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A Unique Propulsion System for

Electric Mvlultiple-Unit Cars FOr

Philadelphia-Area CommuterService

tion recognized

the serious

plight

of the

commuter

area. Realizing the contributions that

railroads in the

Philadelphia

the railroadscould

make toward minimiz-

ing area-wide traffic problems,

they de-

veloped a bold new philosophy to en

couragecommuteroperations;therail-

roads would supply more frequent service

at reduced fares, and the city would meet

H. S. OGDEN

FELLOW IEEE

the increased costs of the expanded ser-

vice.

It was hoped that the resulting

Sunimary: This paper describes the ultra-

has

been developed and applied by the Penn-

sylvania Railroad with the financial help

of the City of Philadelphia and the general

guidance of a local consulting firmn.

runs and service operation included.

to date are

Test

modern commuter car design which

convenient and economical commuter

would attract and retain enough

the allotment of munici-

and operating difficulties due to whleel riders service to

obviat.e

slip vanished; in

addition, maintenance palfunds forvastlyexpandedexpressways

tx

d

and downtown parking facilities.

s

sts were mratlyreds

costs were greatly reduced.

However, the requirements for com-

The earlvresultswere successful enough

the city to initiate still

were further improvements in the area's rail-

muter cars underwent substantial changes to encourage

from 1950 to 1960; these changes

based on the concept of lightweighthigh-

speed passenger cars. The ideas were

road commuter services. To this end,

re- a program was established by which the

THE PENNSYLVANIA Railroad fined and

finally crystallized in the design

city could finance the design, construc-

T Company started operating electric and construction of the 6-car prototype tion, and procurement of new high-per- commuter trains in 1915, and the Read- multiple-unit train for the Pennsylvania formance and high-comfort commuter cars ing Company in 1930. The traction Railroad;* the cars had great customer to replace obsolete rolling stock. The motors on the early Pennsylvania Rail- appeal because of their interior arrange- city's investment in these new cars would

road cars were of the "doubly-fed" type ments, such as comfortable seating, air be amortised bv leasing them to the opera- with what might be termed a starting conditioning, fluorescent lighting, etc. ting railroads over a nominal period of

and low-speed connection, as well as a high-speed connection. Although opera-

ment furnished for these cars is of an

To assure that the proposed new cars

tion was successful, maintenance tended advanced design incorporating the trans- would meet the highest criteria of perform-

to be high. It was therefore decided to formation and rectification of catenary ance, comfort, and economy, a local firm

adopt the a-c series motor which was

power on the cars and lightweight d-c of consulting engineers was commissioned

being developed for locomotive applica- traction motors, unfortunately the actual to work with city and railroad representa-

tions in the late 1920's and early 1930's.

The newly developed motors were applied

to the Pennsylvania Railroad commuter

car fleet that was being expanded to take care of electrified lines to Wil- mington, Wllest Chester, Trenton, and

Norristown. This type of motor also

performance was little or no better than tives to develop appropriate specifications. that of the 1915 vintage cars. The im- As a first step in the city's new procure- portance of improved performance in ment program, 55 cars have been built addition to passenger comfort was em- to these specifications (see Fig. 1); 38

Although the electric propulsion equip- time.

phasized when these cars failed to deter have been leased to the Pennsylvania

the diversion of commuter traffic to the Railroad and 17 to the Reading Company.

automobiles travelling over the expand-

Most of these cars have now

been in

expressway system in commuter service for several months.

the area.

Extensive acceptance testing proved that

About this time, the city administra- the new cars and their electric propulsion

PROTOTYPE ALTERNATING

*

UNIT

TRAIN OP THE

PRR,

CURRENT

K. H.

Gordon,

MULTIPLE

V.

F.

Dowden, E. W. Ames. Conference Paper 59-248,

equipment meet all

specifiedperformance

r

a comfortable margin;

equipmetet a ci

parameters

with

this indicates that, when the faster sched-

AIFE Winter General Meeting, New York, N. Y-' ules made possible by these cars go into

furnished propulsion for the original fleet ing and improving

of the Reading Company cars and is still

in use today.

On the other hand, the Pennsylvania Railroad was faced with the necessity of replacing some of the original high

maintenance carsand,about 1950,decided upon a modification of the a-c series motor

design for additional cars. Fundamen- tally, thisinvolved making a smallmotor, so that it would be economical to have every axle motored. Changes in the con- trolwere developed,and the time-honored

preventive

coil-tapping contactor system

was replaced with resistor acceleration

and tap change by means of a motor-

operated power controller.' Perform-

ance of these cars was highly successful,

Paper

Transportation

64-258, recommended

Technical

by

the IEEE Land

approved

Committee for

1964.

made available

by the

pre-

Conference,

Manuscript

for

Committee and

Operations

April 14-15,

17, 1964;

19, 1964.

IEEE

sentation.atthe IEEE-ASME Railroad

Cleveland, Ohio,

submitted January

printing February H. S. OGDEN iS Erie, Pennsylvania.

with General Electric Company'

Fig. 1.

S

p

Service

ment

car

Passenger

Improve-

Corporation

of type in service

onPnslaiad

Pennsylvrnia and

on

Reading

Railroads

NOVEMBER 1964

Ogden-Propulsion Systemfor Electric Multiple- Unit Cars

329

effect, "on-time" performance will be readily achieved. The smooth operation of the cars, par-

ticularly on welded track, has led to com-

plete customer acceptance. This opera-

55 volts aud use 478 amperes when

accelerating.

156

hp(horsepower)on an hourly basis of use

6. The transformer has a kilovolt-ampere

(of ,0 volts, and secondariary voltages of

The cars are mounted on inside journal

trucksanbrknispoiebvir

s, and braking iS provided by air-

be

operated vlSion has been made for operation with

of

a

oprtddisc

Ii

trainso

brakes.

1-15 car

They

may

Po

motors cut out Acceleration

conne.individual

cars

calibrated

may be

checked

milliammeter

by

plugged

into a convenient outlet.

MAIN CIRCUITS

which is applied to the main rectifier

Each of the four motors rate bank, can be varied from a small amount

to the full value bv means of two mercurv-

arc Ignitron-tube rectifiers, which are

connected and controlled to act as a

pounds. voltage "valve." The regulation of this

valve is the fundamental principle of this unique and novel control system.

The output of the main silicon-cell

power rectifier is fed through a main

smoothing reactor to the traction motors; these motors are permanentlv connected

in series pairs,

and two such series pairs are

tion has encouraged the Pennsylvania 637/546/572 volts. It weighs 7,260

Railroad management and others to con- sider these cars, with some equipment modifications, as the possible basis for

high-speed intercity trains between New operated

York, Philadelphia, WVashington, and,

perhaps eventually, Boston. For this

.

service, cruising speeds of 125 mph (miles tractilon

hour)

per hour)

per

with

with equipment.capabilities

equipment

capabilities of

of

150 mph are contemplated.

The power circuitry and method of con-

trol will be covered in some detail, with

speciallv

t

i

a

The fundamental principle of operation

consists of timing or phase retarding the

point on the basic voltage wave at which

emphasis on themore novelelements.

the mercurv-arc Ignitron rectifier tubes

are fired, i.e., allowed to pass current,

to select the value of the volt-seconds

A simplified schematic diagram of the

maincircuitsis shownin

Fig

of the main motor circuitry,

.

A study

Electrical and other Features

Each car seats 125 passengers in a 3-2 seat arrangement; fluorescent lighting

along with passed by

firing

the~~~~~~~~~prplso control

the

thmwill

them. When the Ignitron-tube

h gnton

to the currenit flowing

propulsion control apparatus, will

apaats

control is fully, phase retarded, a

minimum amount of volt-seconds is

clarifyoperationofthissystem

PROPULSrON CONTROL OPERATION

By means of the Faiveley pantograph,

and complete air conditioning are pro-

vided. Multiple-unit

passed or applied

throughthem.

operation is ob-

tained with the usual control trainline wires, carried between cars in the auto- matic couplers which provide mechanical

coupling and air line connections. These automatic couplers mav be controlled

from the operator's position or from the main transformer. The transformer out-

voltage winding of the Pyranol*-filled

power is collected from the overhead dis- tribution system and supplied to the high-

11,000-volt single-phase 25-cycle a-c

When the firina control is

fully

volt-seconds of the output voltage wave

adanced, the maximrim amount of

A is applied

of low-voltage winding

through the Ignitron

tube; the resultant voltage is then ap- plied to the main silicon rectifier bank and, from there, applied to the traction

motors.

to the current passed

ground without the operator.

put comes from three separatelow-voltage

The following are the principal statistics windings: A, B, and

C.

applying to the car:

l. The

power supply consists of 11,000

volts at 25 cycles.

2. The length over the couplers is 85 feet.

3. A light car weighs 101,400 pounds, a loaded car (125 passengers at 155 pounds

and the

each) weighs 120,800 pounds,

electrical equipment weighs

28,066 pounds.

4. The maximum speed is 85 mph.

5. The motors carry a normal voltage of 425 volts with a maximum (no load) of

PLR

Each low-voltage winding is connected

to a bridge circuit of silicon-cell rectifier

The voltage

of transformer low-voltage

winding .A is applied to the Ignitron valve

the

tared a

Ignitron-tube

miiu.olaeiapidt

m'nimum voltage is applied

to

firing control fully

tarded a

the main silicon-cell power rectifier and,

from there, to the traction motors. The

tubes when contractor -l is closed. With

re-

put is determined

t

total transformer low-voltage wmding

connected to it at any given instant,

The output of low-voltage winding A, desired maximum accelerating current

firing control is then advanced until the

form the

'

bridge

bridge

t

circuits are connected in series to

ir

main power

are

cectie inoser

rectifier,

whose

ot

out-

of the

bv the amount

o

.

.

.

.

* Registered trade-mark of the General Electric

Company.

flows. Under the control of the current-

measuring reactors in each motor circuit,

the Ignitron-tube firing control is regu- lated to keep the accelerating current

constant, while voltage applied to the motors is increased at a rate commen-

surate with the increase in car speed.

, oOOV

>,THR -Js1

-T A OLRI

A

}

; OLRMI

REV.

WOLRM2

REV

W

hen the firing

control of the Ignitrol

tubes becomes fully advanced, the maxi-

mum voltage

age winding

from transfortner low-volt-

A is applied to the main

A2OLR2

REV. 2

MI

PINION

RELAY MI3

REV.4

power rectifier.

At this point in the

accelerating cycle, two events occur

simultaneously:

contactor A,2 is closed

>; | 9 ~~it

||

A3OLR

0 1 |tl09; ov A {

AUX. LOADS

;

T4

_

<

CMRXI

|

|

-4t g * ,1\M2

;

>

1

a

>CMRX2

l T~~~~~~~~~~~,1

OR ci92sl;

X

|to

apply

the full

output voltage

of trans-

ft OtR i'former

'<~~~ retarded.

l

l

B to the

(3main rectifier, and, at the samne time,

the Ignitron-tube

In effect, this applies the out-

put voltage of transformer winding B,

firing control is fully

low-voltage winding

~~~~~~~~~~instead of

winding A, to the traction

M4Fig. 2. Simplified main circuit digam

motors.

I the next paeof the car aclrto

330

Ogden-Propulsion System for Electric Mzfultiple-Unit Cars

NOVEMnER 196j4

cycle, the fully retarded firing control of

the Ignitron tubes is advanced again, with regulation from the current-measur-

ing reactors, until the full voltage of transformer low-voltage winding A is again applied to the main rectifier bank. For traction purposes, this voltage is

added to that of winding B.

At this

Voltage regulation

Fig. 4.

by delayed fring of lgnitron

tubes

70 VOLTS TO 674 VOLTS

(ONE HALF OF AC SINE WAVE SHOWN)

VA

FI

VARIASLFIR_

ING ANGLE "A"

IWINDING

A

VOLTAGE AT MAX.

FIRING DELAY

point, the final double event occurs:

contactor A3 is closed to apply the full output voltage of transformer low-voltage

winding C to the main rectifier, while

simultaneously, the Ignitron-tube firing

control is again fully retarded. In effect,

this substitutes the combined output voltages of transformer windings B and

MN. COMMUTATING

ANGLE

AREA OF

VAROIABGLE

IN'A"WI NG

674 VOLTS TO 1256 VOLTS

AREA O

/ /CONSTANT VOLTAGE

"B" WINDING

for the summation of the output voltages of windings A and B. The final phase of the acceleration cycle operating). This feature simplifies the rent-flow directions with the battery

procedure of cutting out faulty motors, as it is necessary only to open the controlling

control again,

contactors Ml and 1M12 or M13 and Mr4, de- an a-c transformer in which the polarity

A plus B plus C, are being applied to the pending upon which pair of motors is to is continually reversing is substituted for

the batterv. Thus, if the battery is ap- plied to the upper bridge by closing switch A2, or if the transformer is applied to the

OPERAtTIONOFMAINSMOOTuINGREAcTOR

through the traction motors. Accelera- AND RECTIFIER BRIDGES lower bridge by closing switch A3, or if

both 12 and A3 are closed, current will flow through both rectifier bridges, the

reactor, and the motor since

series. With only alternating

Reference to Fig. 3 will clarify the oP- eration of the main power circuit. The

tion of the car to balancing speed will con- tinue at a steadily diminishinig rate in accordance with the inherent charac-

main rectifier and the traction motors. After this point, it is no longer possible to maintain maximum accelerating current

C

/

consists of advancing the Ignitron firing

until finally the full output

voltages of

all three transformer windings,

polarity reversed. The lower bridge is similar, except that

be isolated.

upper part of this figure is a basic circuit smoothing

il_;

all are in

bridge when switch A2 is closed are in-

(-) signs.

Those signs enclosed in

teristic of the traction motors. diagram showing two rectifier bridges, a A unique feature of this control system smoothing reactor 11MSX, and a motor

the upper rectifier bridge circuit in-

power available from the main trans-

former low-voltage windings, power will flow through the closed series circuit, but

is the use of a current-measuring reactor

cludes a battery. The currents flowing

in each of the two motor circuits; the

effect on the rate-regulating system is such through the branches of the rectifier will pulsate from zero the maximum

value of the original alternating voltage wave. This is shown in the lower part of Fi. 3.

rent controls the rate regulation. Thus, dicated by arrows and plus (+) and minus

that the reactor measuring the higher cur-

rate regulation is not affected if either pair

of motors is cut out for any reason (the parentheses indicate current-flow direc- Obviously, if another source of power

were injected anywhere in the circuit ex-

ternal to the rectifier bridges, current

would be forced through the closed series

circuit; the smoothing reactor ,IfSX

serves as such an additional power source. The main smoothing reactor is a copper

As the a-c

winding on an iron core.

effective rate of car acceleration is, of

tions with one battery polarity, while the

course, halved if half the motors are not signs without parantheses indicate cur-

msx

N(++2)) (M

'K

RECTIFIER OUTPUT VOLTS

I

-IO

OLTS

 

\

/ ~~ ORIGINAL

WAVE

 

\

'

'--

 

-

- N

s \

WITH MSX

-

'/

-

-

-

- 0 VOLTS

Fig. 3.

RECTtFIED WAVE

/

/

Addition of voltages in

silicon rectifier

<wave starts to buildup through the circuit,

flux is built up in the iron core of the reac-

Then, as the a-c wave tries to fall to

tor.

zero, the collapse of flux in the reactor core

induces a voltage in the reactor winding which tries to perpetuate the flow of cur-

rent through the series circuit.

Thus, the reactor serves as a temporary

source of power to the traction motor dur- ing the interval when the pulsating volt-

age from the rectifier bridge or bridges

would normally fall to zero and then build

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~up

again, as

shown in Fig. 3. The effect

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ofthe main smoothing reactor is shown in

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~the

lower

trace of Fig. 3. Here, it is

seen that the voltage from the main

'smoothing reactor is effective when the

applied voltage would fall to zero;

the system voltage applied to the traction

thus,

NOVEMBER 1964

Ogden-Propulsion System for Electric Mlultiple-Unit Cars

331

0

l

332

546 VOLTS

bA

w

572VOLT

_

r- t

r

M%^^

L

1

63btwenVero

e

w

.4,o 88 t 1

_

I IWqrSL 1 s

I +:

motor is continuous, although rippling in

nature.

reactor is to decrease the peak value of the

applied rectified voltage wave, as a result of energy stored in the reactor, and to

The effect of the main smoothing

§°X4 {discharge

this energy to prevent the recti-

|

fied voltage wave from falling to zero be- tween waves. The resultant current

_

B

e

i

|

I

wave rippling

between maximum and

minimum values, rather th than pulsating

between zero and the maximum value,

provides a more even tractive effort from

the

m

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~conditions.

0

ondtors

andmuch bettercommutating

l |~~~~~~~IIIr l

OPERATION OF PHAS,E-CON-TROLLED

r D

>

>

TW

IGNITRON RECTIFIERS

1rlr

lixlip

d~_I_)F_ --)H Ivr:rtr rr I1~l

1

tot

tAt

| |!m t tAt

LD

| tu~r_

1

|

n.~ri

Oi

&-jr

4H 0-

"

@

^

I

X w ,s

t¢

*

,

Fig. 5. Silicon-cell power rectifier connections

The operation of the phase-controlled

l N | B | * oN i | Ignitrons will be understood better by

Mr

Mr

~

studying Fig. 4, which depicts their opera-

tion in

applying the alternating voltage of

transformer low-voltage winding A to its

silicon rectifier bridge. Curve .l of this

figure shows that, if the Ignitron tube is not fired until the low-voltage-winding

alternating wave is near zero on the latter

half of the wave, only a relatively low Jvalue of the available voltage is applied to

the rectifier bridge.

In practice, a phase delay of 145 de-

grees in the Ignitron firing circuits results

M

|in approximately 70 volts being

available

the rectifier

bridge and, from there, through the main

to force current through

@X

t

LJ .

|

1smoothing

reactorandthetractionmotors.

reduced

The phase delay is then gradually

l.acceleratingZ l l

on a simple time basis until sufficient

voltage is available to force the desired

current through the traction

motors.

From this point, the rate at

Is

^

t twhich the phase delay is reduced further

lis controlled by the current-measuring re- actors in each motor circuit, so that de-

sired accelerating current is maintained at

a constant value as the car speed increases

proportionallywith continually increasing

transformer output voltage applied to the rectifier bridge.

lWhen the phase control of the Ignitron

firing circuits reaches its minimum delay

(determined by minimum commutating

period of the Ignitron tubes which, in

turn, is dependent upon the characteristics of the main transformer and the associated

distribution system supplying alternating

nnz | - | X l power to the car), the maximum value

*Xo'<0*

r

x C

lI< <

|

a a

|

~~~~~~ofthe alternating voltage wave of low-

sr~~~oltagewinding A (637 volts) is applied to the rectifier bridge.

_<_

|

WShen this occurs, tap contactor

A

is closed to apply the full voltage of low- voltage winding B to its rectifier bridge at the same time that the phase delay of

the Ignitron-tube firing circuit is returned

Ogden Propulsion System for Electric Mlultiple-Unit Cars

NOVEMBER 1964

to the maximum delay of 145 degrees. In effect, this substitutes the voltage of wind- ing B, plus the 70 volts minimum of

winding A, for the previously applied full voltage of winding A. The phase control of the Ignitron-tube firing circuit is ad-

vanced as before under control of the cur-

NOTCHING COMMAND

(TUBE VOLTS)

TRAINLINE CONTROL

AC VOLTS

ON OR OFF

SW'NOTCH'

NOTCH IC

C

rent-measuring

reactors until the full

-

FIRING FIRING

voltage of

winding A is superimposed on

IGNITRO

TUBES

PANEL

the voltage of winding B, as shown in

TISCO ACVOLTS

trace B of Fig. 4.

1AC SYNCHRONIZING

The third and final phase of the com-

AC

SIGNAL

CNRQ

ICARDS

O IR

COMMAND

z

c

plete acceleration cycle (not

4) occurs when low-voltage

A3 is closed, as has been previously

described. A more detailed circuit diagram show- ing the connections of the silicon-cell

power rectifier is shown in Fig. 5. The

tap contactor

shown in Fig.

VOLTS

CMRX

ISOLATED

CURRENT

l MCLAT CURRRIN

TRACTION MOTOR

CARD

SIGNAL

silicon cells of the main rectifier and the two Ignitron tubes are air-cooled. Ven-

tilation is supplied by a centrifugal blower driven by the blower motor-alternator set

that also supplies power for battery

chargstg,lightaig, and control. t

Fig. 6. Firing and notching system block diagram

The equipment necessary for control- trolley-up surges, it provides the notching

ing acceleration

of the car is contained on

back through the stages when these condi-

In past installations of Ignitron tubes,

two card

panels mounted in one end of the

main control group. The cards mounted

in

tions occur just after an upward transfer.

Wheel-slip indication is provided by

alternators from the intermediate gear

traction gear unit. Protection

on any axle of the car is

provided by

signalling the current-meas-

circuit to reduce power on the car

to a level which will not support continued

wheel slip. When the slip has ceased,

traction motor current is reapplied grad-

it has been necessary to bring the tubes

to room temperature before they are

fired. The air-cooled tubes used in this

equipment are simple anode-cathode type

having no control grids in

their make-up:

downstruction-

pe-

th0 C

the simpict co *their cnstr

mitssuccessfuloptheirat

(degreessuccentigloperade),thichi

(freezg pontigrofmercury. Heatn the

frezignironintcoldweaterury.i

ignitrons

ther

a

in cold weather IS therefore un-

necessary, and ventilation remains same throughout the year.

With the described control system, it is

possible to provide the traction motors

the

with optimum voltages

thus, to make the most

design. In the case at hand, no field

shunting was needed, and an exceedingly

simple motor circuit resulted.

and currents and,

Space

limitations imposed by the inside-beann

truck limited the physical size of

motor. Since this

thesemiconductorcontrolcircuitry are Protective Equipment

in each

of the plug-in type and automatically con-

trol the operation of the car after the

operator has selected the desired opera-

ting position on the master controller.

The output of these card panels is fed as from wheel slip

a pilotsignal to the firingpanel, where the

signal is amplified and used to trigger the uring

firingpulse fed to the igniter circuits of the

Ignitron tubes. The cards also provide

an output signal that controls the closing

of the second and third

A2 and A3. Basically,

f

stage contactors uallyup to the preslip value. In addition

the

signal that

igniter

have

tubes will

Circuit

Ground

Overload.

Hot

General fault

Table I

Indication

,,.Local

Location

Main control group

Local

Local.

Train

Main control

Main control

operator's

group

group

line Each

position

of any basic motor causes the transfer from stage to stage is

Ignitron tubes. When the tubes are

operated at low output with the

the

car accelerates and the igniter firing ap-

firmg at full retard,

the

the maximum voltage

across them. As

system supplies opti-

possible

mum voltages and currents, it is

to use a basic d-c motor and to meet

that

output requirements in a manner

could not be approached by a constant-

voltage d-c system. It would be impossi-

ble to meet these requirements

with an a-c

used on the

motor such as the type

Pennsylvania Railroad cars with vari-

able

proaches full advance, the voltage across

the tubes falls to zero; this condition