Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

A Detailed Lesson Plan

in

Mathematics

(The Set of Integers)

Submitted

to

Dr. Jason S. Valera

as

Partial Requirement in the subject

Practice Teaching

Submitted

by

Marissel A. Lim

November 2016
I. Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

A. use the number line to acquire a clear understanding of the basic concepts of integers;

B. show the need for the set of integers by citing practical situations; and

C. write the absolute values of real numbers.

II. Subject Matter

A. Topic: The Set of Integers

B. Reference: E-Math I pp. by Oronce, Orlando A. and Mendoza, Marilyn O.

C. Materials: Folder, cartolina, bond paper, envelopes, extension wire, laptop, LCD
projector

D. Values Integrated: Teamwork, cooperation, and camaraderie.

III. Procedure:

Teacher’s Activity Students’ Activity

A. Preliminary Activity:

1. Prayer

Class before we start our lesson, let us


ask the guidance of our Almighty God.
Ana will you lead the prayer?
(Ana will come in front and lead the prayer.)

Jewel of St. Arnold Janssen

Leader: God eternal truth,


All: We believe in you.
Leader: God our strength and salvation,
All: We trust in you.
Leader: God infinite goodness,
All: We love you with all our hearts.
Leader: You sent the Word into the world as
our savior,
All: Make us all one in Him.
Leader: Fill us with the spirit of Christ,
All: That we may proclaim your name
everywhere. Amen.
Good Morning Class.
Good Morning Ma’am.
2. Checking of Attendance

(The teacher will refer to her class seat


plan to monitor the absentees.)

It seems that nobody is absent today,


right?
Yes, Ma’am.
Very good!

3. Checking of Assignment

Bring out your assignments and at the


count of 5, all papers must be here in front.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Are all papers here?
Yes, ma’am.
4. Review
Class let us recall the lesson that we
discussed yesterday.
What was our topic yesterday?
Ma’am.
Yes, Arman.
Our last topic was about set.
Very good, Arman.
And what is a set?
Ma’am.
Yes, Aileen.
A set is a collection of objects.
That is right Aileen.

Now, I have here numbers listed within


the braces.
{1,2,3,4,5,}
What do you call the numbers inside
them?
Ma’am.
Yes, Euniz.
They are called the members or elements of the
set.
Correct, Euniz.

Yesterday we also tackled about rational


and irrational numbers. What is a rational
number?
Ma’am.
Yes, Hannah.
A rational number is any number that can be
written as a fraction as an integer in its numerator
and a nonzero integer in its denominator.
Very good, Hannah.

How about irrational number? Anyone?


Ma’am.
Yes, Joje Ann.
An irrational number is a number that cannot be
expressed as a ratio of two integers.
And any number that is either rational
or irrational is called what?
Ma’am.
Yes, Kette.
It is called a real number.
Correct!
You already know the set of real
numbers. Let us proceed to our next topic.
B. Setting-up Activity:

1. Motivation

Class, do you have an idea on what


characteristics or attitudes you like for a
person to have?
Yes, Ma’am.
On a piece of paper, list down at least 5
characteristics or attitude you would like in
a person. And at least 5 characteristics or
attitudes you would not like in a person.
(All answers may vary.)
Now, anyone who would like to share
his/her work?
Ma’am.
Yes, Jun.
(Jun will share his answer.)
That is it. Having good characteristics or
attitudes would gain more friends while
being bad would give you enemies, just
like in the set of integers. All good
characteristics or attitudes serve as the
positive integers while the bad ones serve
as the negative integers.

C. Presentation of the lesson:

We had applied the concept of positive


and negative characteristics or attitudes in
forming friendships. Like being good is
positive while being bad is negative.
That is related to our next topic which is
the set of integers.

D. Presentation of Instructional
Objectives:

Anyone who would like to read the


objectives?
Ma’am.
Yes, Melanie.
Objectives:
A. use the number line to acquire a clear
understanding of the basic concepts of integers;
B. show the need for the set of integers by
citing practical situations; and
C. write the absolute values of real numbers.
Thank you Melanie.

At the end of the lesson you would be


able to achieve those objectives.

E. Lesson Proper:
1. Discussion

The set of integers consists of all


positive whole numbers, all negative whole
numbers, and zero.
Anyone who could give some examples
of positive integers?
Ma’am.
Yes, Annabel.
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,…}
You are right Annabel.
How about examples of negative
integers?
Ma’am.
Yes, Pia.
{…, -6, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1}
Yes, that is correct.

The set of positive integers or integers


greater than zero may also be called as a set
of natural numbers.

I have here an illustration of a number


line.

Negative integer origin Positive integer

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Numbers that are of the same distance


from zero (the origin), but on opposite
sides of zero are called opposites.

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

The opposite of -2 is +2.


-(-2) = +2

The opposite of 2 is -2.


-(+2) = -2
Note: The opposite of a number n is
written –n.
Class, try to answer this.
Write an integer for each lettered point.
Then give its opposite.

S -4 -3 A I 0 1 2 N T
a. Point S represents -5. Its opposite is 5.
b. Point A represents -2. Its opposite is 2.
c. Point I represents -1. Its opposite is 1.
d. Point N represents 3. Its opposite is -3.
e. Point T represents 4. Its opposite is -4.
Simplify each.
a. –(+7) b. +(-11) c. –[-(-6)]
d. –(-17) e. –{-[-(-28)]}
a. –(+7) = -7
b. +(-11) = -11
c. –[-(6)] = -[+6]
= -6
d. –(-17) = +17 or 17
e. –{-[-(-28)]} = -{-[+28]}
= -{-28}
= +28 or 28
Absolute value is that for every nonzero
real number a, the positive number in the
pair a and –a. This is denoted by | a |.

Mathematicians use absolute value to


describe distance on a number line. The
absolute value of an integer is equal to its
distance from 0.

Who can give me the symbol of absolute


value of x?
Ma’am.
Yes, Jay-Ar?
The absolute value of x is written as | x |.
Good Jay-Ar.

An inequality is a mathematical
statement that contains the symbols >, ≥, <,
≤, or ≠.

I will flash card that contains symbols,


and then determine what symbol is that.

1. > 2. ≥ 3. <

4. ≤ 5. ≠

1. Greater than
2. Greater than or equal to
3. Less than
4. Less than or equal to
5. Unequal

Two important terms common in


inequality problems:
1. The phrase “at most” means ≤ (less
than or equal to).
2. The phrase “at least” means ≥ (greater
than or equal to).
2. Generalization
Did you understand our lesson class?
Yes, Ma’am.
Very good. Now to recap our lesson for
today, let us have a recitation.

What contains the set of integer?


Ma’am.
Yes, Jhoy.
The set of integers contains of all positive whole
numbers, all negative whole numbers, and zero.
Very good Jhoy. What is another term of
the set of positive integers or integers
greater than zero?
Ma’am
Yes, Aira.
It may also be called as the set of natural
numbers.
That is right Aira.
What do we call numbers that are of the
same distance from zero (the origin), but on
opposite sides of zero?
Ma’am.
Yes, Berna?
They are called opposites.
You’re correct Berna.
For every nonzero real number a, the
positive number in the pair a and –a. What
do we call it and it is denoted by what?
Ma’am.
Yes, Lorenzo?
It is called absolute value and it is denoted by
|a|.
Very good Lorenzo.
What is inequality?
Ma’am.
Yes, Aileen.
An inequality is a mathematical statement that
contains the symbols >, ≥, <, ≤, or ≠.
What is the other term for less than or
equal to?
Ma’am.
Yes, Alyssa.
It is called at most Ma’am.
You’re right Alyssa. What is the other
term for greater than or equal to?
Ma’am.
Yes, Gretchen.
It is called at least.
You are correct Gretchen. Class, it seems
that you already know our lesson.

3. Application
Let’s apply the set of integers in real life.
Class, in what situation can we apply the
integers?
Ma’am.
Yes, Apple.
Integers are used to describe situations
involving temperature.
That is right. What else?
Ma’am.
Yes, Lita.
Integers are used to describe situations
involving profit or loss.
Correct Lita. Another?
Ma’am.
Yes, Chelo.
Integers are used to describe situations
involving time before or after.
You are right Chelo. What else?
Ma’am.
Yes, Joyce.
Integers are used to describe situations
involving a lift of a space shuttle.
Very good Joyce. Last one?
Ma’am.
Yes, Ronel.
Integers are used to describe situations
involving elevation of land.
Yes, you are all correct. In all of those
examples, integers are used to count
positive and negative units.

Let us answer this exercise for some


examples.
Rewrite each of the following as a
positive or negative number.
a. 20°C below 0°C
b. A gain of P 1 000
c. The year 2000 BC

Who wants to answer on the board?


(Three students will come in front and answer
the problem.)

a. 20°C below 0°C can be modeled by a


negative integer. It can be written as -20.
b. A gain of P 1 000 can be modeled by a
positive integer. It can be written as + 1 000.
c. The year 2000 B.C. can be modeled by a
negative integer. It can be written as -2000.
Class, are all their answers correct?
Yes Ma’am.
Remember that distance is always a
positive value (or zero). The absolute value
of an integer is equal to its distance from 0.

4. Values Integration

Let us have an activity for you to master


our topic by solving word puzzle.

Let us have four groups. This row will


be the group 1, group 2, group 3, and this is
the group 4. Make a short yell for your
group. I have here envelopes, inside of
them are big letters which you will form
and an attached paper for your solution. I
will flash the problems on the screen. The
corresponding answers to the problems
were written on the bottom part of the
puzzled letters. Each group has different
puzzled letters to the other group. You will
orderly form the letters into a word then
afterwards, you will do the yell.
Are you ready to do the activity?
Yes, Ma’am.
Here is your envelope. At a count of 5, I
will flash the problems on the screen and
you will form the words. 1,2,3,4,5.

Here is the set of problems.


Replace each with > or < to write a
true statement.
1. |5| + |4| |-7| + |4|
2. |-4| +|-11| |8| + |-9|
3. |12-32| |-4|+|-5|-|-8|
4. |4∙5| ∙|-5| |-3|∙|-16|+ |14|-|3|

You may post the word on the board


after you do the yell.
For group 1:

K I N D

< < > >

For group 2:

GE NE RO US

< < > >

For group 3:

TH OU GHT FUL

< < > >

For group 4:

TR U ST ED

< < > >

For the group 1, what word did you find


out?
Kind, Ma’am.
How about the group 2?
Generous, Ma’am.
How about the group 3?
Thoughtful, Ma’am.
How about the group 4?
Trusted, Ma’am.
Very good. The group 2 was the one
who accomplished the task first, so each of
them will be given 4 points for their
recitation, 3 points for the group 1, 2 points
for the group 4, and 1 point for the group 3.

Actually, these words are pleasant


attitude that you may possess. If you have
some of the pleasant attitudes such as kind,
generous, thoughtful and trusted, you must
be a good person and for sure you have
many friends.

5. Evaluation

A. Answer each on a ½ crosswise.

1. If 8 km south is indicated by -8, how


would you indicate 8 km north?
2. If + 25 indicates a profit of P25, how
would you indicate a loss of P25?
3. If 4 flights down are represented by
-4, how would you represent 4 flights up?
4. Anne’s Science teacher told the class
that the term paper would have to be at
least 10 pages.
Translation: Number of pages in term
paper 10 pages.
5. The publisher told the author he had
sold at most 50 000 copies of book.
Translation: Number of copies sold
50 000.
6. What is the opposite of +4?
7. What is the opposite of -100?
8. Which is greater, +7 or -5?
9. Write a true statement using > or < in
20, 48, 34.
10. List the integers that can replace x to
make a true statement, | x | = 16.

Answer key:
1. +8 or 8
2. -25
3. +4 or 4
4. ≥
5. ≤
6. -4
7. +100 or 100
8. +7 or 7
9. 20 < 48 > 34
10. -16 and 16
F. Assignment:

1. Number these temperature readings from 1-5 (warmest to coldest).

14°F

0°F

7° below 0° F

1° below 0° F

-8°F

2. Number these elevations from 1-5 (highest to lowest).

10 000 ft. above sea level

1 000 ft. below sea level

¼ mi. below sea level

1 500 ft. below sea level

500 ft. below sea level