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A SYNTHESIS ?VETHODFOR CIRCULAR AND CYLINDRICAL ANTENNAS COWBED OF DISCElETE ELEMENTS9

T.T

Taylor

Researoh and Development Laboratoriea

Eughes

Culver City,

Calif,

Antennas oomposed of

discrete elements equally

spaoed in angle

around a oirole or oiroular oylinder studied wtth the objeotive of designing such antennas to produoe required azimuthal radiation

patterns

Bch has already been written upon this subjeot undep the

as-

sumption that

a oontinuous distribution of elementary sources sill

design problem or at least

however,

it is felt that something may be gained

be an aooeptable solution to the

form a step in the attainment of an aooeptable solution. In the

present writing,

by analyzing the problem from the beginning on the basis of discrete

elemsnts, The question of how many elements needed is discuoj- sed in detail and it is shown that the envelope of the excitation

coefficients is not neoessarily equivalent to the continuous solu-

tion available by other methods.

Braotioal proosdures for

finding

the envelope of the excitation ooefficients, and henoe the coeffici-

ents themselves, are outlined,

J

I, Scope of the Analysis

antenna array has been definedl "a series of identical and identioally oriented radiating slemenfs whose respective current distributions geomtrioally similar," In easence, this means that any element of the array may be made to ooinaide meohaniaally

with any other elemsat by a simple translation

without rotation and

that; superposition of the element patkerns be applied, I n the

of

arrays of dipoles, for

all but

example,

the latter statement Implies

open-c~cuited

that

one

of

the dipoles

an *ray

at the* feed points and the remaining element is driven, then the open-clrcuited elements oarry no current whatsoever and the field is that of the driven element alone in free space, This mean "that mutual effeots do not exist, but Pathera that suoh effects

are manifested only terms added to the feed point cuments, If

this condition is fulfilled,

the customary

methods of

array analysis

%Work described in

thfs paper was

oarried out through the

sponsor-

shfp of the Air Form

Cambridge Research Laboratory

under Contract

AF 19 (122)

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apply and the faP zone field pattern is given as

Here the ht, the Hexcitation coeffiaients" of the array and respeotively proportional to the feed point ourrents; the am the position veatms assooiated with the respeotLve dipoles; a is a unit

vector which points

the observer; k

-and

.(r,QJ$)is

the field pattern of a single dipole,

finite oonduoting graund plane, the feed point might be a point in the feeding waveguide roughlyhg/2 behind the slot and the voltags at this point would determine the excitation coefficient of the slot.

The applioability of array analysis would be judged by the pattern

For arrays of slots

an in-

alot is driven and all the rest

waveguides short-oirouited by. a oonduoting septum at the feed point,

obtained when'one

that is,

oally zero.

their feedlng

identi-

when thew exoitation ooeffiuients are made to be

If

this pattern is tbe

that of the driven slot

alone in

ory is exactly applicrable.

otherwise ungunotured oonduoting planeJ then array the-

The arrays

discussed might be Galled "parallel arrayd'

of the elements

from the faot that

one another.

there is no rotation

of antenna

with respect;

as an assembly

am such

The

be considered in this paper

term whioh has al-

wfil be defined

might be oalled a "oirctularly disposed array",

ready been in the literature, and of Identioal radiating elemsnts

that any element; of

relatzve orientations

the array may be made to ooinctide meahaniaally

simple rotation about; a fixed axis, and

with any other element by

which has the property that superposition of the element patterns 1s possible

The oonditiona for the um

before and need not be repeated.

na

given by I

of superposition are the The fields external to the antea-

as

I

Again the

are the exoitation ooeffioients

respeotively proportional to the ourrents

of the elements and or voltages at the

feed points; element looated

the funotion 8, (r,e,$ -/st> is the pattern

at the anglept.

of a single

The ang1e.P is measured in the

manner

that is,

oounteralookwise about the 2 arris from

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F

the X axia,

assuming that the former is the axis of aymmetry of

the

antenna.

The purpose

of

this paper is to provide a praotlcal method for

finding the At

auch that

in the far

zone

will be

as desired,

the final pattern, Generally this

of

patte'm synthesis

be done

only with respect to the variable

for a given cone

and

only for' one or the other of the tangential veotor

qeotor bar be- a generalimd notation for eitfer EQ or E$,

oomponents of

that is,

for either Ee or E

Let E withaut tbe

and let

be a radius which is greater than the distanoe to the baundary

of the far zone.

Then

1 % may be

but;

objected that

the solution

solve the matrix equation

is obvious from (3); om has

given the It is granted that

of E

for 3 0,1,2,0.*T=1.

this is a legitimate procedure;

These are:

(b) There is no

oertian draw-

(a) The msthod is

way of pre-

backs must be pointed out, however,

bdious, especially for large T;

dioting the of E between of the $3, nor of setting up qualitatively the aonditions ovhioh w;ill guarantee the behav- ior" of E in these regions; The method fails If, in a beam shap-

Lng problem,

one wishes to impose oonditions only upon \E\rather

than upon E itself.

The proaedure

be advancred here

applies only when the elements

are equally spaced but removes the above mentioned drawbaoks in suoh

fiqientg

This is done by focusing attention

of E rather

than upon the

the Fourier ooef-

upon of E at disorete points,

It

should

be mentioned that

such

circularly disposed

arrays may in-

due to

dipole),

that is,

olude not only

spaoe,but also dipoles arranged on a oirole and baoked by a oylin-

as dipoles arranged on a oirole in free

currents on the cylinder

by that

reflector

(in which case ths

part

of

a single dfpole

slots arranged

the "element" formed

in a atrole on a conducting oiroular oylinder,

criroularlg disposed array may inolude more than one tier,

there may be several "rings" with a oomon axis, In this the

array definition still applies if eaoh tier has the

number of

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units and if ths units

csitations

a as the units in any other tier,

in

tier have the sans relabbe ex-

The term “element” is

now reserved for an assembly

this

assembly has

it

axia brings

definition of

of oorrespondlng units from each tier;

the property that a rotation about the oomon

8vit’n the next suoh assembly, and

into coincfdenoe

it possesses a feed poht with the requisite properties, the

an element is fulfilled,

1

11. Fourier Serie.3 Expressions

Following Harrington and Le

Pages,

the element faotor in the

far zone will be expressed

a Fourier series:

Here Vo is intended to inalude all Incidental constants. Thai; an

expression suoh

faot that; a formal intesation of the retarded

om

be

written is evident fron the

currents

in the

el-

ement

from which the far zone eleotrio field may be

calculated)

be put in the form of (5). Let the current density in the

element be

By a derivation which is too long to be

shown that

included here3 it may be

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In these equations the

limits of

integration are ohosen

as

to

enclose the

ourrent distribution,

some elementary cylindrical oonfigurations

results

in Fourier series form.

P.S. Carter* 'as analyzed

and has also given the

the

If

is

subatituted hto

(3) the result

total pattern

a Fourier aeries:

is an expression of

rearranged

follows:

that; the Fourier coeffioieats of

the far zone pattern,

The problem is now one of finding the At such that a satisfaat my series of be obtained. This tasG would be. impossible were it not for the faot that the number of important far zone coeffioi- ents is very effeotfvely lixited to a finite numbers, N. Phis is true because Gn(Qo) beooms vanishingly small when In I beoollses

er than a oertaia maximum

,,n

ka sin

whioh is slightly larger

the cylinder which

than

en-

Here

is the radius of

closes the current distribution. This is another manifestation of

the impossibility of

noting

to n is dominated by Bessel f'unctions of

the behavior

super gain antennas, and oan be demonstrated by

of

the

Gn(Q,)

with,respeot

the first kind.

The

that

in (7)and

ment of these finctions ranges from zero up to ka sin 8, and it is

a well-known fact that when the order of

their argument,

these funations exceeds

Ths the

their value

quickly becomes negligible.

An coefficients whioh desoribe

lie in the central irztemal -nm n 6 ,,n although this entire range

the desired far zone pattern mst

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need not

than 2n,

neoessarily be

1.

that is, N may be

equal to or less

The N desired far zone ooeffioients may be found by any of

fypioal:

eral methods of whicth the following

1,

Fourier

analysis

(by integration)

of

the desired E(r,,Q

followed by a disoarding of

all coeffioients for whioh In

(H-1?/2*

2. Use of the method of Dolph6

suoh that the sfde lobes of Ea(ro,Qo,$) soribed level.

find the A,

eoefficlents

all equal and have a pre-

3,

Qo,p) i.s

variable

Uae of the method of Taylor and mbinneryl

whhh

E (pol

regarded

the

profile

The roots

of

of a polynosnlal in the

this .polgno&al

adjusted until

lE(~o,Qo$)

is'

desired and the

coeffioients of the polyaomial

the required An.

Oncre'it is de'o%dedthat

particular series ,of An ooeffiaieats

it beoomes neaessary to solve N equations of the form of

is wanted,

(U.) fop the.At;,

1x1.

Solviag for the Excitation Coeffioients

The solution

of

(11),is part;ioularly

when, as has been irn-

plied before, the elements 6qually spaaed in angle, that is when

t?,

shorn in Fig.

1.

let u@) be a smooth curve

whioh passes through the ordinates erected at the absaissaefit,

shorn in Fig. 2.

Generally up) and the

The

funotion u(,g) is

is

rn the envelope

by

of the excitation coeffiof-

'If,

(13) is substituted

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into (U)the result is

r

1

I

This becomes

(note that 7=2n/Tl

Let

the sumation

t

be

abbreviated 5

this quantity is

the

su m of T complex numbers of unit magnitude spaoed Im-n] Z n / T apart

in angle,

This sum is clearly zero when [m-n'l

is not equal to qT

(q an integer)

\%.en,

nuMberys

are equal

a8

mathematioally

however,

m-n =qT (q an

unity and the sum is T.

integer), all T of the Thfa may be expressed

The final expression for A, becomes

far nothing has been

said about the value

of'E, but, since

(37)

inoludes

matrlx of N equations which it is desired

solve, it

follows that the number of the unknown ,b

soon be

should also be No It will

am postulated,

the

shown that; no matter how rrany more ,b

number of linearly independent equations oannot exaeed T, the number

of

For

sirzlplicity,

and the

then,

la shall be arbitrarily taken

as

to

(N-l)/2

fustffication wLll become evident

development continues.

If T is equal to

For example,

sinple,

or greater than W,

suppose M

5

T

the solution is extremly

6.

Then the equations

represented by

(17) may be

writGen

follows:

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-2

-1

0

1

2

3

The equatlons

each separated by a gap of T

from the central graup and

seen

be divided into independent groups

N.

of N,

The values of the bm may be fuund

simply

If T

N the groups of equations

aontigucrus and tbre

is

istill no difficulty, but if T 4

N the groups overlap as in the fol-

lowing example where N

5 and T

-3

-1

0

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Of the five equations in the central group it is

that

the

first

and last

not linearly independent

and

that A2 and A-2

can-

not be

Independently apecif'led,

in oertain

Tbs,

if

This situation may be utflized

for example those

A-dTG-2,

it

in which

to

advantage, however, symmetry exists. to makePo equal tral coefficients

b-2

b2

is only necessary

zero and a would be found

have to be

solution is possible.

the usual

The three cen-

(by 19) and the

such that

their sum is equal to AdTG,;

it would be reasonable to make

them equal

to eaoh other and then

If T

(I?-1)the overlap is greater than one

T;

heme

and a practical solu-

tion is probably impossible, The dependent equations are not those which equally removed from the uenter of the central group, but

rather those whose orders dlffer by

symmetry is of' no avail.

specified,

a circularly

The coaclusllon is that for the synthesis of a far zone pattern of

which the N central Fourier coefficients are

disposed array of a t least N elements is generally required, IT both the pattern of the individual element and the pattern to 3e

and when

synthesized are

this

symmtPical,

M

1 elements may be

is

there must be

element on the positive X

(the

1

axis of pattern symmetry). may not be Used,

A number of elenents less than N

IV. Error Term

in the Far Zone Pattern

It has been seen that (17) represents an infinite set

that

those

In the central

satisfied

such that the A,

group,

of equa-

tions

om be

( & 1 ) / 2 g n g (N-3)/2,

coef-

with N predetermined

ficients,

The An outside thls

central interval cannot

be

indepen-

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dentlg

not

speclfied,

and therefore

const2tute error term.

This

is

cessarily serious,

however,

the

become vanLsh-

in@;ly small.after a oertain order, nm, ia exoeedsd.

takes oar8 that the

first error term

n

nm; he will

generally be quite

If

the antenna

designer

range -nm

by sagauiously choosing the radius of the cjrcle or aylinder.

fall outside the

This is done

Additional. number of elemnts,

gap between suocessive groups

capitalize upon

therefore

aonfirms 10giGally a conalusion that is obvious from intuition,

namely that the seater the number of elements used, the more ac-

curately the given far zone pattern om be reproduced.7

in this direotlon be an infinite number of infinitesimal ele-

of

pattern ayntheais

of aoefficients.

of

is

obtained if T,

the

is made greater than N,

a means

sinoe the result is a

The designer

can

and

this gap as

inoreasing the order,

deoreasing the magnitude, of

ths first error terms. This

Tb limit

ments and the

envelope,

would simply be the con inu us

function which has been described by earlier authors.ir8,g When-

ever exthnded elemnfs

will

used,

however,

the Gn(e,)

coefficients

be different from those for

sa-

infinitesiml elements ad u(p).

hnction whioh would components.

will not be the

give a far zone pattern with the

as the aontinuous

same central

I

1,

T.T.

Taylor and J.R.

Whinnery, Jour'. Appl, Phys., v01. 22,

 

po 19; 1951.

 

2.

R.F.

Harrington

W.R,

Le Page,

PTou.

I.R.E.,

vol.

p.

1952

3.

A similar expression may

be

fwd in (6) and

of W.W.

Hansen

and J.R.

Woodyard,

Proc.

I.R.E.,

26, p. 333; 1938;

Pas, Carter, PToc. I.R.E.3 vola 31, 671; 1943.

Authorized

In

N

follows,

N will always be

an oddnumber.

Cases in whiuh

to the

is apparently an even number occur but

reconcrfied

above statement by regarding one or mre

existing but

fuur coefficients dght be found which gives the desired pattern,

aa having zero value.

of the coefficients

a series of

For example,

(as in linear array theory)

that

is,the magnitude

it

of the corresponding function of the complex

ated upon the unit clrcle, is the power pattern requLred. In

order to achieve

evalu-

be

this pattern in a ciroular arrayi

whose

add a fifth coefficient

is zero, then

number the

ooefficlents from -2 to 2, mng the

third ooeffioi-

ent the central one. The resulting power paktern be the intended and the phase pattern will fulfill the necessary physZoal condition of returning to the sans value each tfme

one

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I

increases

through

radians since the corresponding function

of

the oomplex variable wlll oontain only integral powers

the unkrrowi~,

of

W.R.

Le Page,

po 1069; 1950.

Roys,

and

Seely, Proo, I

R.E.,

38,

E.C. Jordaa,

“Antenna Systems for

Radio Direction Finding”

(Paper presented

at URSI-IRE

meting) April 17, 1951, National

DOGO

meau of Standarda, Washington,

Y

Location of elements in a

circularly disposed array,

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lfd

I-

2n

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261

Fig,

Developed diagram of a circularly disposed array sharing. excitation coefficients and their envelope.