A SYNTHESIS ?VETHODFOR CIRCULAR AND CYLINDRICAL ANTENNAS COWBED OF DISCElETE ELEMENTS9
T.T
Taylor
Researoh and Development Laboratoriea
^{E}^{u}^{g}^{h}^{e}^{s}
Culver City,
Calif,
Antennas oomposed of
discrete elements equally
spaoed in angle
around a oirole or oiroular oylinder studied wtth the objeotive of designing such antennas to produoe required azimuthal radiation
patterns
Bch has already been written upon this subjeot undep the
as
sumption that
a oontinuous distribution of elementary sources sill
design problem or at least
however,
it is felt that something may be gained
be an aooeptable solution to the
form a step in the attainment of an aooeptable solution. In the
present writing,
by analyzing the problem from the beginning on the basis of discrete
elemsnts, The question of how many elements needed is discuoj sed in detail and it is shown that the envelope of the excitation
coefficients is not neoessarily equivalent to the continuous solu
tion available by other methods.
Braotioal proosdures for
finding
the envelope of the excitation ooefficients, and henoe the coeffici
ents themselves, are outlined,
J
I, Scope of the Analysis
antenna array has been definedl "a series of identical and identioally oriented radiating slemenfs whose respective current distributions geomtrioally similar," In easence, this means that any element of the array may be made to ooinaide meohaniaally
with any other elemsat by a simple translation
without rotation and
that; superposition of the element patkerns be applied, I n the
of
arrays of dipoles, for
all but
example,
the latter statement Implies
openc~cuited
that
one
of
the dipoles
an *ray
at the* feed points and the remaining element is driven, then the openclrcuited elements oarry no current whatsoever and the field is that of the driven element alone in free space, This mean "that mutual effeots do not exist, but Pathera that suoh effects
are manifested only terms added to the feed point cuments, If
this condition is fulfilled,
the customary
methods of
array analysis
%Work described in
thfs paper was
oarried out through the
sponsor
shfp of the Air Form
Cambridge Research Laboratory
under Contract
AF 19 (122)
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apply and the faP zone field pattern is given as
Here the ht, the Hexcitation coeffiaients" of the array and respeotively proportional to the feed point ourrents; the am the position veatms assooiated with the respeotLve dipoles; a is a unit
vector which points
the observer; k
and
.(r,QJ$)is
the field pattern of a single dipole,
finite oonduoting graund plane, the feed point might be a point in the feeding waveguide roughlyhg/2 behind the slot and the voltags at this point would determine the excitation coefficient of the slot.
The applioability of array analysis would be judged by the pattern
For arrays of slots
an in
alot is driven and all the rest
waveguides shortoirouited by. a oonduoting septum at the feed point,
obtained when'one
that is,
oally zero.
their feedlng
identi
when thew exoitation ooeffiuients are made to be
If
this pattern is tbe
that of the driven slot
alone in
ory is exactly applicrable.
otherwise ungunotured oonduoting planeJ then array the
The arrays
discussed might be Galled "parallel arrayd'
of the elements
from the faot that
one another.
there is no rotation
of antenna
with respect;
as an assembly
am such
The
be considered in this paper
term whioh has al
wfil be defined
might be oalled a "oirctularly disposed array",
ready been in the literature, and of Identioal radiating elemsnts
that any element; of
relatzve orientations
the array may be made to ooinctide meahaniaally
simple rotation about; a fixed axis, and
with any other element by
which has the property that superposition of the element patterns 1s possible
The oonditiona for the um
before and need not be repeated.
na
given by I
of superposition are the The fields external to the antea
as
I
Again the
are the exoitation ooeffioients
respeotively proportional to the ourrents
of the elements and or voltages at the
feed points; element looated
the funotion 8, (r,e,$ /st> is the pattern
at the anglept.
of a single
The ang1e.P is measured in the
manner
that is,
oounteralookwise about the 2 arris from
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F
the X axia, 
assuming that the former is the axis of aymmetry of 
the 
antenna. 
The purpose
of
this paper is to provide a praotlcal method for
finding the At auch that 
in the far 

zone 
will be 
as desired, the final pattern, Generally this of 
patte'm synthesis 
be done 
only with respect to the variable 
for a given cone 

and 
only for' one or the other of the tangential veotor 
qeotor bar be a generalimd notation for eitfer EQ or E$,
oomponents of
that is,
for either Ee or E
Let E withaut tbe
and let
be a radius which is greater than the distanoe to the baundary
of the far zone.
Then
1 % may be
but;
objected that
the solution
solve the matrix equation
is obvious from (3); om has
given the It is granted that
of E
for 3 0,1,2,0.*T=1.
this is a legitimate procedure;
These are:
(b) There is no
oertian draw
(a) The msthod is
way of pre
backs must be pointed out, however,
bdious, especially for large T;
dioting the of E between of the $3, nor of setting up qualitatively the aonditions ovhioh w;ill guarantee the behav ior" of E in these regions; The method fails If, in a beam shap
Lng problem,
one wishes to impose oonditions only upon \E\rather
than upon E itself.
The proaedure
be advancred here
applies only when the elements
are equally spaced but removes the above mentioned drawbaoks in suoh
fiqientg
This is done by focusing attention
of E rather
than upon the
the Fourier ooef
upon of E at disorete points,
It
should
be mentioned that
such
circularly disposed
arrays may in
due to
dipole),
that is,
olude not only
spaoe,but also dipoles arranged on a oirole and baoked by a oylin
as dipoles arranged on a oirole in free
currents on the cylinder
by that
reflector
(in which case ths
part
of
a single dfpole
slots arranged
the "element" formed
in a atrole on a conducting oiroular oylinder,
criroularlg disposed array may inolude more than one tier,
there may be several "rings" with a oomon axis, In this the
array definition still applies if eaoh tier has the
number of
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units and if ths units
csitations
a as the units in any other tier,
in
tier have the sans relabbe ex
The term “element” is
now reserved for an assembly
this
assembly has
it
axia brings
definition of
of oorrespondlng units from each tier;
the property that a rotation about the oomon
8vit’n the next suoh assembly, and
into coincfdenoe
it possesses a feed poht with the requisite properties, the
an element is fulfilled,
1
11. Fourier Serie.3 Expressions
Following Harrington and Le
Pages,
the element faotor in the
far zone will be expressed
a Fourier series:
Here Vo is intended to inalude all Incidental constants. Thai; an
expression suoh
faot that; a formal intesation of the retarded
om
be
written is evident fron the
currents
in the
el
ement
from which the far zone eleotrio field may be
calculated)
be put in the form of (5). Let the current density in the
element be
By a derivation which is too long to be
shown that
included here3 it may be
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In these equations the
limits of
integration are ohosen
as
to
enclose the
ourrent distribution,
some elementary cylindrical oonfigurations
results
in Fourier series form.
P.S. Carter* 'as analyzed
and has also given the
the
If
is
subatituted hto
(3) the result
total pattern
a Fourier aeries:
is an expression of
rearranged
follows:
that; the Fourier coeffioieats of
the far zone pattern,
The problem is now one of finding the At such that a satisfaat my series of be obtained. This tasG would be. impossible were it not for the faot that the number of important far zone coeffioi ents is very effeotfvely lixited to a finite numbers, N. Phis is true because Gn(Qo) beooms vanishingly small when In I beoollses
er than a oertaia maximum
,,n
ka sin
whioh is slightly larger
the cylinder which
than
en
Here
is the radius of
closes the current distribution. This is another manifestation of
the impossibility of
noting
to n is dominated by Bessel f'unctions of
the behavior
super gain antennas, and oan be demonstrated by
of
the
Gn(Q,)
with,respeot
the first kind.
The
that
in (7)and
ment of these finctions ranges from zero up to ka sin 8, and it is
a wellknown fact that when the order of
their argument,
these funations exceeds
Ths the
their value
quickly becomes negligible.
An coefficients whioh desoribe
lie in the central irztemal nm n 6 ,,n although this entire range
the desired far zone pattern mst
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need not
than 2n,
neoessarily be
1.
that is, N may be
equal to or less
The N desired far zone ooeffioients may be found by any of
fypioal:
eral methods of whicth the following
1,
Fourier
analysis
(by integration)
of
the desired E(r,,Q
followed by a disoarding of
all coeffioients for whioh In
(H1?/2*
2. Use of the method of Dolph6
suoh that the sfde lobes of Ea(ro,Qo,$) soribed level.
find the A,
eoefficlents
all equal and have a pre
3,
Qo,p) i.s
variable
Uae of the method of Taylor and mbinneryl
whhh
E (pol
regarded
the
profile
The roots
of
of a polynosnlal in the
this .polgno&al
adjusted until
lE(~o,Qo$)
is'
desired and the
coeffioients of the polyaomial
the required An.
Oncre'it is de'o%dedthat
particular series ,of An ooeffiaieats
it beoomes neaessary to solve N equations of the form of
is wanted,
(U.) fop the.At;,
1x1.
Solviag for the Excitation Coeffioients
The solution
of
(11),is part;ioularly
when, as has been irn
plied before, the elements 6qually spaaed in angle, that is when
t?,
shorn in Fig.
1.
let u@) be a smooth curve
whioh passes through the ordinates erected at the absaissaefit,
shorn in Fig. 2.
Generally up) and the
The
funotion u(,g) is
is
rn the envelope
by
of the excitation coeffiof
'If,
(13) is substituted
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into (U)the result is
r
1
I
This becomes
(note that 7=2n/Tl
Let
the sumation
t
be
abbreviated 5
this quantity is
the
su m of T complex numbers of unit magnitude spaoed Imn] Z n / T apart
in angle,
This sum is clearly zero when [mn'l
is not equal to qT
(q an integer)
\%.en,
nuMberys
are equal
a8
mathematioally
however,
mn =qT (q an
unity and the sum is T.
integer), all T of the Thfa may be expressed
The final expression for A, becomes
far nothing has been
said about the value
of'E, but, since
(37)
inoludes
matrlx of N equations which it is desired
solve, it
follows that the number of the unknown ,b
soon be
should also be No It will
am postulated,
the
shown that; no matter how rrany more ,b
number of linearly independent equations oannot exaeed T, the number
of
For
sirzlplicity,
and the
then,
la shall be arbitrarily taken
as
to
(Nl)/2
fustffication wLll become evident
development continues.
If T is equal to
For example,
sinple,
or greater than W,
suppose M
5
T
the solution is extremly
6.
Then the equations
represented by
(17) may be
writGen
follows:
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2
1
0
1
2
3
The equatlons
each separated by a gap of T
from the central graup and
seen
be divided into independent groups
N.
of N,
The values of the bm may be fuund
simply
If T
N the groups of equations
aontigucrus and tbre
is
istill no difficulty, but if T 4
N the groups overlap as in the fol
lowing example where N
5 and T
3
1
0
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Of the five equations in the central group it is 
that 
the 

first 
and last 
not linearly independent 
and that A2 and A2 
can 
not be
Independently apecif'led,
in oertain
Tbs,
if
This situation may be utflized
for example those
AdTG2,
it
in which
to
advantage, however, symmetry exists. to makePo equal tral coefficients
b2
b2
is only necessary
zero and a would be found
have to be
solution is possible.
the usual
The three cen
(by 19) and the
such that
their sum is equal to AdTG,;
it would be reasonable to make
them equal
to eaoh other and then
If T
(I?1)the overlap is greater than one
T;
heme
and a practical solu
tion is probably impossible, The dependent equations are not those which equally removed from the uenter of the central group, but
rather those whose orders dlffer by
symmetry is of' no avail.
specified,
a circularly
The coaclusllon is that for the synthesis of a far zone pattern of
which the N central Fourier coefficients are
disposed array of a t least N elements is generally required, IT both the pattern of the individual element and the pattern to 3e
and when
synthesized are
this
symmtPical,
M
1 elements may be
is
there must be
element on the positive X
(the
1
axis of pattern symmetry). may not be Used,
A number of elenents less than N
IV. Error Term
in the Far Zone Pattern
It has been seen that (17) represents an infinite set
that
those
In the central
satisfied
such that the A,
group,
of equa
tions
om be
( & 1 ) / 2 g n g (N3)/2,
coef
with N predetermined
ficients,
The An outside thls
central interval cannot
be
indepen
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dentlg
not
speclfied,
and therefore
const2tute error term.
This
is
cessarily serious,
however,
the
become vanLsh
in@;ly small.after a oertain order, nm, ia exoeedsd.
takes oar8 that the
first error term
n
nm; he will
generally be quite
If
the antenna
designer
range nm
by sagauiously choosing the radius of the cjrcle or aylinder.
fall outside the
This is done
Additional. number of elemnts,
gap between suocessive groups
capitalize upon
therefore
aonfirms 10giGally a conalusion that is obvious from intuition,
namely that the seater the number of elements used, the more ac
curately the given far zone pattern om be reproduced.7
in this direotlon be an infinite number of infinitesimal ele
of
pattern ayntheais
of aoefficients.
of
_{i}_{s}
obtained _{i}_{f} _{T}_{,}
the
is made greater than N,
a means
sinoe the result is a
The designer
can
and
this gap as
inoreasing the order,
deoreasing the magnitude, of
ths first error terms. This
Tb limit
ments and the
envelope,
would simply be the con inu us
function which has been described by earlier authors.ir8,g When
ever exthnded elemnfs
will
used,
however,
the Gn(e,)
coefficients
be different from those for
sa
infinitesiml elements ad u(p).
hnction whioh would components.
will not be the
give a far zone pattern with the
as the aontinuous
same central
I
1, 
T.T. 
Taylor and J.R. 
Whinnery, Jour'. Appl, Phys., v01. 22, 

po 19; 1951. 

2. 
R.F. 
Harrington 
W.R, 
Le Page, 
PTou. 
I.R.E., 
vol. 
p. 
1952 

3. 
A similar expression may 
be fwd in (6) and 
of W.W. 
Hansen 
and J.R.
Woodyard,
Proc.
I.R.E.,
26, p. 333; 1938;
Pas, Carter, PToc. I.R.E.3 vola 31, 671; 1943.
Authorized
In
N
follows,
N will always be
an oddnumber.
Cases in whiuh
to the
is apparently an even number occur but
reconcrfied
above statement by regarding one or mre
existing but
fuur coefficients dght be found which gives the desired pattern,
aa having zero value.
of the coefficients
a series of
For example,
(as in linear array theory)
that
is,the magnitude
it
of the corresponding function of the complex
ated upon the unit clrcle, is the power pattern requLred. In
order to achieve
evalu
be
this pattern in a ciroular arrayi
whose
add a fifth coefficient
is zero, then
number the
ooefficlents from 2 to 2, mng the
third ooeffioi
ent the central one. The resulting power paktern be the intended and the phase pattern will fulfill the necessary physZoal condition of returning to the sans value each tfme
one
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I
increases
through
radians since the corresponding function
of
the oomplex variable wlll oontain only integral powers
the unkrrowi~,
of
W.R.
Le Page,
po 1069; 1950.
Roys,
and
Seely, Proo, I
R.E.,
38,
E.C. Jordaa,
“Antenna Systems for
Radio Direction Finding”
(Paper presented
at URSIIRE
meting) April 17, 1951, National
DOGO
meau of Standarda, Washington,
Y
Location of elements in a
circularly disposed array,
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lfd
^{I}^{}
2n
261
Fig,
Developed diagram of a circularly disposed array sharing. excitation coefficients and their envelope.
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