Sei sulla pagina 1di 14

PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

We will be starting out the year looking at the major topics of number theory, sequences, and
mathematical induction. We will use these first topics as a framework for reviewing and refining your
skills with logical statements, proof techniques, and basic set theory. A simple but necessary part of this
will be learning the mathematical notation used to communicate these ideas. Later in the year we will
be covering topics such as combinatorics, discrete probability, countability, graph theory, Diophantine
Equations, and apportionment problems.

We will start the course by being very careful to prove things precisely. Deciding when a step needs
proving and when it is obvious is a matter of experience and circumstance. For now, be sure to error
on the side of proving things. As much as possible, use definitions, known results, and logic to justify
each of your steps and assertions. As the year progresses, we will get freer with saying that some things
are simply obvious and do not need to be proven.

This course will be taught with a problem-driven approach. I will be previewing the homework
material as little as possible. Almost all of what you will be learning you will be discovering on your
own or with other people in the class. You are welcome, and even encouraged, to look up definitions
and theorems on the Internet. Try to avoid finding the answers to problems on the net – experiencing
the good things that happen when you struggle to solve a problem is the point of doing the homework,
having the answer is not. While I expect you to attempt to solve every homework problem, I do not
expect you to always be successful. As long as you have spent at least five minutes trying to solve it, you
will never be graded down for not knowing how to do a homework problem.

During the year you will be expected to research a topic of your choosing (and my approving). These
topics may look more deeply into one of the topics we are already covering, or they may come from
new topics related to the course that we would not otherwise cover - some examples would be
cryptography, computer logic circuits, topology, and difference equations. There will be three
components to these projects. You will create a homework problem set for your classmates, you will
prepare some discussion points to discuss the day the homework is due, and you will create a brief
written report on the topic.

I have borrowed problems and problem ideas liberally from at least five sources of copyrighted
information – Discrete Mathematics and its Applications by Kenneth Rosen, Introduction to Counting
and Probability by David Patrick, Introduction to Number Theory by Mathew Crawford, problems
from the web site CleverMath.org, and the Discrete Mathematics problem sets put out by Phillips
Exeter Academy. As such, these problems are for private use and should not be published or widely
disseminated without getting permission from the various publishers first.

1
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: A set, S, is an unordered collection of distinct objects (no repeats allowed). An object, e, is
called an element of the set if it is in the collection; this is written e ∈S . A set with no elements is called
the empty set and is written ∅ . If one set, T, is completely contained in another set, S, then T is called a
subset of S and this is written T ⊂ S .
m
Definition: A number is a rational number if it can be expressed as , where m and n are integers. The
n
set of integers is written ¢ , the rational numbers Q, and the real numbers R.
Definition. An integer n is even if ∃k ∈¢ ∍ n = 2k (this is read: there exists an integer k such that n=2k).
An integer m is odd if m = 2r + 1 for some r ∈¢ .
Definition. For a,b ∈¢ , the notation a|b, which is read a divides b, or more wordily, a evenly divides b,
means that ∃m ∈¢ ∍ am = b. If a|b, then a is called a factor of b and b is called a multiple of a.
Definition. An integer n is a unit if n|1. An integer p is prime if it is not a unit and whenever ab = p with
a,b ∈¢, then one of a or b must be a unit. A nonzero integer is composite if it is neither a prime nor a
unit. Note that from now on, when talking about units, primes, and composites, we will almost always
restrict ourselves to positive integers.
Notation. If a, b, c, and d are integers between 0 and 9, then 𝑎𝑏𝑐𝑑 refers to the 4-digit number that has
those digits – i.e. the number with value 1000a + 100b + 10c + d.
1. Classify each of these integers as being a unit, prime, or composite: -1, -2, -3, and -4.
2. Describe the set of all positive integers that have exactly three positive factors (including 1 and itself).
Prove or disprove (with complete details):
3. If a and b are integers, then 6a2b is even and 10a + 8b + 1 is odd.
4. If n is an even integer with 3 < n < 21, then n can be written as a sum of two primes.
5. ∃n ∈¢+ ∍ 0|n.
6. ∀a,b ∈ R, if a2 = b2, then a = b.
7. The sum of an even integer and an odd integer is an odd integer.
8. If b and m are integers, b nonzero, and mb|b, then m = 1.
Solve these:
9. There exists a unique 3-digit number N that contains 0 as a digit, such that if this digit of 0 is
deleted, then the resulting number is equal to N/9. That is, 𝑎𝑏0 / 9 = 𝑎𝑏 or 𝑎0𝑏 / 9 = 𝑎𝑏. Find N.
10. For the following pairs, decide which number in the pair is greater and give your reason.
a) 2300 or 3200 b) 240 or 328 c) 544 or 453 d) 2100 + 3100 or 4100 e) 792 or 891

1
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition. A proposition is a declarative statement that is either true or false, but not both. For example,
“red is a color” is true and “1 is larger than 2” is false. The negation of a proposition p, written ~p, is a
proposition whose truth value is the opposite of p – i.e. when one is true the other is false.
Definition. For propositions p and q, consider the statement: p → q . A way to state this is: If p is true
then q is true, or more briefly, if p then q. The contrapositive of this statement is : q →: p , which is
read, if not q then not p. The converse of the statement is q → p . The inverse is : p →: q .
Definition. If p → q and q → p , then we can write this as p ↔ q . This is read as p is true if and only
if q is true, or more briefly, p iff q.
1. Create a true statement of the form p → q and then form the contrapositive, converse, and inverse
of it and see if they are true.
2. Which pairs of the four statements are equivalent? For example, if p → q is true, which other
statement must be true?
Prove or disprove:
3. If n ∈¢ , then 3|n3 - n.
4. ∃n ∈¢+ ∍ n2 + 3n + 2 is prime.
5. ∃m,n ∈¢ ∍ m>1, n>1 and 1/m + 1/n is an integer.
6. ∃a,b ∈R ∍ sqrt(a+b) = sqrt(a) + sqrt(b).
7. ∀n ∈¢ , if n is odd then (n-1)/2 is odd.
8. ∀m,n ∈¢ , if 2m+n is odd then m and n are both odd.
9. The opposite (additive inverse) of an even integer is even.
10. The transitivity of divisibility: For all integers a, b, c, if a|b and b|c, then a|c.
Solve these:
11. Find the number of positive integers less than or equal to 1000 such that nn is a square.
12. How can you bring up from the river exactly six quarts of water when you have only two
containers, a four-quart pail and a nine-quart pail, to measure and carry with?

2
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition. An invariance problem is a problem that involves steps all of which leave the value of some
function (the invariant function) unchanged during every step.
Prove or disprove:
1. ∃m ∈¢, m > 2, such that m 2 − 1 is prime.
2. The product of an even integer and an odd integer is even.
3. ∃n ∈¢+ , n 2 − n + 11 is a prime number.
4. Every positive integer can be expressed as a sum of three or fewer squares.
5. Any product of four consecutive integers is one less than a square.
6. If n is an odd integer, then (−1)n = −1 .
7. For integers a and b, if a|b and b|a, then a=b.
8. For integers a and b, if a|b, then a2|b2.
Solve these:
9. If 2x – 2y = 1 and 4x – 4y = 5/3, then find the value of x – y.
10. Decide which number is greater. a) 100100 or 5050 * 15050 b) 1234567 * 1234569 or 123456782
11. The numbers 1 through 20 are written on a chalk board. At each step, two numbers, a and b, are
randomly chosen, they are erased and replaced by a + b – 1. What is the single number on the board
after 19 steps? Solve this problem in two ways, where the second way employs an invariant function.
12. Find the smallest integer, N, such that there are integers r, s, t with N/2 = r2, N/3 = s3, N/5 = t5.

3
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition. The statement p ∨ q means that p or q is true – that is, at least one of them is true. The
statement p ∧ q means that p and q are both true.
Definition. The notation P(x) refers to a family of statements. For example, P(x) could be “x is bigger
than 2.” In this example, P(1) is false and P(3) is true.
1. If S is a set, what is the negation of a statement such as " ∃n ∈S ∍ P(n) is true" – that is, what does it
take to disprove it?
2. If S is a set, what is the negation of a statement such as " ∀n ∈S P(n) is true" – that is, what does it
take to disprove it?
3. p → q is logically equivalent to writing : p ∨ q . Find logically equivalent statements for the
contrapositive, converse, and inverse of p → q .
4. Let p be "you did not get to work on time" and q be "you are fired." Suppose that p → q is true.
Look at the various logical possibilities you created in problem #3 using this p and q.
5. What is the negation of p → q ? That is, what do you need to show to disprove p → q ?
6. Knights always tell the truth, and knaves always lie. You encounter two people A and B. A says “B is
a knight” and B says “The two of us are opposite types.” Decide which type each person is.
Prove or disprove:
7. If m and n are positive integers and the product mn is a square, then m and n are squares.
8. The difference of any two odd squares is divisible by 8.
9. Every integer is a rational number. What happens for the inverse of this statement?
10. The sum of two rational numbers is a rational number.
11. For every integer n > 1, n is divisible by a prime number.
12. For integers a, b, c, m, and n, if a|b and a|c, then a|(mb+nc).
Solve these:
13. Find all possible integers n such that the units digit of n is 4, and the sum of the squares of all of the
digits of n is not less than n.

4
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Theorem: Unique Factorization Theorem for Integers – this is also known as the Prime Factorization Theorem or
the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. For every integer greater than 1, there is exactly one way to write it
as a product of positive prime numbers (not including reordering).
Definition: (Factorial) For n a positive integer, n! = n(n-1)(n-2)* … * 2 * 1. Note also that 0! = 1.
Theorem: The Quotient-Remainder Theorem (also known as Euclidean Division). Given any integer n and
positive integer d, there exist unique integers q and r such that n = dq + r and 0 ≤ r < d.
1. List the divisors of 15.
2. List the divisors of 0.
3. List the divisors of 1. Why are these special?
4. A mailbox has the address 𝑎𝑏𝑐𝑑 where a, b, c and d are single digits and a < b < c < d. If the
product of these four numbers is 1,260, what is the address?
5. If 2,940|x, what must be true about the prime factorization for x and why?
6. A circle is split radially from the center into six regions. The numbers 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 are written into
the regions in counterclockwise order. You may increase the values in two neighboring regions by 1. Is
it possible to make all the regions equal by such a series of steps?
Prove or disprove:
6. Every integer is either even or odd.
7. For a,b,c ∈¢ , if ab|c then a|c and b|c.
8. If a and b are integers and 12a = 25b, then 12|b and 25|a.
9. ∀𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ ℚ, there is always a rational number that is between a and b.
10. A positive integer is a square iff all the exponents in n’s prime factorization are even. Generalize
this to other powers.
Solve these:
11. What is the largest value of n for which 2 n | 20! ?
12. How many of the 4-digit numbers made from the digits 1, 2, 3, and 4 are divisible by 4? A digit can
be used more than once, as in 2112.
13. Let p be a prime. Find, with proof, all integer solutions to 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 𝑝. Investigate what
happens with this problem when p is not a prime.

5
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: The number of positive divisors of a positive integer n, including the divisors 1 and n, is
called tau(n) and is written τ (n) .
Definition: Twin primes are a pair of primes that are two apart. For example, 5 and 7.
Conjecture: (Goldbach) There are an infinite number of twin primes. Note that if you prove this
conjecture you will get an A+ in this class and get into the college of your choice.
1. If p is a prime, list all of the divisors of p 6 .
2. Which number is greater: 1997 ^ (1998 ^ 1999) or 1999 ^ (1998 ^ 1997)?
3. Is there a number the product of whose digits is 1980? If so, what is it?
Prove or disprove:
4. If 8!m = 17!/ 9! , then 17 | m.
5. 5 | 0.
6. -3 | 216.
7. For a,b,c ∈¢ , if a|bc then a|b or a|c.
8. The product of two even integers is a multiple of 4.
9. A sufficient condition for an integer to be divisible by 8 is that it be divisible by 16.
10. ∀𝑎, 𝑛 ∈ ℤ3 if a|n2 and 0 < a ≤ n , then a|n.
11. a|b iff all the primes, including multiplicity, in the prime factorization for a are included in the
prime factorization for b.
12. Use proof by contradiction to prove that 2 is irrational. Please do not look up the proof.
13. If n > 0, then 360 | n2 (n2 – 1) (n2 – 4).
Solve these:
14. For how many positive integers, n, with 𝑛 ≤ 1000, is it true that 12 does not divide n(n-1)(n-2)?
15. Calculate τ (60) .
16. How many twin primes are there whose sum is a power of a prime?
17. The numbers 1 to 20 are written on a board. Two numbers, a and b, are randomly chosen, erased,
and replaced by the single number ab + a + b. After this procedure is repeated 19 times, what are the
possibilities for the single remaining number?

6
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: Two integers, a and b, are equivalent mod c if c|(a-b). Equivalently, a and b are equivalent
mod c if they have the same remainder when divided by c. Most of the time, when given a question of
the form “What is 23 mod 7?” the questioner usually wants a number from 0 to 6 - numbers in that
range are called residues mod 7.
1. Suppose that a = 4 mod 13 and b = 9 mod 13. Find the residue, x, mod 13 such that
a) x = 3a mod 13 b) x = 11+b mod 13 c) a = 10x mod 13 d) x = 4a + 5b mod 13
2. 7 is equivalent to (3 – 9) mod 13 - that is, subtraction makes sense mod 13. Does 12 / 5 mod 13
make sense? That is, if you divide any number that is 12 mod 13 by any number that is 5 mod 13, do
you always get a single well-defined answer? If so, simplify this expression. If not, say why not.
3. Does 6 / 2 mod 12 make sense (as in the last problem)? If so, simplify it. If not, say why not.
4. List some negative integers that are equivalent to 4 mod 7.
5. Given a positive integer n, could n, n+2, and n+4 all be prime? Prove that this statement is always
true, never true, or sometimes true.
6. There are two definitions given above for “mod.” Prove that the two definitions are equivalent.
7. If p and q are distinct primes, list all the divisors of p 4 q 2 in a systematic way in a grid.
8. List all the divisors of 180. Make this list in a systematic, regular way that makes it easy to see how to
extend this work to much larger numbers.
9. (General result) Prove that if a = b mod c and d = e mod c, then (a+d) = (b+e) mod c and ad = be
mod c. This problem proves that arithmetic (adding and multiplying) makes sense mod c. You will use
this result in some of the problems that come after this.
10. It is now 9:00 on a 12-hour clock. What time will it be in 1447 hours?
Prove or disprove:
11. The product of any four consecutive integers is divisible by 24.
12. Every positive prime number except 2 and 3 has the form 6q+1 or 6q+5 for some integer q.
13. Prove that a=b mod c iff there exists an integer m such that a = b + mc.
14. Let 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑚 ∈ ℤ, with m > 1 and 𝑚 ∤ 𝑐. If ac = bc mod m, then a = b mod m.
15. Let 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑚 ∈ ℤ, with m > 1. If a = b mod m, then a3 = b3 mod m.
Solve these:
16. Find the number of ordered pairs (x, y) of positive integers that satisfy x2y = 28800.
17. Find, with proof, all positive integers, n, such that n2 = 11p + 4 where p is a prime.
18. If a*b = 1998, what is the smallest possible positive value for a – b?

7
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: For integers a and b, not both zero, the largest integer d such that d | a and d | b is called
the greatest common divisor of a and b and is written gcd(a,b,) or just (a,b) when the context is clear. The
smallest positive integer e such that a|e and b|e is called the least common multiple of a and b, and it is
written lcm(a, b). The integers a and b are said to be relatively prime if gcd(a,b) = 1.
Definition and Theorem: The set of equivalent integers mod m is written ¢ m or ¢ / m¢ . For example,
¢ 2 consists of two sets - evens (numbers equivalent to 0) and odds (numbers equivalent to 1). Addition
in ¢ m is well-defined, closed, has an identity element (0), has inverses, and is associative; multiplication
is well-defined, closed, has an identity element (1), is associative, and distributes over addition.
1. Write out the addition and multiplication tables for ¢ 5 using only residues.
2. Calculate τ (5880) .
3. Write out the prime factorization of 20!
4. Find gcd(a,b) and lcm(a,b) where a = 2 5 38 5 4113 and b = 2 4 32 5 8 71 .
5. When does gcd(a,b) = 1. When does gcd(a,b) = a? Carefully describe the conditions & reason.
6. When does lcm(a,b) = ab? When does lcm(a,b) = a? Describe the conditions & reason.
7. (General concept) In the problems this year we have seen each of the following: proof by example,
direct proof, proof by exhaustion or cases, proof by contradiction, and disproof by counterexample.
Find an example of a homework problem during this year for each of these types.
Prove or disprove:
8. The square of any integer has the form 4k or 4k+1 for some integer k.
9. If n is composite, then there exists a prime p ≤ n such that p | n. Prove this. What does this tell
you about how to check whether an integer is prime or not? Look up the Sieve of Eratosthenes – how is
this problem involved with the method of doing the sieve?
10. Let 𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑, 𝑚 ∈ ℤ3 , with m > 1. If a = b mod m and c = d mod m, then ac = bd mod m.
11. If you add 1 to the product of the first n prime numbers, the result will always be a prime.
12. log2(3) is irrational (prove or disprove it). In general, when is logk(m) rational?
13. For every positive integer n, there exists n consecutive integers that are composite.
14. The only base 10 number whose digits are all 1’s that is a square is the number 1.
15. If n is an odd integer, then n2 = 1 mod 8.
16. Remove the opposite white corners from a chess board. Can you cover the remaining board with a
collection of 2 x 1 dominoes?

8
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: For a real number, x, the floor of x, ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ , and the fractional part of x, {x}, are defined,
respectively, as the integer n so that n ≤ x < n + 1 and {x} = x - ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ . Similarly, the ceiling of x, ⎡⎢ x ⎤⎥ , is
defined as the integer n such that n − 1 < x ≤ n.
Definition. An integer solution to the Pythagorean Theorem is called a Pythagorean Triple. Such a triple
(a, b, c) is primitive if gcd(a, b, c) = 1. Given a pair of positive integers m and n with m > n, the Euclidean
Formula states that letting a = m2 – n2, b = 2mn, and c = m2 + n2, will create a Pythagorean Triple.
1. Let 𝑛, 𝑘 ∈ ℤ3 . Write n = qk + r, 0 <= r < k, to show that ⎡⎢ n / k ⎤⎥ = ⎢⎣(n − 1) / k ⎥⎦ + 1.
2. Count the number of 0’s at the end of 50! when it is written out as a decimal number.
3. Use floor to create a general formula for the largest integer value of x such that 2 x | n! .
4. Find the largest integer value of x such that 12 x |100!
5. What is 20100 mod 7?
6. Suppose that a = p1n1 p2n2 ...pknk and b = p1m1 p2m2 ...pkmk . Calculate gcd(a,b) and lcm(a,b).
7. Use your work in the last problem to prove the identity a * b = gcd(a,b) * lcm(a,b).
8. If a = p1n1 p2n2 ...pknk , find a formula for τ (a) .
9. a|bc does not always guarantee a|b or a|c. Prove that if gcd(a, c) =1, then a|bc does guarantee a|b.
10. Three numbers are in an arithmetic sequence; three other number are in geometric sequence.
Adding the corresponding terms of the two sequences yields the sequence 85, 76, and 84. Adding all
three terms of the arithmetic sequence gives 126. Find the original two sequences.
11. If the sum of two primes is 999, what is their product?
12. Investigate which m > n > 0 in the Euclidean Formula produce primitive Pythagorean Triples.
Prove or disprove:
12. ⎢⎣ x + y ⎥⎦ = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ + ⎢⎣ y ⎥⎦ .

13. For real x and integer m, ⎢⎣ x + m ⎥⎦ = ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ + m.


14. gcd(a, b) = 1 iff the prime factorizations of a and b have no primes in common.
15. For any integer n, the value of 𝑛/2 is 𝑛/2 if n is even and is (𝑛 − 1)/2 if n is odd.
16. 𝑥 = − −𝑥
17. If p is an odd prime, then there are unique positive integers x and y such that p = x2 – y2.

9
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: The sum of all of the divisors of n, including 1 and n, is written sigma(n) or σ (n) . A
number is called deficient, perfect, or abundant according to whether σ (n) is smaller than, equal to, or
larger than 2n. We will write the product of all of the divisors of n, including 1 and n, as pi(n) or π (n)
(this is not a standard notation).
Definition: In number theory, a function f is called multiplicative if f(ab) = f(a)f(b) whenever (a,b)=1.
1. Show that τ (n) is a multiplicative function.
2. Calculate 21000 mod 11.
3. Show that 31 | (3099 + 61100).
4. Is there a number, n, such that n! ends in exactly 100 0’s?
5. Find the smallest number such that τ (n) = 5 . Generalize this result and explain.

6. Calculate σ ( p a ) and σ ( p a q b ) , where p and q are primes.

7. Find a compact, simple formula for σ (2 n ) .


8. Calculate π (n) for n = 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, and 16. Do you notice any patterns?
Prove or disprove:
9. (c, m) = 1 iff ac = bc mod m implies a = b mod m.
10. Let S = {0, 1, 2, …, m-1}. (c, m) =1 iff the sets S and {c*0, c*1, c*2, …, c*(m-1)} are equal mod m.
11. If p is a prime and p|abc, then p|a, or p|b, or p|c.
12. If kn -1 is a prime, then n is a prime and k is 2. Hint: Use the factorization an – bn = (a-b) * (…).
13. Use proof by contradiction to prove that there are infinitely many primes.
14. Given two positive integers x and y, there is a composite integer in the arithmetic progression y+xk,
for k = 1, 2, 3, … .
15 τ (n) is odd iff n is a square. Prove this in two completely different ways.
16. For real number x and positive integer n, ⎢⎣ x / n ⎥⎦ = k iff x = nk + r where 0 ≤ r < n.

⎢ ⎢ x / n ⎥⎦ ⎥ ⎢ x ⎥
17. For real number x and positive integers n and m, ⎢ ⎣ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥.
⎣ m ⎦ ⎣ nm ⎦
18. For n > 0, ((2n)! / (n!)2) is even.


10
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: The number of elements in a set S is written |S| or as ∘(S), and is called the size of S or the
cardinality of S.
Definition: The set of positive integers less than n that are relatively prime to n is written ¢×n . The
elements of ¢×n are called the units mod n. The elements not in ¢×n are called 0-divisors. The size of ¢×n ,
| ¢×n |, is written phi(n), φ (n) , and this is called the Euler phi function. Note that 𝜑 1 = 1.
1. Make a table from 1 to 15 of the smallest numbers that have exactly that many divisors. For
example, the entry for 3 would be 4 because 𝜏 4 = 3, and the entry for 6 would be 12.
2. If 2|x and 9|x and τ (x) = 14 , find x.
3. Find the 1’s digit of 7^(7^(7^(7^7))) when written as a decimal integer.
4. Show that a 0-divisor deserves its name. That is, prove that a is a 0-divisor mod n iff there exists
some b, which is not 0 mod n, so that ab = 0 mod n. Hence, all residues are either 0-divisors or units.
5. Find the smallest real number x so that ⎢⎣ x ⎥⎦ {x} ≥ 16 3 . Remember {x} is the fractional part of x.
3

6. Let n = pk, where p is a prime. Count the 0-divisors mod n to help you calculate φ (n) .
7. What is the units digit of 335 * 735 ?
8. If a and b are single-digit integers with 7|(a+b), show that 7 divides the three-digit number 𝑎𝑏𝑎.
9. Let 𝑎𝑏 and 𝑏𝑎 be legitimate 2-digit numbers, where 5 ∗ 𝑎𝑏 = 6 ∗ 𝑏𝑎. What is 𝑎𝑏?
10. Calculate π (32400) in a simple, systematic way.
11. Calculate the units digit of 1! + 2! + 3! + 4! + … + 2013!
12. If lcm(x,y) = 450, gcf(x,y) = 6, and x = 18, then what is y?
13. Find all possible integer solutions to c*d*(c-d) = 45,045.
14. Suppose that {a} + ⎢⎣b ⎥⎦ = 15 − 6 5 and {b} + ⎢⎣ a ⎥⎦ = 11− 4 5 . Find the values of a and b.
2 2

15. Find those three-digit prime numbers whose digits multiply together to give 189.
16. All primitive Pythagorean Triples can be produced using Euclid’s Formula. However, not all
Pythagorean Triples can be produced. Modify Euclid’s Formula so that it produces all triples.
Prove or disprove:
17. An integer n bigger than 1 is a prime number iff for any integer x either (x,n)=1 or n|x.
18. If p is a prime, then 2p-1 is a prime.


11
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: Omega(n), w(n), is the number of distinct primes dividing n. Capital-omega(n), W(n), is the
number of primes dividing n, counting multiplicity. As an easy example, 𝜔 12 = 2 and Ω 12 = 3.
Sigma-sub-k(n), sk(n), is the sum of the kth powers of the divisors of n. Note two familiar examples we
have seen: s1(n) = s(n) and s0(n) = 𝜏(n).
Definition: Define mu(n) recursively by 𝜇(1) = 1 and for n>1, 𝜇(n) is defined so that I|K 𝜇(𝑑) = 0.
K
Definition: The Dirichlet convolution of two multiplicative functions is 𝑓 ∗ 𝑔 𝑛 = I|K(𝑓 𝑑 𝑔 ).
I

Theorem: If f and g are multiplicative functions, then 𝑓 ∗ 𝑔 is as well.


Theorem: M𝑜bius Inversion Formula. 𝐹 𝑛 = I|K 𝑓(𝑑) for every positive n iff 𝑓 = 𝜇 ∗ 𝐹.
1. Let 𝑓(𝑛) be a multiplicative function and let 𝐹 𝑛 = I|K 𝑓 𝑑 . Prove that F(n) is multiplicative.
This result will be useful in some of the following problems. It is also true that if F(n) is multiplicative,
then f(n) must be – however, we do not appear to have any immediate use of that result.
2. Prove that for every integer k, the function f(n) = nk is a multiplicative function.
3. Assume for now that φ (n) is multiplicative (we will prove it much later). Derive a general formula for
φ (n) in terms of the prime factorization of n.
4. Show that I|K 𝜑 𝑑 = 𝑛.
5. Prove that sk(n) is a multiplicative function.
6. Derive the simpler description of 𝜇(n) as being (−1)P(K) if n is square free (not evenly divisible by a
square (1 is square free)) and is 0 otherwise. Also, show that 𝜇(n) is a multiplicative function.
7. Show that 𝜑 ∗ 𝜏 = 𝜎.
8. For which 𝑛 = 𝑝K 𝑞S 𝑟 U , with p, q, and r distinct primes, is it true that I|K 𝜇 𝑑 𝜏 𝑑 = −1?
9. If n is an even integer, prove that I|K 𝜇 𝑑 𝜑 𝑑 = 0.
K
10. From 𝑛 = I|K 𝜑(𝑑) = I|K 𝜑(I ), derive 𝜑 𝑛 = 𝑛 I|K 𝜇(𝑑)/𝑑 using Mobius Inversion.
11. Find each smallest integer n so that the equation 𝜎 𝑥 = 𝑛 has a. no solutions; b. exactly one
solution; c. exactly two solutions; and d. exactly three solutions.
12. Find the smallest integer m for which there is another positive integer n such that 𝜎 𝑚 = 𝜎 𝑛 .


12
PRS Discrete Mathematics 2019-20

Definition: A Mersenne Prime is a prime number of the form 2 p − 1 , where p is a prime.


1. Come up with a general formula for sigma(n) using the prime factorization of n.
2. Let q = 2 p − 1 be a Mersenne Prime. Show q2 ( p−1) is a perfect number. It is fairly easy to prove this
provides all even perfect numbers. It is strongly suspected that there are no odd perfect numbers.
3. If 12|x and 15|x and t (x) = 18, what is the smallest value of x?
4. Find all of the numbers less than 100 that have exactly 12 divisors.
5. What is the smallest positive integer with 6 positive odd divisors and 12 positive even divisors?
6. t (2n) = 10 and t (3n) = 12, what is n?
7. Find the last 2 digits of 992007.
8. Describe all the values of k for which lcm(66, 88, k) = 1212.
9. What is the remainder when the product of the first 25 primes is divided by 4?
10. If x is the cube of an integer, which of these is possible for τ (x) ? 200, 201, 202, 203, 204?
X Y K Y K
11. Show that I|K(I ) =
K
. Put another way, 𝜎ZX 𝑛 =
K
.
12. Apply the Mobius Inversion Formula to each of: a. 𝜎 𝑛 = I|K 𝑑 and b. 𝜏 𝑛 = I|K 1.

13. What is the remainder when 942 – 542 is divided by 7?


14. Let a and b be positive integers. If the difference of their squares is 25, what is a + b?
15. a = 5 mod 24 and b = 14 mod 24. What is a+b mod 12?
16. For a positive integer n, τ (n) = 10 and τ (10n) = m . Find all possible values for m.
^ \]
17. Let 𝑛 = [_X 𝑝[ > 1. If f is a multiplicative function, show that
^
a. I|K(𝜇 𝑑 𝑓(𝑑)) = [_X 1 − 𝑓 𝑝[ .
b. I|K(𝜇 𝑑 𝜏(𝑑)) = (−1)^
^
c. I|K(𝜇 𝑑 𝜎(𝑑)) = (−1)^ [_X 𝑝[ .
Prove or disprove:
18. For any integer x, x3 = x mod 6.
19. π (n) is a multiplicative function.


13