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1 visualizzazioni12 pagineGeomatrical Theory of DiffractionGTD Part I Foundation of the Theory-Nj8

Oct 27, 2019

Geomatrical Theory of DiffractionGTD Part I Foundation of the Theory-Nj8

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Geomatrical Theory of DiffractionGTD Part I Foundation of the Theory-Nj8

© All Rights Reserved

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1 visualizzazioni12 pagineGeomatrical Theory of DiffractionGTD Part I Foundation of the Theory-Nj8

Geomatrical Theory of DiffractionGTD Part I Foundation of the Theory-Nj8

© All Rights Reserved

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I:

A33STRACT This article is intended to people of Fermat's principle to include points o n the

interested in electromagnetic high-frequency boundary Surface in the ray trajectory.

diffraction by perfectly and imperfectly conduc-

ting objects. It describes the physical founda- edge diffracted ray fromP to Q is a

tions and Sostulates of the Geometrical Theory curve which has stationary length among all

of Diffraction as formulated originally by curves from P to having a point on an edge.

Keller. great emphasis is devoted to the ma- In a homogeneous medium. this implies that the

thematical foundations of the theory which per- ray is a straight line from P to a point an the

nits to elucidate its possibilities and limi- edge and a straight line fromthat point Q.

tations and to introduce later developments and The two lines make equal angles with the edge

improvements ( S e e Part I 1 of this article). For at the point where they meet i t , and lie on op-

each diffraction process. the most important posite sides of the plane normal to the edge at

formulas of GTD are presented with comments con- this point of diffraction. This is the law of

cerning their utility in practical applications diffraction. It shows that one incident ray pro-

and a review of available diffraction coeffi-

cients.

of a wavelength. the scattering and diffraction

is found to be essentially a localized pheno-

menon identifiable with certain localized areas

on the object: points of specular reflec-

:tion. shadow boundaries, edges and vertices.

The high frequency field may thereforebe

thought of as being produced by diffracted rays

in an extended geometrical optical sense.

The high frequency approach to be discussed

in this paper. was originally developped by

KELLER 11.2.31 who shmwed that diffraction could FrBdkric Molinet was bornin Wengelsbach,

be introduced in the classical goemetric optics France, on November 13, 1934. He received the

( G O ] , essentially by an extension of Fermat's Engineer degree from Ecole Centrale de Lyon in

principle. Like geometrical optics ( G O ) the dif- 1959, the Ductor d e spitcialit6 [ 3 e cycle) in

fracted field travels along certain straightor theoretical nuclear physics from the University

curved lines called diffractedrays which have af Strasbourg and the Doctor-6s-Sciences degree

to be added to the usual rays of GO. Some of from the Universityof Paris in 1971.

these new rays enter the shadow regions and

account for the light there while others into From 1964 to 1971. he was involved in

the illuminated region. research in plasma physics at the Institut Henri

PoincarrB. During 1971,he joined the Laboratoire

Diffracted rays are produced by incident Central de TBlBcomunicationswhere he leaded

rays which hit edges, corners or vertices of the department of Theoretical Studies and

boundary surfaces or which graze such surfaces. Modelling. In 1980. he founded his own company

Just as there are laws of relfection and refrac- MOTHESIM where his activityis centred on nume-

tion which govern the behaviour of incident, rical and asymptotic solutions of electroma-

reflected and refracted rays, Keller proposed gnetic and acoustic radiation and scattering

adding several new laws which could describe problems, with applications to E M P , m C , radar

the behaviour of various species of diffracted and sonar scattering.

rays. The postulztes of Keller's theory called

Geometrical ThDory of Diffraction (GTD) ars D r . Molinet is a former president of the

summarized as follows chapter Waves and Fields of the Societe des

Electriciens, Electroniciens et des RadioBlec-

(1) Diffracted fields propagate along diffracted triciens (SEE). a member of IEEE and of URSI

rays which aredetermined by a generalization Commissions B and E.

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duces a cone of diffracted rays (Fig,l). diffracted rays tangential1 as i t propagates.

Surface diffracted rays folyowthe modlfled

Fermat principle for surface diffraction A

surface-diffracted ray from a point Pto a

point Q is a curvewhich makes stationary the

optical length among all curves from P to Q

having an arc on the boundary surface. Accor-

ding to this law, the incident ray and the

resulting surface diffracted rayin the same

medium, are parallel to each other at the point

of diffraction and lie on opposite sides of the

plane normal to the ray at this point. When the

two rays lie in different media, they obey the

law of refraction. In an homogeneous medium, the

arc Q ~ Q zfollowed by the ray on the boundary is

an arc of a geodesic or shortest path on the

surface (Fig.4) and the incident and diffracted

Fig.1 Edge diffraction rays are tangent to the surface ray at Q I and

42

The laws of edge diffraction apply to

higher order edge diffracted rays produced by

higher order edges, which arelines o f disconti-

nuity of the curvature or some higher derivative

on a boundary surfaceor interface (Fig.2).

Diffraction like reflection and transmission

is a localized phenomenon at high frequencies,

i.e. i t depends only on the nature of the boun-

Fig.2 Tip diffractiondarysurface andthe incidentfield inthe imme-

diate neighourhood of the point of diffraction.

An incident ray which hits a vertex (corner

or tip) in an homogeneous medium produces I t is therefore possible to introduce a dif-

straight diffracted rays which leave the vertex fraction coefficient for each type of diffracted

in all directions. This is the law of vertex o r rays in the same sense as a reflection coeffi-

corner diffraction (Fig.3). Higher order vertex cient in which allot,zs to relate the magni-

tude of the diffracted field associated with

E

each point on a diffracted ray to that of the

incident ray urhich generatesi t . Like the

reflection coefficients, the diffraction coef-

ficients will depend onlyo n the local geometry

within a small region about the point of dif-

fraction and may be derived by extracting

them from the asymptotic solution for a body

which approximates the geometry of the actual

surface over the region of interest. Those pro-

blems for which exact asymptotic solutions have

been obtained are referred to as canonical problem.

P For example. in the case of diffraction by the

edge of a thin screen, the canonical problem is

Fig.3 Higher-order that of a plane wave diffracted by a thin screen

edge

diffraction

occupying

half-plane

a and

thus having

straight

a

edge. This problem was solved by Sommerfeld in

diffracted rays produced by higher order ver- 1896 for a scalar field satisfying the wave

tices, which are discontinuitiesin higher order equationand vanishing on the screen o r having a

derivatives of an edge or higher order edge vanishing normal derivate on the screen. By

follow also the law of vertex diffraction. expanding his solution asymptotically for large

k and comparing the result with that of geome-

When an incident ray strikes a smooth, cur- trical theory, the diffraction coefficient D

ved boundary surface at grazing incidence, i.e. for these two cases can be determined.

at the shadow boundary, i t gives rise to a sur-

face diffracted ray or creeping ray. I n an homo- ( 3 ) The normal laws of Geometrical Optics apply.

geneous medium a ray incident on the shadow In detail, the diffracted wave propagates along

boundary at Q1 divides into two parts; one part its ray that

of the incident energy continues straight on as

predicted by geometrical optics and a second a) Power is conserved in a tube o r a strip o f

part follows the surface into the shadow region rays

a surface ray or creeping ray, which sheds b) The phase delay along the ray path equals

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the product of the wave number of the mediumwhere the time dependence e -iw t has been choo-

and the distance. Thus, i f the phase is sen and suppressed and where rl is the characte-

known at one point of the ray, i t can be

found at all other points on the ray. More-

ristic impedance of the media given by n 4

In order to introduce the technique which may

over, at the point of diffraction, the phasebe used to construct asymptotic solutions veri-

is continuous, i.e; the phase of the inci- fying the vector Helmholtz equation (1) subject

dent ray equals that of the diffracted ray. to the condition called Gaussian law, we

first consider a scalar field U in which case,

The postulates and comments given above, summa- the equations (1)-(3) reduce to the scalar

rize the essential physical principles under- Helmholtz equation

2

lying Keller's Geometrical Theoryof Diffraction. A U + k U = O (4)

More details on this subject maybe found in

the original articles of Kellerand his coworkers, When k 03, we know that (4) is verified by the

especially in the following review papers [ 5 , GO field. Thus, we seek for solutions o f the

71. Interesting introductions to the theory form

are also given in[81.[91,[10].

U (r) A(r)e ikS(:) (5)

Keller's theory has proved to be of great

practical value and has formed the foundation where is a slowly varying functi on of position

for further developments in the asymptotic and k i s large. Substituting (5) i nto ( 4 ) we

theory of diffraction. Many of these develop- get

ments have beenmotivated by the attempt to 2 . +A 1

overcome some of the defects of GTD such as the 1 (VS) [AS VS] + p (6)

A

singularities at shadow boundaries and caustics.

In order to elucidate the limitations of Since k is supposed large but arb i trary. equa-

GTD and introduce later developments and impro- tion ( 6 ) is verified i f

vements, the best way is to adapt a more mathe-

matical point of view closely related to (vs)z 1

Maxwell's equations.

AS

VA VS 0

A

2. MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATION

_ c

constructed by Keller's Geometrical Theory of We recognize in (7) and (8)the eikonal and

Diffraction is the leading part of the asymp- transport equations of GO. They are equivalent

totic expansion of the exact field for small to Fermat principle and the law of conservation

values of the wave length1 o r large values of of power in a tube of rays. From (6) we see

k. The full asymptotic expansion consists of that these laws are strictly valid in the limit

additional terms in the amplitude of the field k+ or for finite k. when&= 0.

on each ray. These statements have not been

proved in general. Nevertheless, the agreement One way to generalize the asymptotic solution

found at various special problems provides given by GO, consists in seeking for solutions

strong evidence of their validity. At high fre- for which the third tern o f is not zero,but

quencies, the resolution of the scattering pro- small compared to thc second term. Such solu-

blem consists therefore in finding asymptotic tions can be obtained by the method of pertur-

solutions of Maxwell's equations submitted to bations applied to the amplitude of the GO

boundary conditions on the surface of the solution. the small parameter being 1 [ll].

scattering object and at infinity. This problem w

can be divided into two steps. In a first step F o r a vector field, the GO solution has the

we seek for solutions of Maxwell equations with form

no specific boundary surfaces in mind. In a

second step, the boundary conditions on the sur-

face of the scattering object are imposed on

these solutions. This procedure appliesi f one Application of the method of perturbations con-

is able to find asymptotic solutions which are sists in writing

sufficiently general and which are valid every-

where, outside and on the surface of the object.

We will s e e that i t is generally not possible to

find such uniform asymptotic solutions andthat

there exist some regions in space andoil the surface

of the object called boundary layers where dif- where the series on the right hand side of (11)

ferent asymptotic solutions are needed. It is and (12) are asymptotic expansions with respect

however possible to solve the whole problem by to the asymptotic sequence k-". also called the

matching these asymptotic solutions in regions Luneberg-~lineexpansion of the field.

where they overlap. co

Our attention will be restricted t o isotro- In general. given a, series amk-m, where am

m=0

pic homogeneous media. In such a media, Maxwellis independent of k , we say that the series is

equations for an harmonic field are equivalent an asymptotic expansigg with respect to the

to asymptotic sequence k and write

a3

m=

V - E = O i f and only i f

n

I f = 1 v x i (31 f = k-m o(k-") as k

i kn m=o am

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where o means the Landau symbol I r smal oh". to the cross section of a narrow pencil o f rays

Definitions and properties of asymptotic expan- dx ( u ) by the well-known formula

sions nay be found in chapter 1 of reference

[lll. dC(0) {J(o)l dol do2

Substituting (11) and (12) into (1). ( 2 ) and

( 3 ) and equating like powers of k , i t is found Thus, apart from a phase factor, the Jacobian

that ratio in (18) is equal to the square root of the

2 cross-section o f a pencil at two points on a ray

(VS) 1 This is illustrated in Fig. 6 where four rays

are shown defining an astigmaticpencil of rays

with curvilinear cross-section. F r o m elementary

geometry w e find

the coordinates of the centers of curvature of

the initial wave front x. and R, and R, the

We note that the eikonal equation ( 1 3 ) is identi associated radii of curvature which are taken

cal to that which has been obtained for the GO positive i f the rays emanating from the corres-

field. The solution ( 1 1 ) . (12) is therefore a ponding focus are divergent and negative i f the

ray field h a v i n g the same geometrical properties rays are convergent. I t can be shown[ 1 that

as the GO field the rays form a congruence in the Jacobjan ratio is exactly equal to

space (two pararnete+r family) and are orthogonal the right hand side ofao[21) where the absolute

to the surfaces S ( r ) constant, called wave value has been removed. Thus

fronts. In an homogeneous media, the rays form

a congruence o f straight lines and along each

ray the phase is given by

initial wavefront 1 and wherea denotes the

0'

distance from 1, along a ray. measured positi-

vely in the direction of wave propagation. I f

a l a , ) is a system of orthogonal curvilinear

coordinates X,, a r a y may be labelled by two

parameters ( a , . Thus ( 0 , . form a

system of ray coordinates (Fig.5).

lies between the wave fronts defined by u and

In other words, whenwe progress along the ray

pencil from to in the direction of wave

propagation, we cross a focal line. Then a

change of has to be introduced in the anpli-

Fig.5 Initial wavefront and ray coordinates 2

tude. This condition is verified i f the follow-

The transport equation (14) is an iterative ing convention for the square roots in (22) is

system of equations for finding %m-l. They r e - qdopted (R1,2 takes positive real, posi-

duce to ordinary linear differential equations tive imaginary o r zero values.

along a given ray. The solutionsof the latter

are found to be appendix 1 of [12] o r chap- Let us now come back to (18). This formula

ter of 1131) enables one to continue em along a given ray.

For m 0, we find

only necessary t o knox initial value o f e

ITI 0. 1.2, at a reference point in order to carry outo

ahere ~ ( 0 is ) the Jacobian of the transformation this sontinuation. W e z e e also that the direc-

f r o m ray coordinates ( g l ,a to rectangular tion eo which defines the polarization of the

coordinates [ X , , X,, X , ) zeroth-order field, remains constant along a

ray. In addition, i t is found from (15) and ( 1 6 )

J ( U ) J(U1,UZ a) a[xl. X'I(l9) that

01, I

The Jacobian J ( a 1 along a given ray is related

ds d x (24)

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which means that ("e0.60, VS) form a right-handed fectly conducting surfaces defined by an impe-

system of vectors. Thus the leading term of the dance boundary condition

asymptotic expansion ( 1 1 ) describes a local

plane-wave field. ,At a caustic point where

0 R,or R , . eo(') becomes infinite, hence

(23) fails. As mentioned before, the satisfaction of condi-

tion (15) or Gauss's law at one point on a ray

For a higher-order amplitude m implies its satisfaction on all other points on

more information is needed in order to continue the same ray. Hence, i t is only necessary to

&

em along a give? ray. In addition to the initial enforce (15) at points on the surface B of the

value $m(ao),v2em-l(o') must be known for all CI' scatterer.

in the range u o c T I < ~ . For m 1 for instance,

one needs V2eo(u'). According to (23) and

this implies the knowledge of the first and

second derivatives of R,and R, with respect to Conditions (27) and the continuation of

the transverse coordinates ( u , , on the ini- phase

tial wave front. The amplitudes'& should also R +

satisfy Gauss's law (15). For the zeroth-order si(;) (r) r on B (30)

field we saw that this law describes the polari-

zation of the wave which remains constant along define completely the solution (26). I t is found

a ray. This property holds for m 0. I t has E91 that (30) which is a consequence of (26) or

been proved [14] that, whenever satisfies (27) i s equivalent Fermat principle extended

(15) at o n e point on the ray, then i t does to reflection and contains the law of reflect-ion.

along the whole ray. This does not mean that Its enforcement yields also the radii of curva-

the polarization directionof with m is ture and the principal directions of the scatte-

orthogonal to the ray, like 80. In general the red wave front at the point of reflection. Thus

polarization directions of higher order terms the solution (26) may be called a general

are not orthogonal to the ray. The corresponding reflected field. For m equations to

Poynting vector is therefore not directed along (30) give the geometrical optics reflected field.

the ray, but makes an angle with i t which I t can be shown that the GO reflected field

accounts for energy flow transverse to the ray. observed at P is related to the incident field

According to the hypothesis underlying the per- at the point of relfection Q , by

turbation method, this energy flow and hence

the corresponding angle are supposed small.

Having determined a general asymptotic solution

to Maxwell equations-for k large, we nowgo over

to the second step of the resolution process, ikSi( Q )

consisting to apply to this solution the boun- where Ei(Q) +eo(Q1

i

e

dary conditions on the surface of the scattering

object The distance between Q and the field point on

the reflected ray is denoted by s and

Reflected field are the principal radii of curvature of the

reflected wave front at Q. The squars root term

W e consider first asmooth scattering object is called the divergence factor and E is the

which has no singularitiesin the tangent plane, reflection dyadic, defined by

and suppose that the incident field has the fol-

lowing high frequency expansion

m +i

+Ei ( r ) - e ikSi(G) m,Co(ik)-m em(r) (25) in which eL is a unit vector_perpepdicular to

+i i + the plane of incidence and el :e are unit

with a similar+expression for H ( r ) where S ( r ) , vectors parallel to the plane'of incidence

e i ( " r ) a n d & , ( r ) are known and verify equations that

(13) to (16). The incident field has associated

with i t ra s-which arestraight lines in the e, el x (33)

direction '?SI. Some of them hit the boundary B

of the object, and divide the space into an ^i

where s and are unit vectors in the direc-

illuminated region and a shadow region separatedtions of incidence and reflection respectively

by a surface called the incident shadow boundary as shown in Fig.7. In matrix notation, the

In the hit region they give rise to a scattered

field %R(r) which, added t,o the incident field,

equals the total field ST(r)there. The problem

is to determine the+asymptotic solution of the

scattered field Is(r).

We suppose that %R has the general form given

by (111. (15)

SR(;) e ikSR(Tl.

m=0

(ik1-m (26)

where SR($) and $m(%) verify (17), (151 and (15)

If the scatterer is a perfect conductor, the

boundary condition on the surfaceB requires

that the tangential components of the total

electric field be zero Fig.7 Unit vectors of the

reflection dyadic

i x (6' + S R ) o r on^ (27) reflection coefficient has a form familiar for

the reflection of a plane electromagnetic wave

where is the outward normal to B For imper- from a plane surface with constant Z equal

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and

the value of Z at the point of reflection, and an arbitrary surface with an impedance

namely When

condition.

boundary the observation

point

(341 is close to the incident shadow boundary, the

R [ R ~ 01 ~ point of reflectiun Q close to the curve r

RTE separating the illuminated side of the surface B

where RTPI.

RTE are the Fresnel diffraction coef- o f .the smooth obiect from its shadow side.I.tcan

ficients for a transverse electric and a trans- be shown that the curve r belongs to the caustic

verse magnetic field respectively, with respect surface of the reflected rays.Hence when Q

to the plane of reflection. For a perfectly con- lies on r . i t coalesces with a focus o f t-he re-

ducting surface, R T M 1 and R T E 1. The flected wave anti the curvature radius of this

fact that the reflection dyadic is identical to wave, in the plane of reflection, is zero at Q.

that of a plane electromagnetic wave incident a conseguence, the field predicted by (18)

on a plane surface tangent at the point of on the surface of the object is infinite and the

reflection to the actual surface and having method applied to construct the solution (25)

everywhere a constant impedance equal to that fails. The asymptotic expansion (26) is there-

at the point of reflection is not surprising fore not valid in the l i t region when the obser-

and is a consequence of the local nature of the vation point lies in the vicinity of the inci-

high frequency reflection. This remark is funda- dent shadow boundary surface o r when the surface

mental for the understanding of GTD. I t shows reflection point lies close to the shadow boun-

that the leading term of the asymptotic expan- dary curve of the incident rays on the surface

sion of the field diffracted by a smooth convex of the scattering object. I t is of course also

object in the l i t region, away from tne shadow not valid in the shadow region of the incident

boundary, is the GO field and that the diffrac- rays since no point of reflection exists on the

tion coefficient (here the reflection coeffi- shadow side ofthe object.

cient) can be obtained with the tangent plane

approximation for both the incident wave front Edge diffracted field

and the surface of the object at the point of

reflection. For m = O . the genera€ reflected We consider now an object,the surface of which

field at P may be related to the incident field having a discontinuity line in the tangent plane

at the point of reflection by a formula identi- forming a sharp edge which may be straight or

cal to (31) with the same phase factor and the curved. Away from this discontinuity line. the

same divergence factor as in (31). IIoviever, the surface is supposed smooth with curvature radii

diffraction dyadic is no longer Ziven by (32). large in terms of wavelength. An incident ray

The higher order terms of the reflection dyadic field defined by hits the boundary surface

depend on higher order derivativesof the sur- %sof the object giving rise to a scattered field

face at the point of reflection and on the dis- E which can be y-itten as the sum of a general

tance s . They can therefore not be determined reflected,field E R given by (26) and an additim-

by the tangent plane approximation. The higher nal term Ed, due to the presence of the edge,

order scattered field remains a ray fieldin called the diffracted field such that

the sense that the surfaces of constant phase

are orthogonal to a two parameter family of (35)

rays, but i t is no longer a transverse electro-

magnetic field with respect to these rays. In We suppose that fid has the general form given

most practical applications of high frequency by ( 1 1 ) and (12) which may be multiplied by an

techniques, the leading term or GO term descri- arbitrary function f(k) of the wave number k

bes correctly the field scattered by a smooth

surface in the l i t region and higher order terms

are not useful, unless the reflection point d

crosses a line of discontinuity in the curvature where S (3) and Q verify (17), ( 1 8 ) and (15).

which gives rise to a discontinuity in the GO The diffracted figld is therefore a r a y field.

field. We will see later that when this happens, Moreover, the diffracted rays emanate from the

the term rn 0 and m 1 in the series (26) edge since those emanating from a regular point

are needed in addition to the field diffracted of the surface are already accountedfor in the

by the curvature discontinuity, for the cons- expression of the general reflected fisld. The continua-

truction of a continuous solution. tion of phase o r phase matching at each point

of the edge C

In applying ( 3 1 ) , the difficulties lie in d

the calculation of the principal radii of curva- si(?) (t.1 r on c (37)

ture of the reflected wave front. General fornu-

las for p f and p; are given in [9] [15] and defines completely the diffracted rays which

[16] A systematic procedure for the determina- form a two parameter family or congruence of

tion of higher order terms of the electromagne- rays passing through the edge. The curve C is

tic field reflected by a conducting surface one of the caustic surfaces, here degenerated

having everywhere radii of curvature large in in a curved li-ne, of the ray family which is

terms of wavelength but otherwise arbitrary and tangent to a second caustic surface A (Fig.

explicit results for the first twoorders I t is found [9], [ l a ] , that ( 3 7 ) is equivalent

(m 1) are presented in 1171 and summarized to Fermat principle extended to edge diffrac-

in [18]. For an imperfectly conducting surface, tion. Its enforcement yields Keller's law of

a general procedure for axially symetric scalar edge diffraction and determines the principal

waves reflected by bodies of revolution is out- directions o f the diffracted wave front at the

lined in [ 1 9 ] and applied to the diffraction of point of diffraction Q as well as the radius of

a scalar plane waveby a circular and a para- curvature of the diffracted wave front at Q in

bolic cylinder the surfaces of which satisfy an the plane of diffraction defined by the tangent

impedance boundary condition. Complementary to the edge at Q and the direction of observa-

results obtained by the same technique are given tion. The radius of curvature in the plane per-

'in No general formulas have been esta- pendicular to the plane of diffraction is zero

3lished for an arbitrary electromagnetic wave since Q is on the caustic.

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Antenna

diffracted field close to the edge. In this

region owing to the presence of the caustic,

the amplitude o f the diffracted field varies

rapidly and the assumptions made in deriving

the asymptotic solution ( 1 1 ) and (12) by the me-

thod of perturbations are no longer valid.W e

need therefore another solution valid close to

the edge. Two methods maybe followed and have

been applied in the past. The first one calls

upon the local nature of high frequency dif-

fraction and makes use of the tangent plane

caustic surface approximation along the edge. The second method

consists in applying the boundary layer theory.

This method is more general than the first one

Fig.8 Cautics of edge-diffracted rays and gives a mathematical justificationof i t .

short presentation of theboundary layer

In order to determine completely the dif- theory will b e given in Part I 1 along with

fracted field given by ( 3 6 ) . i t is ne essary to the most important applications of this theory

find a way to relate the amplitudes 8 8 , of the and its impact on further developments.

diffracted field to the amplitudes 8 i of the The tangent plane approximation consists

incident field which are known. Since the edge in replacing the surfaces on both sides of the

is a caustic of the diffracted field, the edge at the point of diffraction by tangent

field predicted by (18) is infinite on C and i t planes forming an infinite straight wedge.'

is therefore not possible to match the amplitude In addition. in the vicinity of the point of

of the diffracted field with that of the inci- diffraction the incident wave is

dent field through the application of boundary replaced by a plane wave. Thus the initial

conditions on the surface of the scattering problem is reduced to a simpler problem, namely

object. However, following Lewis and Boersma the diffraction of a plane wave by a straight

and rewriting the integral in ( 1 8 ) in wedge. This problem was solvedby Mac Donald

the forrr, [ 2 2 1 who extended Sommerfeld' solution for the

half-plane and obtained an integral represen-

tation for the eigenfunction expansions of the

total field. By expanding his solution asympto-

where the dash denotes the finite part of a tically for large k and comparing the result

divergent integral. we get an alternative form .xith that of geometrical theory given by ( 4 3 1 .

for ( 1 8 ) the dyadic diffraction coefficient canbe deter-

mined. This procedure is the standard clethod o f

GTD developped by Ke1,ler. I t gives only or

[J(ao)1 1 the leading term of the+dyadic diffraction coef-

[J(IJ)I~;~(~~++ 2 0

The right side of independent of IJ.I f ficient. The values of 6m for m depend on the

we denote its value by 6m, then we obtain amplitudes of the incident and diffracted wave

and their first and higher-order derivatives at

the point of diffraction, which dependthem-

v2gm- 1 ( ~ ' J d o '(40) selves on higher-order derivatives of the sur-

Taking limits as 0 in (40) shows that 6 m can face of the scatterer in the vicinity of that

be written as point. They can therefore not be obtained by the

tangent Dlane approximation. W e w i l l see in

Part I 1 that. the boundary layer method uermits

the determinatinn of the higher-order terms on

The initial values gm have first to be determi- the diffracted rays, which involvethe curvature

ned before (40} i s useful. It depends on the o f t h e edge and its derivatives. However, in

properties of the diffracted field closeto the most pratical applications. only the first order

edge. term m o is useful. According to ( 3 6 ) where

For m (40) yields f(k) k-4, the term m 1 is of the order k-3'Z

and can be neglected unIess the first order

term vanishes. This happens for instance when

the incident field vanishes at the point of dif-

According to where one of the curvature fraction. but not its derivatives. This problem

radius has to bep putequal to zero, J(a)is pro- will be discussed in a more general framework

portional to s and since we are in Part 1 1 .

dealing with !,near phenomenon, must be For a perlectly conducting wedge the dyadic

proportional to the incident field at the point diffraction coefficient corresponding to the

o f diffraction. The constant o f proportionaIity leading term (m of the diffracted field

i s best represented

is referred to as a diffraction coefficient,and first introduced by Kouyoumjian in ray-fixed coordinates

for electromagnetic fields i t is a dyadic.Hence, 115, 23]ruho showed that in theseand Pathak

coordinates

the leading term in ( 3 6 ) becomes i t is simply the sum of two dyads

gd($) ~

Z i ( Q ) De s ( p ' ,iks 7 (431 * a

+i +i ikSi[Q) and where where D, and DK are the scalar diffraction coef-

where s IQPl, E ( Q ) eo(Q)e ficients for soft [Dirichlet) and hard ( N e m a n n )

boundary conditions respectively. first esta-

is the dyadic edge diffraction coefficient. blished by Keller and given by

It follows _from by dimensional considera- ir K

tions that Be.must vary as k-%, hence, the func- e 'sin n

tion flkl-in ( 3 6 ) can be choosen equal to k-4. Ds(4.t~' . E l (45)

Like 6 0 . be depends on the properties of the h n/"Z sin8

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1 1 tion (36) fails at these surfaces which are the

limiting forms when k + - o f boundary layers also

cos 7T c o s ( M j cos cos(~l) called transition regions, in which the complete

n n n

solution of the diffraction problem varies rapidly

In order to define the notations in (44) and that the assumptions prevailing to the appli-

(45) let us introduce an edge-fixed plane of in- cation of the perturbation method which leadsto

cidence containing the incident ray and the (36) are not valid there. The scalar diffraction

edge and a plane of diffraction containing the coefficients (45) become also singular in the

diffracted ray and the edge (Fig. 9a). The unit, paraxial region when This is a conse-

quence of the choice of cylindrical eigenfunc-

tions in the construction of the solution of

the wedge problem. It has been shown recently

by Kouyoumjian and Buyukdura 241 that a sphe-

rical eigenfunction is appmprlate in this.

case and leads to an asymptotic solution of the

diffraction problem of a straight wedge in terms

of edge-modes, which is valid in the limit of

grazing incidence on the edge of the wedge.

The tangent plane approximation can also be

applied to an imperfectly curved wedge. However,

the solution of the canonical problem of dif-

fraction of a plane waveby a straight wedge

defined by constant but different impedances

on each face, is not known for an arbitrary

sedge angle at oblique incidence. normal

incidence this problem was solved by Maliu-

Fig.9a :Edge-fixed plane zhinets ( 2 5 , 263. The scalar diffraction coef-

of incidence and f-cients for TM wave (&//;I or a TE wave

diffraction (Bi 2) found by this author can be put in

a form similar to ( 4 5 ) .

vectors and $are perpendicular to the edge-

fixed piane of incidence and the plane dif-

fraction respectively. The unit vectorsBI6

are parallel to the edge-fixed plane of inci-

dence and the plane of diffraction respectively,

and

X

where and are unit vectors in the directions where the angles Q and have the same defini-

of incidence and diffraction respectively. Thus tion as in (45) and where is a rather com-

the coordinates of the diffracted ray (s.6.Q plicated function of n and of the impedances

are spherical coordinates with orgin Q where Q and Zn of the faces and ns respecti-

is. the diffraction point on the edge and axis vely the expression of which is given by

where 6 is the unit vector of the tangent to

the edge at Q and are the coordinates of the

incident ray,(sl except the incident

unit vector s points towards the origin Q.

The law of edge diffraction implies cos8 cos (47)

The wedge angle is (2-n)n where the plane sur-

faces forming the wedge a r e 0 and ns In (47) $n(u) is a special meromorphic function

(Fig. 9b). For n the wedge angle is zero first introduced by Maliuzhinets and sin9 = n

sin9.=rl

n for a TE wave and sinao= sinan= Zn

Zn n n

for a TM wave. useful expsessiod for the cdm-

putation of this function for an arbitrary wedge

angle has been deducedby the present author

from the original expression given inC271 by a

simple variable change. In the interval

nn<Reu<na. $(u) is given by

Formula (46) is also valid for n=2 (half-plane)

and n=l (impedance discontinuity in a plane).

Fig.9b Projection in a plane Solutions for these cases have been obtained

orthogonal to the edge earlier. The diffraction problemof an electro-

and the expressions on the right side of (45) magnetic plane wave by a half plane with equal

reduce to the scalar diffraction coefficients face impedances has been solved for both normal

for a half plane. I t is seen from (45) that the and oblique incidence by Senior [27. 281 and

scalar diffraction coefficients for a;wedge or with different face impedances and oblique inci-

a half plane become singular for$ Q n and dence by Bucci and Franceschetti [291. For an

Q ' = 7 corresponding respectively to the impedance discontinuity in a plane. the solution

shadow boundary and reflection boundary of the for normal incidence has been first given by

SO field. This means that the asymptotic solu- Heins and Feschbach [ 3 0 ] . Solutions have also

13

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Socloty

been established for the special case n S(r) verifies. the eikonal equation of GO. In an

corresponding to a right-angled wedge for normalhoTogeneous medium the equal-amplitude surfaces

incidence by Williams [31]. For obl.ique inci- X(r) const+. are orthogonal to the equal-phase

dence the electromagnetic diffraction problem surfaces S(r1 const. and are therefore gene-

has been solved for a right-angled wedgewith rated by the rays which are sLraight lines

one face imperfectly conducting andthe other orthogonal to the surfaces S(r) const. Hence

metallic by Vaccaro [32 who extended to elec- the value of X is constant on each ray. The

tromagnetic diffraction [33 1. the generalized amplitude vectors Zmverify linear ordinary

reflection method pioneeredby Maliuzhinets differential equations along the rays similar

in solving thescalar problem. version of this to (14) but their explicit form depends on the

method is also presented in [34] and applied to value o f a which must lie in the interval

a right-angled wedge in 1. However. no elec- From the asymptotic expansion of the

tromagnetic solution has been established for exact solution of the diffraction of a plane

a wedge with equal or different face impedances, wave by a cylinder, i t is found that Jhen

even when the wedge is right-angled. For the last i t can be shown E361 that 1, !L and that ,e

case a solution exists onlyfor the special verifies the transport equation 3 of GO. However

cases when one face is imperfectly conducting the right-hand side of the equations verified

and the other face is a perfectly electric by the higher-order terms are different and

conductor or a perfectly magnetic conductor. depend on the derivatives of the function x.

For the special geometries n 1 , n 2,n 2' Finally, the arbitrary elements in the construc-

Maliuzhinets special function $n in (46) ,reducestion of the solutio? with f are the initial

to much simpler expressions involving only values of and of em on some surface, and the

trigonometric functions [Z6 1. value of x on each ray. These quantities may

Expression (46) like (45) are singular at the be adjusted in order that the expansion corres-

shadow and reflection boundaries of the field, ponds to the solution o f a particular boundary

for the same fundamental reason the existence value problem. We know from Keller's GTD that

of transition regions where the ray-optical creeping rays are geodesics on the surface of

solution (36) fails. Of course the same behaviour any object. They originate at the shadow boun-

,is found at oblique incidence. dary and continually shed diffracted rays which

irradiate the shadow and also enter the illumi-

Higher-order edges d d nated region. Hence in an homogeneous medium,

The general solution (36) where S and 8 m are each incident ray tangent to the surface B of

given by (37) is also valid for higher-order the scattering object at Q gives rise to a one

edges and the geometrical interpretation of the parameter family of diffracted rays tangent t,o

solution is the same and leads to the same the surface B along that geodesic of B which

features. In particular, Keller law of edge is tangent to the incident ray at Q and starts

diffraction showing that the diffracted rays from Q in the direction of the shadow sideof

associated with each point on the edge form a B. I f we consider now all rays of the incident

cone, remains valid. However, for higher-order field tangent to the surface B, then Q describes

edges, the initial values $m in (40) depend on the shadow boundary curve r on B and therefore

higher-order derivatives of the surface of the denendson one parameter. Consequentlythe dif-

scatterer in the vicinity of the poant of dif- fracted rays associated to all incident rays

fraction, even for the leading term&, which tangent to B along the curve r form a two para-

can therefore not be obtainedby the tangent meter family or congruence of rays. I f we choose

plane approximation. I t is easy to see that this congruence of rays as the solution of the

this approximation leads to the problem of re- eikonal equation, then (49) with and

flection of a plane waveby an infinite plane Xm = m is a general asymptotic expansion descri-

and.gives noinformation about the contribution b i n g 3 h e behaviour of the field associated with

of the higher-order line of discontinuity which creeping rays. In orqer to define completely

is not present in this approximation. The pro- the phase function S ( r ) . the continuity of phase

blem has been solvedby the boundary layer is imposed along the shadow curve r s o that

method as will be shown in chapter 1 of Part 1 1 -

Sd(Q1) Si(Q) kt (50)

Creeping waves

It can be shown that the solutions of the form where t is the length o f the arc of geodesic

[36) are not the most general forms of asymptotic between Q and the point Q' where the ray leaves

expansionsencountered in diffraction problems. the surface B. The diffracted raysshed from

Other kinds of expansions which contain exponen-the surfaceare tangent to B which is therefore

tial decay factors and fractional powers of k a caustic surface for these rays. Hence the

may be constructed, whichformally satisfy the solution cannot be madeto satisfy the boundary

basic.equations {1)-(3). Typically, we look for conditions at the surface B of the scattering

solutions of the form object and a limiting process similar to that

described by (41) has to be employed which

yields for m 0 an expression similar to (42).

(49) I t follows that the leading term can be written

where the functions S, x and the real num- in the form

bers andX, are to be determined in such way

that lixis an asymptotic sequenceand that((49)

satisfies equations (1]-(3) formally. Such solu-

tions have been first constructed for the scalar

Helmholtz equati-on byFriedlander and Keller

[36]who showed that this type of expansions where s is the distance from to the observa-

leads to a theoretical foundation of GTD for dn(Q) 4

,creeping waves similarto that given by the tion point P and where the factor[dq(Q'J takes

Luneberg-Kline type expansions(36) for the into account the amplitude variation resulting

edge-diffracted waves. SuDstitutlng (49) into from the divergence of the creeping wave. On a

( 1 1 and (2). i t is found that the phase function cylindrical surface, illuminated by a plane

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wave, this factor is equal to unity. In (51) 6 ' Expansion (51) has also been extendedt o the

field radiated in the shadow region by a

is the dyadic diffraction coefficient for creeping rays.

I t depends on the properties of the diffracted field source

close located on the surface of the scat-

to the surface of the scattering object. Since terer [41] in whicil case the diffraction coef-

(51) is not valid there, another solution, valid ficient at Q in (54) has to be replaced by a

in the boundary layer close to tke surface B is launching coefficient Lk and the creeping ray

needed for the determination of DC. Such a solu- divergence factor has to be adapted to rays

tion can be constructed by the boundary layer emanating from a point. When the observation

theory (see Part o r by replacing the surface point lies also on the surface, an attachment

locally by a simpler one (canonical problem) coefficient is substituted in (54) to the dif-

for which the asymptotic solution is known. This fraction coefficient DhlQ'). I t is found by

last procedure is founded on the local nature of reciprocity that Ah f! and AS LE that

high frequency diffraction. The simplest canoni-only three types of coef ficienPs are needed

cal problems for creeping wave diffraction are in practical situations when the sourceand

the perfectly conducting circular cylinder and the observation points are either onor off

sphere. Exact solutions for plane cylindrical the surface of the scatterer the diffraction

o r spherical wave diffraction by these geome- coefficients, the launching coefficients and

tries in the form of a series of radial modes, attenuation constants. These coefficients

are well known but they converge slowly for depend on the local geometry of the surface,

large values of k. A much moreefficient solu- the wave number and the nature of the surface,

tion at high frequencies is obtained by trans- as described by the boundary conditions. At

forming the series of radial modes in a series first order, they involve only the local radius

of angular modes, propagating aroundthe cylin- of curvature Pg of the geodesic. However second

der o r the sphere. Such a solution has first order terms in the attenuation constants contri-

been established by Watson [38]for a sphere bute significantly to the accuracy of-the solu-

who introduced a transformation in the complexe tion. They depend on the derivatives Pg and Pg

plane, known as Watson's transformation, which with respect to the arc length along the ray

enables to pass from the series of radial modes trajectory and the radius of curvature ptnof

the series of angular modes. interpreted the surface in the direction of the binormal

the angular modes as waves travelling around to the ray. Second order terms in the asymptotic

the sphere and showed that each node or wave expansion of canonical problems involving

decays exponentially with increasing distance objects of non constant curvature with acoustic

from the shadow boundary into the shadow. The hard and soft boundary conditions, have been

same type of waves were later rediscovered by derived by Keller and Levy (431. Franz and

Franz and Depperman [39, 401 who introduced Klante [44] obtained similar results by the

the name "creeping waves". in the solution to integral equation method applied to an arbi-

the problem of diffraction by an infinite cylin- trary convex cylinder. Hong [45] extended this

der. Keller [31 derived the diffraction coef- last method to plane wave diffraction by an

ficients and the decay exponent for each angular arbitrary hard acoustic and hard electromagnetic

mode, o r creeping wave by comparing the general boundary. A further extension of this work to

solution (51) with the results of Franz [ d o ] . soft boundaries has been achievedby Voltmer

A similar analysis was performed for three-dimen- [46] who gives generalized forms of the coeffi-

sional smooth scatterers by Levy and KellerE71. cients integrating earlier results as well as

who showed that the dyadic diffraction coeffi- a numerical control of their validity on two

cient corresponding to the pth angular mode, and three dimensional bodies. He found that in

may be expressed by all the examples treated, the second-order terms

contribute significantly to the increased accu-

racy of the calculated fields. However, owing

the experience of the author of the present

where n b are unit vectors along the no mal article. the terms involving the derivativss

and binormal to the geodesic and where D 6 . P g et b g must be small compared to the other

are the surface diffraction coefficient for terms appearing in the second-order term o f

hard and soft boundary conditions. It follows the attenuation constant. When these conditions

from (52) that the normal and tangential compo- are not fulfilled, a better result is obtained

nents of the incident field at Q travel indepen- when these terms are dropped in the expression

dently along the geodesic and that no coupling of the second-order term. The term dgpending on

beteseen these two components occurs, at least the transverse curvature radius p t n however

in the leading term of the asvmptotic expansion. improves always the solution.Tables summarizing

convenient and widely U S E!d notation for the Voltmer's results m.ay also be foundin the art.1-

total field diffracted by a 1 1 the modes at an cles of Kouyoumjian and Pathak [dll 421. These

observation point P is [41, 421 authors give a clearand synthetic presentation

o f - t h e essential principles and formulas o f

GTD and its application tosurface diffraction On

perfectly conducting surfaces which can be

directly used for solving practical diffraction

in which problems.

So far we considered only the influence of the

local geometry for hard and soft boundery con-

ditions. When the surface of the scatterer is

defined by an impedance boundary condition the

and G has the same form as F except that the formulas obtained by Voltmer are no longer

superscript h i s replaced bv s. In (54).(~; is valid. Levy and Keller [7] have given first-

a local decay factor of thehpth mode related order expressions for the diffraction coeffi-

;to the total decay factor x. appearing in cients and attenuation constants for mixed

P boundary conditions, involving a surface impe-

dance For small compared to unity

where n is the free space impedance, a series

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expansion of the complex propagation constants Debeye's asymptotic expansion. I t results a

Kp k iffp in powers of z / n ( r & s p . has modification of the physical characteristics of

been derived in [471 for 3. circular cylinder the wave which transformsinto a guided surface

and a sphere. I t is interesti.ng to look at wave modes. Extensions of creeping wave theory

the trajectories in the complex plane of the to coated metallic surfaces are givenin Part

propagation constants K R when Z . i s varied. For 11.

a perfectly conducting circular cylinder Near the shadow boundary, converges slowly

with radius a, the values of Kp are given by and the angular mode representationis no longer

Kp Up/a where u are the roots of HV(ka)=O adequate for pratical applications. In this

for T E waves and of H'u(ka]=O for TM waves.They region and in the region close to the surface

are located along the Stoke'slines of the cir- of the scatterer, which is a caustic surface

cular cylinder functions as shown in Fig. loa. for the creeping rays, the solution of the dif-

When Z io where takes positive values from fraction problem varies rapidlyand the assump-

0 to infinity, the trajectories o f the roots tions prevailing to the application of the per-

are sinusoidal curves passing through the roots turbation method which lead to (49) are not

corresponding to Z 0, and approaching tangen- valid. These shortcomings of GTD have been

tially the value k onthe real axis surmounted by boundary layer theory o r by direct

Fig. lob. For complex values of Z the trajec- generalization of uniform asymptotic expansions

tories may take one of the forms shown in of the solution of canonical problems as is

(Fig. 1Oc) [48] when IZI is varied from 0 to shown in Part I I.

infinity. I t is seen that for small values of

ReZ, the propagation constant of the first TM

creeping mode leaves progressivelythe vicinity

of the Stoke's line when lZl is augmented, and References

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