. Assume the following conditions: T∞ = 20°C, h = 50 W/m2 K, and T1 = 30°C. Calculate the heat flux q0´´ that
is required to maintain the bonded surface at T0 = 60°C.

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12. A cross section of a typical home ceiling is depicted below. Given the properties listed for the materials of construction,
determine how much heat is transferred through the insulation and through the studs.

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13. Consider a large plane wall of thickness L= 0.4 m, thermal conductivity k = 2.3 W/m · °C, and surface area A = 20 m2. The left side of
the wall is maintained at a constant temperature of T1 = 80°C while the right side loses heat by convection to the surrounding air at T ∞
=15°C with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 24 W/m2 · °C. Assuming constant thermal conductivity and no heat generation in the wall,
(a) express the differential equation and the boundary conditions for steady one-dimensional heat conduction through the wall, (b) obtain
a relation for the variation of temperature in the wall by solving the differential equation, and (c) evaluate the rate of heat transfer through
the wall.

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14. Water flows in the channels between two aluminum plates as shown in the sketch. The ribs that form the channels are also made of
aluminum and are 8 mm thick. The effective surface coefficient between all surfaces and water is 300W/m2K. For these conditions, how
much heat is transferred at each end of each rib? How far from the lower plate is the rib temperature a minimum? What is this minimum
value?

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