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1954

On the Theory of Corrugated Plane Surfaces*


R. S. ELLIOTTT

Summary-An analysis is given of an electromagnetic system -411 of these analyses were based on Floquet’s theo-
composed of a rectangular waveguide in tandem with a corrugated rem.8 In 1950, Goubaug reviewed the work of Sommer-
waveguide which feeds a flat, corrugated surface of arbitrary length
feld1° pertaining to axial surface waveson cylinders and
terminated by a ground plane, whose length is also arbitrary. An
improved procedure of field determination is used which combines extended it to conductors with dielectric coats. Assum-
Floquet’s theorem and the variational principle, thus revealing an ing a quasi-stationary field, he also showed that a con-
additionalrequirement on the corrugation geometry. Factors in- ductor with amodified surface (e.g., a threaded conduc-
fluencing a match at the feed mouth, and satisfactory launching of tor) could support an axial surface mode. Luckell used
the surface wave are discussed. The degree of suppression of the
a novel approach to determine the propagation constant
feed radiation is given in db as a function of the geometry of the
system. Approximate radiation patterns are derived for two cases, over a single, flat corrugated surface. By considering a
finite length of surface terminated by vertical conduct-
(a) when the system is terminated by an i n k i t e ground plane, and
(b) when the system is terminated by a ~ t ground
e ing walls (which thus formed a resonator), he was able
plane. For the
latter case, an upper bound on the tilt angle of the main beam and a
to get two expressions for the propagation character-
lower bound on its beamwidth result from an approximate theory.
istic-one in terms of the unknownelectric field and
For both cases, the Hansen-Woodyard endlire relation is found to
provide beam sharpening even when the feedradiation is considered. the other in terms of the unknown magnetic field. The
The presence of higher order surface modes, their effect, and their advantage of thismethod is that bothformulations
elimination are discussed. Comparison of the theory with experiment must be satisfied by the true field, so that the degree of
is reasonably good. approximation of any trial function may be gauged. The
INTRODUCTIOS resonator method unfortunately requires the considera-
tion of many corrugations, which makes the analysis

T HE THEORY O F electromagneticwavessup-

by many authors. In 1941 Slater’ derived an ap-


cumbersome. By applying Floquet’s theoremto Lucke’s
ported by corrugated conductors hasbeen treated method, the analysis can be confined to a single cor-
rugation, meanlvhile retaining the desirable feature of
proximate theory for wave propagation between paral- alternative formulations.
lel conducting plates of infinite extent, the interior sur- In the next section this modified procedure is applied
face of one of the plates being corrugated in the trans- t o a corrugated rectangular waveguide to obtain the
verse dimension. Goldstein2-3 extended this analysis to propagation characteristics of the allowable mode con-
rectangular waveguide and U~alkinshaw4~5 applied the figurations. The analysisisextended to a corrugated
techniquetocircular waveguide. Cutler6appearsto parallel plate transmissionline (by letting the sidewalls
have been the first to demonstrate that surface waves recede to infinity) and to a single, flat corrugated sur-
can exist exterior to a single corrugated conductor. By face (by then letting the top wall also recede t o infinity).
assuming that only thedominantsurfacemodewas This affordsan insight into the matching characteristics
present, and by matching its average surface impedance of a corrugated waveguide feeding a corrugated surface.
to thatof the TEM modes assumed to exist betweenthe Radiation patterns of corrugated surfaces have been
corrugations, he succeeded in deriving approximate ex- measured by the Stanford group12 and by Ehrlich and
pressions for the phase velocity on flat and circular cor- Kewkirk.13 Discrepanciesbetweentheoreticaland ex-
rugated surfaces. By making a better approximation for perimentalpatterns led Ehrlichtoanexperimental
the field distribution across the gaps between corruga- demonstration that feed radiation was contaminating
tions, Rotman’ obtained a slight modification of Cut- the patterns and he was successful in devisingtech-
ler’s formulas. niques for reducing the effect of the feed. Theoretical
Revised manuscript receik7ed by PGAP, January21, 1954. IfTork
support for this viewpoint will be given, together with
reported here was performed at Hughes Aircraft Company, sponsored curves of feed suppression as a function of the system
by Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass., geometry. I t is demonstrated that by suitable design,
under Contract -4F 19(604)-262, and was described in Hughes Air-
craff Company Technical Memorandum No. 317. the feed radiation can be reduced to reasonable propor-
Hughes Research and Development Labs., Culver City, Calif.
J. C. Slater, “Theory of the Magnetron Oscillator,” M I T Radia- For a discussion of Floquet’s th;orem the reader is referred t o
tion Lab. Report V;%, pp. 1-32; August, 1941. J. C. Slater, “Microwave Electronics, pp. 169-177, D.Van Nostrand
H. Goldstein, Cavity Resonators and \%‘aveguidesContaining Co., Inc., Iiew York, N.Y.; 1950.
Periodic Elements,” Ph.D. Thesis, M I T ; 1943. G. Goubau, “Surface waves and their application to transmis-
H. Goldstein, “The Theory of Corrugated Transmission Lines sion lines,” Jozrr. 4ppZ. Phys., vol. 21, pp. 1119-28; Iiovember, 1950.
and Waveguides,” M I T Radiation Lab. Report 494, pp. 1-17; April, lo discussion of Sommerfeld’s analysis may be found in J.
1941. Stratton, “Electromagnetic Theory,” pp. 524-537, McGran-Hill
11‘. Walkinshaw, “Theory of Circular Corrugated Waveguide for Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y.;1941.
Linear Accelerator,” l39tish T R E Report T2037; August, 1946. Second Quarterly Progress Report,“Ridge and Corrugated
117. b’alkinshaw, Theoretical Design of Linear Accelerator for Antenna Studies,” Stanford Research Inst.; January, 1950.
Electrons,” British Proc. Phys. vol. 345; September, 1948. Quarterly Progress Reports 2 through 6 , “Ridge and Corru-
C. Cutler, “Electromagnetic Waves Guided by Corrugated gated Antenna Studies,” Stanford Research Inst.; October 1949
Conducting Surfaces,” Bell Telephone Labs. Report MM-44-160-218; January 1951.
October, 19-14. l3 M . J. Ehrlich andL. Newkirk,“Corrugated An-
W . Rotman, ‘‘A study of single surfacecorrugatedguides,” tennas,” Convention Record of the I.R.E., Part 2-Antenbas and
PKOC.I.R.E., vol. 39, pp. 932-959; August, 1951. Communications, pp. 18-33;1953.
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72 I.R.E. TRANSACTIO,lrS-ASTES,~AS A X D PROPAGATIOS April

tions by some sacrifice of the match. An optimum com- F(z, z) f(z, z)e-jflor. (1)
promise can be determined by experiment. The remain-
ing feed radiation can be phased to improve the over-all Further, f ( x , must be periodic in in the interval
radiation pattern. Assuming a suitable design, the radi- (T4-G) or
ation pattern is then contributed to chiefly by the cor-
f(x, z) z> a,e-j(?rnZ)I(T+G). (2)
rugated surface and its ground plane and is character- n=-m
ized by an endfire main beam tilted up somewhat from
the plane of the surface. ,4n approximate theory is de- Thus each field component map be written in the form
rivedwhich permitsanestimation of the pattern in
terms of the corrugation geometry and the lengths of
the corrugated surface and its ground plane. Curves of
maximum tilt angle and minimum beamwidth as func- in which
tions of these parameters are presented. The effect on 2an
the radiation patternof the presence of higher order sur- fin Bo
T+G
face modes is found to be slight. Their presence would
appear to be objectionable only when the corrugated is a complexconstant tobe determined by the geometry.
surface is being used as a transmission line. They may This is Floquet's theorem.
always be suppressed simply by narrowing the teeth. We shall assume that the structure is to be excited
by a TEol mode incident from a tandem section of regu-
l a r guide. The allowable modes in the region above the
corrugations are then hybrid, characterized by the ab-
sence of an E, component, and given by

a
--.An

where

Fig. 1-Corrugated rectangular waveguide.


With the origin of co-ordinates chosen as shown in
Fig. 1, the field distribution in the gap beneath the or-
THECORRUGATED WAVEGUIDE igin may be written
As a starting
point in-for
analysis,
assume
anthe az
finitely long rectangular waveguide whose bottom wall E, jup.Bo sin K(y k) cos -.eiwt
a
is uniformly corrugated as shown in Fig. 1. I t is desired
t o find the field configurations exist
which
can
this structure. If T is the width of a tooth and G the
inside 5B,
m=1
max COS
az
a
eiwttrms

width of a gap, the structure is periodic in units of ma max az


( T i - G ) . Hence if F(xo, is thedistribution of a E, B, sin cos eiwt+rmy

field componentintheplane x = x o (for O s y 6 b , nz=l Y ~ G G a


then F ( x , + [ T + G ] , z)ejwt=F(x,, y, H
lnR ntax a2
e--jb(T+G)eiwtis the distribution one period further down B,.sin sin-.eiut+ymy
m=l julzyma G
the guide. is a complex constant whose value depends
on the geometry.Sincetheonlyfunction which satis- a sin K(y sin a2
ejot
fies
requirement
this for all is e-jBoz we have a a

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1954 Elliott: On the Theory of Corrugated Plane Su.rfaces 73

K2.

Implicit in (7) is theconcept that


each
slot is a short- mar
circuited waveguide of length la. The series represents - B , cos -.eiot (1
G
thatcombination of TM and T E modes, all beyond
cutoff,whichtogethersatisfytherequirement thatand
E,=O. I t is assumed that the slot width G is so small
compared to the free space wavelength that all of these E = E, H= (12)
modes are attenuated to a negligible amplitude before
The Fourier coefficients A , and B , may be expressed
they reach the bottom of the slot and hence have no
in terms of integrals of the unknown electric field, i.e.,
reflected component. The one propagating modeis rep-
resented by the standing wave terms, written separately G+T
in (7). Thus K and given by (8), are positive real
quantities determined solely by the geometry.
Since the tangential fields must be continuous across
the boundary between the two regions, that is, across
the plane one may equate the integrals

and when these relations are substituted in ( l l b ) and


+a12 ,G (lld) the magnetic field is given in terms of the electric
XI** u,drdz field. Upon inserting the resulting expressions for the
magnetic field in (lo), making use of (12), and rearrang-
inwhich El, Hl aretheunknown fields expressed in ing terms, one obtains

By a similar procedure, (12) can be expressed entirely in


terms of the unknown field H , giving
G+T G+T 00 ma
tanh a,b H*e-ionZdxf dl ' H * cos dx
HejBnzdx G G
cot Kh-
GHdx
JLl J O

Equations and (1 7) are


suggestive of Schwinger's
terms of and X1 are the unknownfields expressed
variational form but investigation discloses that only
in terms of (7). ,411 terms of the integrands of (9) con-
(17) is stationary about thetrue fields.14 However, both
tain only in the factor cos Hence (9) reduces to
must be satisJCed by the true fields and from this fact
G+T G
R. S. Elliott, "On the Theory of Corrugated Plane Surfaces,"
EH*dx EX*ds (10) Hughes Research and Development Labs., Technical Memorandum
No. 317; October, 1953. (Revised.)

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I.R.E. TRANSACTIOAVS-AFTENlNAS AND PROPAGATION April

one can derive useful information. T o see how good an cr, d m


approximation the fundamental mode is, we insert the G K
trial function E - A sinh a,b *ei(uf-aoz) in (16) and cot K h coth a0b
obtain the asymptotic formula G+T cr,

We notice that if 0 5 K h 5 (7r/2) then Po and CY, are both


as G f - T - 0 . Similarly, when the companion trial func- real and K so that wave propagation is slower than
tion i t would be in uncorrugated guide.
KZ If the side walls are allowed to recede to infinity, the
H=-- A , cosh a,b. ejcwt-flor) solution for a corrugated parallel plate transmission line
is obtained. Namely,
is inserted in (1 the asymptotic formula E, A, sinh b)ei(uf-b'oZ)
G K jPo
cot K h coth a,b (19) E, -Ao cosh b)ej(w+fl+)
G+T cu,

results when G T+O. Previous work by the Stanford


H, -A, cosh a,(y b)ej(Wt-B02)
group on a similar problemll indicates that these form-
ulas are good representations for (X,/G+T) h 10.
a, k2
I t is interesting to note that only for T 0 are the
two formulas the same. Thisisreasonable when one
recalls that E,,,,,=O over each tooth and the trial func-
tion used to obtain (18) does not satisfy this require-
ment if T > O . Hence, we conclude that only if (a) the If the spacing b becomes indefinitely large, the solu-
number of corrugations/wavelengthislarge,and(b) tion for a single flat corrugated surface results:
tooth width/gap width is small, does the field distribu- E , Aeiwt-ii%cao€I
tion above the corrugations consistessentially of the
fundamental mode. Point (b) seems previously to have
been overlooked and it can have important bearing on
the impedanceconceptwhencorrugatedsurfaces are
used as transmission lines. This shall be discussed fur-
ther in a later section.
T h e question still remains as to which formula, (18)
or (19), is more accurate when T > One would sus-
pect (19) is, because of its stationary character, andbe-
cause of the severe requirement on E,,,. Support for
this belief arises when any more general trial function in which
is substituted in (16) and T h e variation in (16) is
always greater than thecorresponding variation in (17).
Henceforth we shall assume that there are at least ten
corrugations per wavelength andthat the teeth are nar- Thus we conclude that if the side and top walls of a cor-
row compared to the gaps. Then to a good approxima- rugated waveguide are gradually flared out and then
tion the field above the corrugationsis given by terminated, a surface wave
may be
satisfactorily
TZ launched on the extended bottom wall with the expecta-
E, A , sinh a,(y b) 'cos ei(uf-floz) tion of a good match. If at the other end of the cor-
a
rugated waveguide the depth of corrugations is gradu-
ally tapered to zero, a good match to regular guide can
ff0
be achievedl3 and the resulting system can beefficiently
excited by a T E o mode.lj
~
RADIATION FROM CORRUGATED SURFACES
-4 problem of considerable practicalinterestisthe
computation of the radiation pattern of the system of
l5 As with any horn, there are space limitations to such a system
and for wide surfaces, line feeds (such as pill boxes, hog horns, etc.)
are more desirable. In such cases, flaring of the topwall is still helpful
to the match.

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1954 Elliott: On the Theory of Plane Surfaces

Fig. 2-Corrugated surface antenna.


Fig. 2. We shall assume all the requirements for a good implies that the currentswhich leak back over the out-
match are met, i.e., tapered corrugations in the wave side of the upper plate are negligible. If f<<J it may be
guide and gentle flare angles for thehorntoalarge ignored. If not, the effective length I’ can be taken as
aperture bxw. I t is then reasonable to expect that most some reasonable compromise, such as Z’=Z++f.)
of the power incident in a TEol mode is transformed to Lucke has shown16 that for f = O the reflection coeffi-
a surface mode as given by (22). cient fora surface wave of the form (22), incident at the
Since the chief effect of the finite width w is to alter junction of the corrugated surface and its infinite ground
the horizontal beamwidth, we shall infer the solution of plane, is given in magnitude by
this problem from the similar but simpler problem of an
infinitelywideparallelplatetransmission line whose
lower plate is corrugated and extended out to form a
single surface, as shown in Fig. 3 . For the present, we
shall assume the surface tobe terminated by an infinite IjTe shall see shortly that maximum gain results for the
ground plane, deferring to the next section a discussion corrugated surface of Fig. 3 if ( / 3 0 - K ) Z = ~ (the Hansen-

I
7

Fig. 3-Simplified antenna system.

of the effect of a finite ground plane. The radiation pat- Woodyard relation). Hence for practical systemsp 0 / k
tern of the system of Fig. 3 is contributed to by the is small and likewise RI is small. The tapered sectionf
secondary source distribution across the mouth of the tends to reduce R ] still further so we shall assume no
aperture,thecurrentdistribution in thecorrugated reflection at all.

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76 I.R.E. TRAILTSACTIOA'S-ANTENI\;AS ARTD PROPAGATION April

T h e field distribution over the corrugated surface is .ei(wt-kp,+s14)e,(~l!X)(B,F/?~;--cosB)


then given by (22). If this field is terminated by the
electric and magnetic current sheets k sin 0. sin [ k b sin %F sinh aoFb
(32)
jwe k2 sin? 0
J Uz --~ej(w+~:r)
in which the center of the corrugated surface has been
chosen as origin (making x. -l/2). The corrugated
surface is seen to give a conventional endfire pattern
the corrugated surface may beremoved and the ground which can be maximized by setting
plane extended back to the mouth of the feed. The ef-
fect of the ground plane can then be accounted for by (PoS K)Z T. (33)
the method of images. This is the Hansen-Woodyard relation mentioned pre-
Referring t o (21), the field at the mouth of the feed viously.
can be terminated by the sheets Although there is considerable turbulence in the re-
gion of the mouth, if the guide and surface modes are
extrapolated to the position -l/2, we can write

A , sinh a o F b . ~ j o P ~ F ~ ) / 2
(25) Cef+ (34)
AejtB,"
in which x. is the x-co-ordinate of the aperture. (The in which and It/ are positive real numbers which de-
superscripts and F are employed as mnemonic delx e s pendon thecorrugationgeometryandthemouth
for the surface and feed respectively.) T h e images of height, b, but not onlength of corrugatedsurface, I ,
(24)-(27) are since i t is assumed there are noreflections. The quantity

can be found by equating the power in the guide and


(25,) surface modes, which gives

If?=!c(-.) crop
aOFb
1
sinh a F b . cosh aoFb
(36)

Both fields (31) and (32) havetheirmaximainthe


direction 8 = O degrees. Making the substitutions (33)
so that the original system is equivalent to a magnetic and (34), the ratio of these maxima is
current sheet Hz8 k)
(35)
J, ,TJz2Aej(wt-#i1) HZF
K e
and the corresponding power ratio is
occupying the same position as the corrugated surface,
and a double sheet

This relationship is plottedin Fig. 4 for several lengths


of corrugated surface. I t is seen that the mouth must be
made quite small to effect satisfactory feed suppression.
This is going contrary to the requirements for a good
extending from -b t o +b in theplane of the feed match, and the analysis breaks down when the match is
mouth =xo). poor enough t h a t i t is no longer proper to equate the
The radiation patternsof these sources are powers in the two modes. Hence, some optimum height
b exists, which for practical systems probably will not
Hzs
WE

2
dz 2 yield more than 10 to 15 d b of suppression. This opti-
mum height will be a function of Po8 and I and can best
be determined by experiment.
I t is observed from (37) that if is small (which seems
reasonable) the two fields are essentially out of phase in
the forward direction. Since the feed pattern is broad,
this tends to sharpen the main beam. As an illustration
of this, Fig. shows the experimental patternof a 7.33X
corrugated surface as measured by Ehrlich. was ad-
justed to give maximum gain, i.e., k)l =T. For
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Elliott: On the Theory of Corrugated Plane Surfaces 77

I I I I

b/k
Fig. $-Feed suppression in db.
comparison, the theoretical patterns for the corrugated
surface alone, and for the surface plus feed with Fig. 5-Theoretical and experimental radiation patterns for a
corrugated surface of length 7.33X excited by a waveguide.
a are plotted. I t is seen that the case 0 corresponds
most closely to experiment. Thus it is wise to use the This tilt angle is a decreasing function of p,*/k for all
Hansen-Woodyard relation even when the feed radia- lengths and thus has an upper bound for PO8/k= l .
tion is considered,for thephasing is thenproper to This is fortunate, for the approximation is most accu-
provide additional beam sharpening. This will also be rate for this minimum valueof P,"/k. A plot of the upper
seen to be true in the presence of finite ground planes. bound is shown in Fig. 6, on following page.
THEEFFECT OF A FINITE GROUND PLANE T o see what happens as ground plane is added, we
first must find the current distribution in the infinite
Thus far the corrugated surface hasbeen assumed t o
ground plane. Using the source system (28), we find
be terminated by an infinite ground plane which per-
mits the use of the image principle and greatly simpli-
fies theanalysis. A reasonableapproximation tothe
pattern for the case of a finite ground plane can be ob-
tained by assuming the dominant mode to be present
over the corrugations and by assuming the same current
distribution to exist in the finite ground plane as would This may be converted to
exist in the same portionof an infinite ground plane.
For the case of no ground plane at all, this implies
the radiation pattern arises essentially from the double
sheet ( 2 4 ) and (25). (We assume feed radiation is suffi-
ciently suppressed as to be onlya minor perturbation on in which k ( x x'). When the Hansen-Woodyard
results following.) This radiation pattern is given by relation, (Po8-k)Z=a, is satisfied, the phase change of
the integrand of (42) overtheinterval k(x-2/2)
S k ( x + Z / 2 ) is approximately a radians for all x . Thus
the integrated error accruing from the substitution

(39)
d$ e-iuei(r/a) (43)

is negligible for all x in the range

and is a n approximation which is valid only for k)1 - s R : - -2< a.


small. A plot of (39) is characterized by a main beam
tilted up from the endlire position and slightly broad- Then
enedwithrespect to the infinitegroundplane case.
These results are consistent with experiment. The tilt u d e j ( p t /k-l)u
angle of the main beam is given by
JZ kv,Ge j ( u t - ~ o s ~ + r / 4 )
I; \A
1
-+-5x< (43

Equation (45)may be solved in terms of Fresnel inte-


grals through the substitution
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78 I.R.E. TRAh'SACTIOATS-ANTENhTAS AND PROPAGATION Apnl

I/
Fig. 6-Theoretical upper bound on the main beam-tilt angle for the radiation pattern of a flat corrugated surface with no ground plane-

Fig. 7-Theoretical upper bound on the main beam-tilt angle of the


radiation pattern for a flat corrugated surface as a function of
the lengths of the surface and its ground plane.

with the result


Fig. 8-Comparison between theory and experiment for two corrgu-
gated surfaces obeying the Hansen-Woodyard relation, one
long and the other long.

for a given the current densityis a decreasing function


of Pos/k. Thus for a finite ground plane of length with
the assumedcurrentdistribution the larger the
value of P o s / k , the smaller the end disturbance and the
smaller the tilt angle. Therefore the tilt angle is a de-
Since the valueof J , is also known at the current creasing function of for all Po8/k,with the rate of de-
distribution in the intervening half-wavelength can be crease least for POs/k l . But for the case Po8/k l , the
inferred by extrapolation. Equation (47)indicates t h a t corrugated surface of length and its ground plane of
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1954 Elliott: O n the Theory of Corrugated Plane Surfaces

length areelectricallyindistinguishable,and Fig. 6 sume that the radiation pattern does correspond to this
becomes the upper bound when (l+d)/X is substituted infinite case. As O1 approaches 0 degrees, fewer of the
for l / x as the abscissa scale. This information can be imagesourcescontribute,and in the position the
plotted in an alternative way as shownin Fig. 7, left. field strength is dou7n to one-half the value found for
To check this theory, a series of groundplanes of the infinite case. At any angle el, theradiationap-
length OX to 19X were added to a 4X corrugated surface proaches more nearly to the infinite case as the ground
and the tilt angles measured. In a second experiment, plane is lengthened.
ground planes ranging from to were attached to a For an angle O3 in quadrant 111, only the sources from
7.33X corrugatedsurfaceandthemeasurements re- to A’ contribute and as O3 approaches -90 degrees,
peated. The results are shown in Fig. page 78. The field decreases to zero, oscillating slightly as changing
agreementwiththeory is fair,withthegreatestde- source system phases in and out. Under this geometrical
parture occurring for long ground planes. argument, no energy is found in quadrant IV.
A satisfactory picture of the general nature of the Using the abovemodel, a sketchy pictureof the radia-
four-quadrant radiation pattern can be gleaned from a tionpatternmaybesynthesized as follows: For the
geometrical optics argument. lengths and of surface and ground plane being con-
Referring to Fig. 9, (shown above) if we neglect the sidered, determine from Figs. 6 and 7 the approximate
feed radiation and assume that the current distribution tilt angle, of the main beam. Use the field distribu-
in the ground plane does not radiate in the backward tion (31) for the region 8 T 5 8 5 180 degrees, assuming
direction, the radiationfield along the half-plane A -A’ the nullpositions areundisturbed.Forthe region
is given by (39) and if this field is terminated by the -90 degrees 58 SOT sketch in a smoothly decreasing
proper double sheet the radiation field in quadrants 11, field approximately 6 d b down a t 0 degrees. Result
111, and I\‘ is approximately determined by this double for a 7.33X surface with a $X ground plane is in Fig. 10,
sheet in the presence of the ground plane as an obstacle. page 80. This pattern agrees in its general shape with
The amplitude distribution of the source system along measured patterns, two examples of which are given in
A - A is suggested by the curve f ( s ) and serves to ex- Fig. 11, on page 81.
plain many of the features of the pattern.
For an angle in quadrant 11, the radiation is com- BEA4MWIDTH
puted from the sourcesalong A -A’ plus the image
sources from B to A . As approaches 90 degrees, the The geometrical optics picture just outlined suggests
radiationapproachesthevaluecomputed for an in- that for a corrugated surface of given length “I,” as the
finite ground plane, and throughout quadrant I we as- ground plane length is increased, the main beam not
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80 I.R.E. TRANSACTIONS-AMTENNAS PROPAGATION A prd

Fig. 10-Empirical radiation pattern for a 7.33X corrugated surface with a ground plane.

only tilts down closer to the plane, but the beamwidth gives essentially the same pattern for all higher modes,
narrows, approaching theinfinite plane value as a limit. i.e., 2l,% equal lobes with the nulls occurring at different
Plotted in Fig. 12, on following page, are the results of anglesfordifferentmodes. The fields of thesehigher
beamwidth measurements for a 7.33h surface and a va- modes will have phase relationships which depend on
riety of ground planes. As can be observed, the pattern the complex constants A,.
actually narrows as the endfire position is approached. An effort was made to excite these modes by con-
A lower bound on the beamwidth can thus be found structing a corrugated surface with twenty teeth per
from A plot of this lower bound as a function of wavelength and teeth three times as wide as the gaps.
l,/h is shown in Fig. 13 for (Po8-k)Z=‘ir on the followingIts radiation pattern was compared with that of a sim-
page. ilar surface in which the gaps were three times as wide
THEEFFECT OF FINITETOOTH WIDTH as the teeth. The slot depths of the two surfacesdiffered
by the amount necessary to establish the same value of
We have already observed t h a t unless the teeth are POs/k,a value chosen to satisfy the Hansen-Woodyard
extremelynarrow, thedominantmodecannotade-
relation. Two typical patterns are shown for compari-
quatelysatisfy (16) and (17) and that the wider the
son in Fig. 11. essential differences were observed.
teeth, the more thehigher order modes are excited. Re-
Thoughnotreportedhere,thisexperimentwasper-
ferring to if there are twenty corrugations
per wave-
formed over a range of frequencies, for several ground
length, plane lengths, including an effectively “infinite” ground
21, 41, etc. (48) plane, and for tooth width/gap width ratios of 3 1, 1
k k and 1 3. In no case were there any significant difference
and if these modes are excited, theywill have radiation in the patterns. Theconclusion appears that thehigher
patterns expressed in the form of (39), with appropriate order modes are excited when the teeth are wide but
substitutions for a,PI and A . The factor that their amplitudes are comparable and phases random
(a,’ j k sin 0) so that their net effect on the radiation patternis small.
I t should be emphasized that this does not mean that
is practically insensitive to The factor the effect of the presence of higher ordermodes is
negligible when the corrugated surface is being used as
a transmission line. In that case, the impedance concept
is vastly complicated by their presence and it would
seem advisableto use narrow teethin an effort to obtain
an uncontaminated dominant mode.

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1954 Elliott: On the Th.eory of Corrugated Plane Surfaces 81

Fig. 11-Experimental radiation patterns for two corrugated surfaces 7.33X long, one having a tooth to gap ratio of 3
and the other a tooth to gap ratio of 1:3, each terminated by a h/2 ground plane.

Fig. 12-Beamwidth versus ground plane length for a


7.33X corrugated surface.

CONCLUSIONS Fig. 13-Theoretical lower bound on beamwidth as a function of


length of corrugated surface when Hansen-Woodyard relation is
The analysis of a flat corrugated surface appears to obeyed.
be strengthened by a Floquet-Lucke method of field de- tern when corrugated surface is used as an antenna.
termination. Consideration of feed radiation gives bet-
ter correlation between theory and experiment. Effectof ACKNOWLEDGMENT
a finite ground plane canbe explained approximatelyby The author is indebted to I. K. Williams for many
classic assumption of current distribution. Effect of fi- stimulating discussions, Mrs. A. Cordova who did most
nite tooth width, though it complicates transmission line of the computations, and E. N. Rodda who assisted in
analysis, apparently has no influence on radiation pat- the experiments and the preparation of this report.

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