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VOLUNTARINESS Common Law & MPC §2.01 OMISSIONS Common Law & MPC §2.01
 Reflex/convulsion, unconscious, moved against will = INVOL. x No general duty to act
ACTUS (Martin, drunk in pub. but dragged there; NOT guilty)  (Beardsley no duty toward mistress
REUS / o BUT, Ppl v. Low:  brought drugs into jail, still guilty, cuz  Miranda, no duty for live-in boyfriend
OMISSIONS opportunity to discard)  Jones, no duty if mom is around
 Cannot criminalize a status/condition! (Robinson, CA’s being  Pope no duty to report felony, after mom beat daughter to death
“addict” law = unconstitutional!)  4 exceptions:
x BUT…Crime caused by addiction = STILL voluntary (Powell) o Duty required by status relationship (courts expanding, Ppl v. Carroll =
duty for step-mother
o Contract (e.g. daycare)
CLASS: Criminal Law o Voluntary assumption of care & secluded; (not if mom present! Pope,
PROF: Barkow Jones)
GRADE: A o Creation of risk/peril (R. v. Evans,  gave heroin to sis, then didn’t
report when ODed!)
 Must have knowledge of facts giving rise to duty, and must be reasonably
possible to perform
SPECIFIC INTENT (similar to purpose/knowledge in MPC; must MPC §2.02 – CONDUCT ATT. CIRC. RESULT
intend particular result (bodily (conditions) (not always element)
 desired to commit actus reus & intended further result/purpose movement)
Ex. Murder 1, attempt, conspiracy, burglary
MENS REA GENERAL INTENT ( must mean to do the act, but doesn’t have to PURPOSE Conscious Awareness, belief Conscious
intend result: e.g. battery) (intentionally) objective/desire or hope objective/desire
 desired to commit actus reus (req. for attempt)
x to negate, mistake must be honest & reasonable KNOWLEDGE Awareness Practically certain
CL Mens Rea BASICS: (willfulness)
(Majority): Malice = “w/ foresight of conseq.” (aka reckless) RECKLESS Conscious disregard of substantial and unjustifiable risk;
e.g. Cunningham, gas meter, NO malice (default) Gross deviation from the normal/reasonable standard of care
e.g. Faulkner, stealing whiskey burned ship, NO malice that law-abiding person would follow in D’s situation
NEGLIGENCE should have been aware of substantial and unjustifiable risk,
Absence of Mens Rea creates strict liability offense if legislative intent gross deviation from standard of reasonable care
suggests that is appropriate (ex. public welfare) (see strict liability) MPC §2.02(7) Where knowledge is required, high probability of fact will suffice
Jurisdictional Split re: Negligence unless there is a belief that it does not actually exist (WILLFUL BLINDNESS)
*Civil neg. standard: e.g. Hazelwood, oil tanker captain, “ordinary MPC §2.02(8) Willfulness is satisfied by acting knowingly unless stat. specifies
deviation from standard of care” otherwise
*Criminal: e.g. Santillanes, crim. neg. for child abuse, "gross _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

deviation_________________________________________________ MPC §2.04 – Ignorance or Mistake

Rule of Lenity: McBoyle: airplane NOT “vehicle”  Negates the mens rea required to establish element of offense
But… Smith: “using” gun to buy drugs fell within statute MPC looks at what you thought you were doing, not the result.
Legality! (nulla poena sine lege) (Keeler, fetus NOT “human”) If you didn’t know you were committing a crime, then you can use the defense
But… Rogers v. Tenn. Abolished year-and-a-day rule retroactively If you were already committing a crime, then it is not a defense
Willful Blindness:  Law provides that ignorance/mistake of fact constitutes defense
Jewell:  didn’t know cuz conscious purpose to avoid learning x NOT ALLOWED when would have been guilty of another offense if
Giovanetti: Posner  must take affirmate action to avoid finding out circumstances were as he believed them to be (will reduce the grade of the
 Honest & reasonable  Honest and reasonable/
MISTAKE OF mistake of fact is a defense unreasonable mistake of fact is a Conflicts with Lesser Crime theory that ups the sentencing of your crime, even if
FACT x Unreasonable mistakes defense b/c it negates intent for you did it on mistake
x Strict liability (Prince, result!
taking child from parents), x BUT lesser crime and moral
to protect children of wrong theories may make strict
“tender years” (Olsen) liability
x Traditional view: MOL =  Negates intent, reasonable or  Negates the mens rea required to establish element of offense
MISTAKE OF NO EXCUSE! (Hopkins,  unreasonable (Cheek, tax fraud)  Ignorance/mistake of law constitutes defense if ∆ acts in reasonable reliance on
LAW (defense) relied on State Attorney’s  Const. Defense – violation of Due official statement of law (statute, judicial writing, admin. order, official
advice) Process, “wholly passive,” interpretation of law) later determined to be invalid (see Raley v. Ohio)
x Reasonable impossible to have knowledge  Legal impossibility (∆ innocent if engages in legal conduct he thinks is
Misinterpretation NOT (Lambert, crim registration law) forbidden)
defense (Marrero,  Reliance on official statement  Inherent Impossibility (conduct so inherently unlikely to result in commission)
corrections officer NO  Statute says “willful” violation
excuse!) (Liparota, food stamps), but NOT
(Int’l Minerals, corrosive liquid)
 MORAL WRONG: Offense is “wrong in itself” (Prince, taking girl MPC §2.05 – Strict Liability
from parents; Olsen, Garnett) (but “community standards” =  Only for violations with punishments no more than a fine
nebulous…)  Explicit statutory language required to impose strict liability for crime w/
STRICT o BUT... X-Citement Video, selling child porn NOT SL) punishment greater than a fine
LIABILITY  LEGAL WRONG: ’s conduct already illegal, so SL = appropriate  MPC doesn’t like because MPC is about moral blameworthiness and
for certain elements (Benniefield, drugs in school zone) retributivism
 Public welfare crimes (e.g. statutory rape, mislabeling of drugs) o BUT strict liability for statutory rape of 10-yr-old or younger!
(Dotterweich, shipping mislabeled drugs)  Still make regulatory crimes w/ potential for mass harm argument!
 Absence of mens rea creates strict liability offense if legislative
intent suggests it’s appropriate, or when requiring more knowledge SEE SL FACTORS BELOW!
would defeat the purpose of the statute (Balint, selling opiates)
x Unless public welfare offense, DON’T assume SL (Morissette,
taking abandoned casings from govt. property, NOT SL)
x Not likely to be SL if statute easy to read or easy to violate (Staples,
unregistered semi-auto converted to automatic w/o his knowledge)
o BUT…Freed, unregistered grenades = SL
STRICT LIABILITY? Morissette Test ( took casing from govt. property)
COMMON LAW 1. How wide is the distribution of harm?
but also mention 2. Is the injury the same regardless of intent?
for MPC 3. Is it a new offense? (new offenses more likely strict liability)
4. Severity of punishment? (regulatory offense = low penalty & stigma)
STATUTORY o Would it criminalize lots of innocent conduct? (Staples, unregistered automatic weapon)
INTERP / 5. Could defendant have stopped the crime from occurring?
MENS REA Rule of Lenity: ambiguous statutes susceptible to two or more equally reasonable interpretations will be interpreted in favor of the defendant (Dauray)
ANALYSIS Plain Meaning Rule when stat. language is plain &meaning clear, court must give it effect

(cont.)  EXCEPTION – if court believes applying plain meaning of statute will lead to injustice, oppression, or an absurd consequence
Fair Warning/Notice: Due Process requires that a statute give a person of ordinary intelligence fair notice that his contemplated conduct is forbidden by the
statute (McBoyle, airplane not “vehicle, so NOT guilty), BUT… (Smith, “use” of gun in drug deal includes selling it for drugs…)
Void for Vagueness (on its face or as applied!): statute mustn’t encourage arbitrary and discrim. enforcement (Morales: Chicago gang loitering law
lack of fair notice + poten. for arb. Enforcement = unconst. vague
Constitutional Defense – can’t criminalize WHOLLY PASSIVE behavior without fair NOTICE (Lambert, LA ordinance requiring felons to register)

Malice Aforethought – intent to kill a human being; intent to inflict grievous bodily MPC §210.2 – MURDER MPC §210.3 –MANSLAUGHTER
HOMICIDE injury/harm; extremely reckless disregard for value of human life; intent to commit a
felony during commission or attempt of which death results  Purposely/Knowingly  Reckless Homicide (Hall, skier) (like
CL involuntary manslaughter)
Malice Aforethought No Malice Aforethought
 Gross Recklessness (like CL depr.
FIRST DEGREE MURDER VOLUNTARY MANSLAUGHTER heart)  Murder committed under the influence
 Malice Aforethought w/ intent to kill  Heat of Passion- intentional killing  under circ. manifesting extreme of extreme mental or emotional
 Premeditation committed in response to legally indifference to value of human disturbance for which there is a
adequate provocation life reasonable explanation or excuse (like
Felony Murder – intent to commit a felony  Adequate provocation: physical  Presumed if principal or accomplice CL vol. mansl.)
(inherently dangerous) during commission combat, ass&bat, discovery of spouse in in commission or attempt robbery, Reasonableness of explanation/excuse
or attempt of which a death results flagrante, resisting illegal arrest, witness rape, arson, burglary, kidnapping, or determined from viewpoint of
severe injury to close relative felonious escape (Accounts for ordinary person in actor’s situation
x NOT if  had time to cool off Felony Murder) and circumstances (mixed objective/
 Unpremeditated killing, resulting from  Unintentional killing that occurs in x Premeditation/ deliberation not Courts mixed on letting “culture”
an assault where death is a possibility commission or attempted commission of required affect objective standard
x No premeditation an unlawful act in unlawful manner  IQ, temperament NOT allowed
 OR intention to inflict GBH  Gross criminal negligence o But…Everhart: low IQ considered
 No auto. disqual for cooling off
Malignant/Depraved Heart – extreme MPC §210.4 –NEG. HOMICIDE
reckless disregard for value of human life MISDEMEANOR MANSLAUG.  Committed negligently
(Malone–Russ. Roulette; Fleming)  Unintentional killing that occurs in  Should have been aware of
commission of a lawful act in an substantial and unjustifiable risk
unlawful manner  Criminal negligence standard
 Thus, needs “gross deviation”
Ex. honest but unreasonable belief in
need for deadly force in self-defense
 Self defense  Self defense  Unintentional  Self defense  Self defense  negligent  Self defense
DEFENSES  Def. 3rd party  Def. 3rd party  Self defense  Def. 3rd party  Defense of 3rd party  Self defense  Def. 3rd party
rd rd
 No premed.  Provocation  Def. 3 party  Not prox cause  unintentional  Def. 3 party  Not prox cause
 Provocation (mitigates)  Imperf. Self def  Extreme emotional  Imperf. Self def  Not “unreasonable”
(mitigates)  Imperf. Self (mitigates) disturb. (mitigates) (mitigates)
 Imperf. Self def. def(mitigates)  Not prox cause  Imperf. Self def.  Not prox cause
(mitigates)  Not prox cause  Prosec. (mitigates)  Prosec. discretion
 Not prox cause  Prosec. discretion discretion  Not prox. Cause (mitigates- punish.
 Prosec.disc. (mitig severe (mitigates -  Prosec.discretion too severe)
(mitig severe punishment) punishment too (mitigates - punishment
punishment) severe) too severe)
 Required for Murder 1
How Much Time Needed to Form Intent? x Premeditation is NOT required for utmost punishment under MPC!
PREMEDIT. & View 1 - no amount of time too short to form intent (Carroll)
View 2 - premeditation must involve some preexisting reflection (Guthrie) Rationale – thinking carefully about killing someone may not necessarily be
View 3 – 3 criteria to look for: 1) planning activity; 2) ’s relationship to victim, & evidence of a ∆’s depravity (e.g. a mercy killing of a suffering loved one!)
manner of killing (Anderson)

PROVOC.  Extreme emotional disturbance (more likely to send facts to jury than at CL)
(& mitigating x Specific provocative act not required
See CL homicide flowchart! x No rigid cooling-off rule
 Words alone sufficient
 Reasonable explanation from subjective viewpoint of D under circ. as he
believes them to be (Casassa, ’s provocation NOT objectively reasonable)

FELONY  ∆ may be strictly liable for all killings committed by ∆ or by co-felons in  MPC does not expressly distinguish felony-murder
furtherance of the felony  BUT MPC provides for felony murder by presuming a mens rea of extreme
 Strict liability: doesn’t have to be reasonably foreseeable! “takes victim as he finds recklessness if a homicide is committed or attempted while D is engaged in
him!” (Stamp, bank teller had heart attack!) or is an accomplice in robbery, rape, arson, burglary, kidnapping, or
 BUT…some states limited eligible felonies (like MPC) felonious escape
e.g. (Serne,  lit house on fire, son died, not guilty for lack of evidence, but FM o i.e. limited to certain dangerous/serious felonies
still applied): limited FM to crimes known to be dangerous & likely to cause  ALSO, extreme recklessness is merely a presumption, so  allowed to make
death (Inherently Dangerous Limit) an affirmative defense
 Must be proximity in terms of time and distance b/t felony and homicide
 Some states follow MPC and allow affirmative defense x Felony-murder is more difficult to charge under MPC because it is morally
 3 Limiting Factors questionable to apply a punishment for murder to someone who has not
- Inherently Dangerous Felony necessarily shown an indifference to human life
- Merger Doctrine (Integral Part Test and Independent Purpose Test)(Ireland Rule
was precursor which said deadly weapon killings muerge)
- In Furtherance of Felony (Agency Theory and Proximate Cause Theory
Inherently Dangerous FELONIES – usually only those “inherently dangerous to life”
(Serne) (including robbery, burglary, rape, arson, assault, kidnapping, but some jxs
include all felonies
- Some Jxs look at felony in abstract others look at as it was committed
Integral Part Test – If the felony is part of the homicide, then it merges. Assault will
merge with all Homicides (Ppl v Chun – Shot person when meant to scare. Assault
merges with homicide. If felony has both assaultive and non-assaultive then all elements
Independent Purpose Test – If the felony has an independent purpose, then it will not
merge. If you break in with the intent of theft then it is separate from the actual homicide,
and won’t merge. If you intended to break in to kill them, then it was dependent and will
(1) Death occurs after termination of felony
o (But Ppl v. Gillis:  guilty of FM, even though spotted & fled 10 min after
(2) Co-felon kills while on “frolic of his own” (not in further. of felony - Heinlein)
o (But Cabaltero: co-felon shot other co-felon lookout, still FM cuz helped “ensure
success” of ongoing robbery)
(3) If jurisdiction adopts agency theory, killing by non-felon doesn’t count (below)

Agency Theory Proximate Cause Theory
MAJORITY VIEW – (defense friendly) MINORITY VIEW – (prosecution friendly)
 felony-murder applies only when  Felon is responsible for any deaths that
homicide was committed by felon or are a foreseeable risk, even if he or co-
co-felon/accomplice in furtherance felon is not the trigger person (Stamp
of felony – take victim as you find them)
 ∆ only liable where the death is the  If guns are brought, this likely to be
natural and probable consequence met
of ∆’s conduct e.g. Ppl v. Hernandez:  responsible
e.g. Canola – not resp. for co-fel’s death for police accidently killing other
by store owner policeman, cuz  still prox. cause
x UNLESS,  used person as human
shield (narrow exception)
Establishing Causation – must have BOTH MPC does not deal explicitly with intervening human actor – just says
 FACTUAL cause (aka “but-for” cause) can’t be “too remote or accidental” § 2.03
x Care with intervening human actors!
§2.03(1): Conduct causes a result when (a) it is an antecedent but for
FACTUAL (“BUT FOR”) CAUSE which the result would not have occurred, and (b) rel’p between the
 Harm would not have occurred in the absence of ∆’s act/omission
 There can be more than one factual cause- ∆’s conduct need not be the sole factor in
conduct and result satisfies any additional causal requirements imposed
victim’s harm (Arzon,  set first fire, fireman died from 2nd fire,  still guilty) by the Code or the law defining the offense (proximate cause).
 D’s act/omission significantly decreased V’s chances of survival – must be high % §2.03(2)-(3): If p/k/r/n causing a particular result is an element of the
PROXIMATE CAUSE offense, element not established w/o that MR twd result unless
CAUSATION  Act bears a sufficiently close relationship to resulting harm transferred intent, harm is less than intended, or actual result involves
 Ultimate harm is something which should have been foreseeable same kind of injury or harm as intended and is not too remote or
o BROAD: Acosta, ’s highway chase was proximate cause of 2 helicopter’s crash, accidental.
despite pilot error §2.03(4): If strict liability crime, result element is not established unless
o NARROW: Warner-Lambert Co.: gum factory explosion, not foreseeable enough the actual result is a probable consequence of the actor’s conduct.
 Reasonably related to acts of defendant §210.5(1): Causing another to commit suicide is not a crime unless
 V’s pre-existing condition = IRRELEVANT (Stamp, “take V as you find him” purposely caused through force, duress or deception; §210.5(2): Purposely
 V put in vulnerable situation, even if exact cause of death not directly causally
aiding or soliciting suicide is a 2nd degree felony if successful and a
linked (Kibbe,  left V half-naked by side of road in freezing temps, V hit by truck,
misdemeanor if unsuccessful.
but  still proximate cause)
 Medical malpractice does not break chain unless extraordinary egregious
x Bizarre, unforeseeable chain of events break chain
 Intentional subsequent human actions break the chain of causation(Campbell,  cuz it’s basically the same!
gives loaded gun to suicidal friend, then leaves; Kevorkian)
 Reckless/negligent intervening actor MAY break chain of causation (Root, drag
o But NOT in McFadden (drag racing) or Attencio (Russian roulette)
 Causation exists if V is rendered irresponsible by defendant’s conduct
(Stephenson, KKK guy), refuses medical treatment, or commits suicide
 Causation exists if  worked concurrently with intervening third party (McFadden)
 Causation exists if defendant encourages or cooperates in joint activity with V
who recklessly risks resulting harm (Atencio – Russian Roulette)
 Causation exists if V’s recklessness was reasonable and ’s actions were
sufficiently direct cause (Kern, V chased by white mob across highway, ’s liable)

 Male who has sexual intercourse with a female, not his wife, without her consent MPC §213 – RAPE & RELATED OFFENSES
(spousal requirement has been weakened by statutory reform)  Male who has sexual intercourse with a female, not his wife, if:
RAPE FORCE  Compels her to submit by:
 MAJORITY VIEW – intercourse must be committed by force or threat of force a) force or
o BUT…Sexual penetration itself might be sufficient force (M.T.S.) b) by threat of imminent death, serious bodily injury, extreme pain or
o Reasonable resistance indicates force kidnap., to be inflicted on anyone
o Approx. ½ states require V to resist c) He has substantially impaired her power to consent by administering
o Louisiana: required V resist “to the utmost” without her knowledge drugs, intoxicants, or other means for the purpose
o Force can be judged from perspective of V (Rusk) or ’s point of view of preventing resistance
(Evans) d) Under 10 y/o (STRICT LIABILITY)
 BUT…22 states do NOT require force e) Unconscious
 Reasonable fear of death/GBH precludes need to show force/resistance (Rusk) x No proof of resistance required
x Implied threats, future harm, non-physical threats, intimidation, etc = insufficient  Rape is a felony in the 2nd degree
(Thompson – HS principal; Mlinarich: SCOTUS held non-physical force NOT GRADING
enough) - 1st Degree felony if bodily harm is done
NON CONSENT - 1st Degree felony if Victim was not voluntary social companion and
 MAJORITY = negligence standard (some require recklessness) rapist was not previously given sexual liberties
 Use of force/threat of force may be sufficient for non-consent in some jurisdictions - Otherwise, Rape is second degree felony
 Inability to consent (unconsciousness, effect of drugs or intoxicating substance, MH) - Gross Sexual Imposition – Felony of 3rd degree – Man compels woman
 Fraud in the factum = CRIMINAL – Victim doesn’t know sex is happening to submit by threat that prevent resistance of normal person (any threat –
DEFENSE not just physical) or they have mental illness or she is unaware of the sex
 No force or threat of force (implied harm, threat of future harm) - Sexual Assault – Not gender specific – person knows contact is offense
 FRAUD in INDUCMENT still = CONSENT (Evans, fake journalist, Boro, fake
-remember “unless contrary purpose plainly appears” exception to default rules!
x Fraud in the Factum
 Some jxs: Honest and reasonable mistake of fact as to consent = defense, e.g.  Reasonable mistake of age is a defense! (not if child is 10y/o or under)
negligence standard (not for Stat. rape!) (Sherry, docs convicted on neg. standard)  Reasonable mistake of age is defense to stat. rape (girl under 16)
x Other jxs: no mistake of fact regarding consent (Fisher,  guilty even though he had
consensual sex w/ V hours prior)
Theft  Larceny – Asportation (Any carrying/moving in the slightest) + Non-Consent MPC THEFT
(Trespassory Taking) – Larceny is continuing offense because of Asportation. Must MPC just has Theft – no distinctions
have intent to deprive permanently False Promises are not necessarily false pretenses
 Robbery – Felonious taking of property of another, while in their presence and Theft only requires unlawful control, such as sitting in car before you actually
against their will (Larceny + Assault) steal it
 Theft by False Pretenses – Make a false pretense or representation to owner of the
property. Must have intent to defraud owner permanently. Owner must intend to
transfer the title and possession based on those false representations.
- Not a continuing offense because asportation is not required
- Involves consensual transfer of possession and title
- If only one witness, need someone to corroborate the false pretense
- Cannot be turned into Robbery (Larceny is required for Robbery)
- Traditionally, False Promises are NOT False Pretenses
- Intent to deceive can make false promises convictable
 Larceny by Trick – Taking possession, but not the title. Felony.
- Use deception/bad faith to gain possession with intent to deprive permanently.
Go to rental place with intention to scrap it for money, tell them you intend to
return it.
 Larceny by Bailee – Bailee is entrusted with property and then takes it for
themselves. Bailee can be formed through contract or law.
- Bailee you need custody and duty of care to protect it
 Embezzlement – Employee takes money meant for employer. The money or
property must never make it into the possession of the employer. (Money box/drawer
 Lost Property – Owner has constructive possession – Must take reasonable steps to
return it to owner
 Mislaid Property – Owner never leaves possession – Must take reasonable steps
 Abandoned Property – Need honest belief that it is abandoned to be defense of
 Use of Property – Have to deprive owner of major value (season ticket ex)
 LOOK CLOSELY AT THE STATUTE for what kind of threats trigger it! MPC §223.4 – THEFT BY EXTORTION
BLACKMAIL  Corrupt collection of an unlawful fee by an officer under color of his office A person’s guilty of theft if he obtains property (can be $) of another by
 Obtaining property from another by means of certain oral or written threats threatening:
o Threat can be perfectly legal (e.g. reporting a crime they actually committed!) 1) Inflict bodily harm on anyone or commit any other crim. Offense
 E.g (Ppl v. Fichtner: s, supermarket managers, blackmailed thief by 2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense (Harrington – lawyer)
making him pay more than he owed, threatened reporting crime, found 3) Expose any secret tending to subject a person to hatred, contempt or
guilty of blackmail) ridicule or to impair his business repute (Harrington)
 A person who maliciously threatens to accuse another of a crime or offense with 4 - 6) more threats
intent to extort money or other pecuniary advantage or with intent to compel them to 7) Inflict any other harm that would not benefit actor
do something against their will
x Threats do not need to involve immediate or physical harm AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE
x Property need not be in victim’s presence  (2, 3, & 4) – property obtained was honestly (i.e. subjective) claimed as
x Not a crime if target offers compensation for suppression (i.e. if  didn’t initiate it) restitution or indemnification for harm done, or compensation for
property or lawful services
N.B.: Blackmail is typically regulated through prosecutorial discretion because statutes
are so broad





Dangerous Proximity Test (disincentive to proactive policing) MPC §5.01 – Criminal Attempt
ATTEMPT o E.g. Rizzo, s NOT convicted cuz police got them too early  Substantial Step Test (Jackson) – Most common (1/2 states & most circuits, ∏
before they found V
o Lets police intervene earlier
o 2nd most popular standard, behind MPC’s sub. step
 Lying in wait; searching for or following victim; enticing or seeking to entice
Attempt must be so near accomplishment that in all likelihood the
victim; unlawful entry of place of crime; possession of materials designed for
crime would have been committed
unlawful use in crime (Not just guns! Those have legal purpose)
 Equivocality Test/Res Ipsa Loquitor Test (D-friendly) (rarely used)
 Acts must be strongly corroborative of actor’s criminal purpose
o “The act speaks for itself” (attaches even later than dang. prox.)
o E.g. lying in wait, searching for, or following victim, surveying the area for
o E.g. McQuirter: racist Alabama case from 1950s, black 
the crime, unlawful entry, possession of stuff specially designed for such
Did D’s conduct unequivocally manifest his criminal intent unlawful use or possession of materials at or near the intended place, where
 Last Act Test (hardly ever used) (attached latest) possession serves no lawful purpose (i.e. gun NOT enough, cuz legal)
o Used in Eagleton
  must have taken the “last act”, i.e. pulled the trigger STATUTE
o Requires police to wait too long! o 5.01(1)(a) purposely engages in conduct that would be the crime if circumstances
were as he believed them to be (for completed attempt)
o 5.01(1)(b) if the crime has a result element, he does (or omits) the thing w/ the
purpose of causing the result w/o further action on his part (for completed attempt)
o 5.01(1)(c) purposely does (or omits) an action which is a substantial step in course
of a crime (for incomplete attempt)


Specific Intent crimeSpecific Intent Same as actual crime Purposely Purposely OR Same as actual crime
(i.e. purpose) crime (i.e. purpose) Knowingly (“belief that
Some jxs use x Does apply to Strict it will cause result”) Can be guilty of attempted stat. rape!
knowledge plus Liability crimes * No attempt of
* No attempt of high probability to (Dunne  convicted unintentional crime!
unintentional crime! infer intent of attempted stat.
(Smallwood, HIV + rape)
rape NOT enough to
prove intent to kill)

 Most jxs allow voluntary & complete (MAJORITY)  AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSE: complete and voluntary Same punishment for
renunciation (not if caused by fear of LESSER punishment renunciation of purpose attempt & actual crime
apprehension) (Ross, V talked  out of rape,  than for completed o BUT…NOT if abandonment sparked by fear EXCEPT capital
not guilty) crimes of apprehension, or postponement crime/1st degree & 2nd
o BUT, McNeal, same facts, GUILTY!  Mistake of Fact (if it negates specific intent) degree
x BUT, no abandonment once actions = completed  Legal Impossibility
attempt (crime can’t be “uncommitted”)  Inherent impossibility
x Factual impossibility not defense (ex. Fake
bullets, if  thought it was real gun = attempt)
 Mistake of Fact (if it negates specific intent)
 Legal Impossibility (conduct is actually legal)
 Can be convicted of both attempt & conspiracy in some jurisdictions (look to statutes)
x Cannot be convicted of attempt & substantive crime


 Must actually and intentionally promote, aid, encourage, or MPC §2.06 – COMPLICITY
facilitate commission of the offense (low threshold)  Promote, aid, encourage, facilitate OR…
 Words are sufficient aid/encouragement (Wilcox, applauding!)  ATTEMPT to aid, encourage, facilitate (unlike CL) commission of the offense
 Crime must actually occur  Words are sufficient aid/encouragement (presence is insufficient)
 Zone of Danger/Joint Enterprise Test – Shootout in ghetto, drag  You CAN aid someone who is feigning complicity
racing – If you create the Zone of Danger then all actors are guilty o (Vaden,  helping shoot foxes in Alaska from helicopter)
x You CANNOT aid someone who is feigning complicity (Hayes,  x Crime does NOT actually have to occur!
set up by feigning principal in robbery, NOT guilty)  Can be charged even when principal is not charged
x Cannot be charged unless principal is charged or could be charged x Principal doesn’t have to know you’re assisting!
x Principal doesn’t have to know you’re helping!(Tally, corrupt judge)




Specific Intent Some jxs: need intent Depends on jx  Purpose Same mens rea as principal  Left up to courts
(Hicks,  NOT intend according to substantive crime
Knowl. may be sufficient for Rowe to kill V) Argue both  “deliberate ambiguity”
for serious felonies sides! Can be accomplice to an  So, argue both sides!
Fountain (Posner) or if Other jxs: Same mens unintentional crime (McVay,
stake in venture(Lauria, rea as principal in exploding steamship)
tel. service 4 prostitutes) underlying offence
 MOST profits from act
 Illegal items/No legit Can be accomplice to
purpose unintentional crime
 Price discrimination (McVay, exploding
steamship,  guilty of
unintentional homicide)
x Cannot be accomplice if D Charged w/ substantive crime (only if crime   can abandon the plan (high standard): Charged w/ substantive crime (even if
doesn’t share same intent occurred, cuz focused on harm-based retrib.) must: crime not actually occur, cuz focused on
as principal (Hayes, o (1) thwart the plan OR subjective retribution)
principal feigned crime to AND, if jx = Luparello, any additional crimes o (2) warn police in advance
set  up) of Principal that = “nat. & prob. conseq.”

(MINORITY) (LUPARELLO,  hired friends to “rough up” guy to find gf, (MAJORITY) (REJECT Luparello)
LUPARELLO! they killed him instead!) -  only guilty for crimes  intended to aid
(Minority) Derivative Liability -  may STILL be guilty under Felony-Murder!
Accomplice responsible for crimes he aided and any other crimes committed by x But, not guilty for unrelated crimes of principal (e.g. “frolic on his own”)
principal that were:
 Nat. and prob. conseq. (i.e. reasonably foreseeable)
 “put in motion” by  (less strict than “in furtherance” – hence broader than
P-ton & FM)
Roy Limitation – Second crime cannot simply be any foreseeable event. It is
limited to an event that would happen in ordinary course of events.
Still check for Felony-Murder!*
But, this is still broader, cuz NOT limited to murder

 Bilateral agreement (mere agreement is sufficient) MPC §5.03 – CONSPIRACY
 (Majority) Need overt act, but not for serious crimes)  Unilateral Agreement is sufficient
CONSPIRACY  can be implied (words not needed)  Overt Act needed, but NOT FOR 1st or 2nd degree felonies!
 can be proven by circumstantial evidence  Can conspire with someone who is feigning agreement
 helping in planning stages sufficient  can be implied (words not needed)
x parallel action without strong corroboration (Garcia)  can be proven by circumstantial evidence
x No conspiracy with someone who is feigning agreement  helping in planning stages sufficient
x Cannot be guilty of conspiracy to commit unintentional crime x Cannot be guilty of conspiracy to commit unintentional crime
x Don’t need to know identity of those you conspire with

Specific - Specific Intent Strict Liability? - Purpose - Purposely Left up to courts
Intent - Knowl. may be sufficient for or left to courts
serious felonies Fountain (Posner) to decide? Argue both sides
or if stake in venture(Lauria, tel.
service for prostitutes)
 Bulk of profits from act
 No legit purpose of act
 Illegal items/no legit purpose
 Price discrimination


 Some jxs allow you to renounce  CONSPIRACY = separate offense To withdraw from conspiracy:  GUILTY OF CONSPIRACY ONLY
conspiracy (but cannot “age out”  Also = way to charge w/  Must intentionally and voluntarily thwart (separate offense)
(Randall, , gang member, still substantive offence success of conspiracy
liable even though no longer  If target crime is committed by any Additional Substantive Offense  If target crime is committed by any
active) conspirator,  is guilty  If you tell others you withdraw then you conspirator,  can only be charged
Additional Substantive Offense Additional Substantive Offense are not liable for further substantive under accomplice liability!
 If you tell others you withdraw PINKERTON offenses
then you are not liable for further  Fed. Gov. & MAJORITY of states  Not liable for past crimes of co- Additional Substantive Offense
substantive offenses  ’s bros had guns to prevent others conspirators REJECTS PINKERTON – no liability for
 Not liable for past crimes of co- from intervening, but death was additional crimes of co-conspirators:
conspirators reasonably foreseeable You need the purpose to facilitate the crime
 If co-consp. acquitted, most jxs   guilty of all additional crimes of
say you cannot be charged co-conspirators if:
 In furtherance of conspiracy
 Reasonably foreseeable
CL: allows stacking of sentences, charge with both conspiracy AND object offense
MPC: you can only get one or the other, not both UNLESS the conspiracy is not specific and various crimes are involved, in which case sentences can be stacked
Federal sentencing guidelines effectively reject cumulative punishment (stacked sentences)
 Corporations/employers are liable for the acts of their employees if:  Criminal acts of agents imputed to the corporation if the conduct was:
CORPORATE o Crime committed by any employee/agent (casts a wide net)  Performed, authorized, ratified, adopted, or at least “recklessly tolerated” by Directors,
o Crime committed within scope of employment officers, or other high managerial agents
o even if against company policy!(Hilton Hotels)  Must act on behalf of the corporation within the scope of his office or employment
o Crime intended to benefit corporation (NY Central & Hud. Riv. RR)  Allows Affirmative defense if supervisory managerial agent employed due diligence to
o Even if actually harms company (Sun-Diamond) prevent commission of the crime.
 HMA can be “lead staff” at a branch (Community Alternatives)

Standard of Judgment MPC §3.04 – USE OF FORCE IN SELF-PROTECTION
SELF  Majority: Objective – D’s belief that deadly force was necessary Standard of Judgment
DEFENSE must be objectively reasonable under the circumstances, even though  Subjective – D’s must honestly believe deadly force was necessary
(justification) circ. may include reasonable misperceptions of attacker’s intentions Imminence Requirement
 Objectively reasonable standard may take victim’s prior history  Victim must believe force is immediately necessary to protect against unlawful force on the
into account (Goetz,  “mugged” on subway, shot 3 blacks, NOT present occasion (more flexible than “imminently necessary” (CL standard))
guilty, but NOT “psychological peculiarities” (Werner, “holocaust” When is “Deadly Force” Reasonable?
syndrome NOT allowed in)  Threat of death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping, or rape
 Minority: More liberal/subjective standard: Duty to Retreat
o Leidholm: Jury should assume physical & psychological  before using deadly force, MUST retreat if can be done with complete safety (Abbott)
properties of , ask whether circumstances sufficient to create  Doesn’t matter what kind of force aggressor used, if you want to use DF, can’t meet deadly
reasonable belief that force was necessary force/any force with deadly force if possible to retreat w/ complete safety
 No obligation to retreat from home or place of work (unless initial aggressor)
Imminence Requirement Initial Aggressor
 Threat must be imminent to justify DF  If you provoked with purpose of causing death/serious bodily harm – forfeit self defense
x Perceived threat of later harm insufficient! (Norman, , battered  UNLESS you started it but the other person escalated it to where you needed to use deadly f.
woman, killed sleeping husband, GUILTY (but commuted)) Imperfect Self Defense
When is “Deadly Force” Reasonable?  Killing with honest but unreasonable or reckless belief in need for self-defense = neg.
 Most courts hold DF is only reasonable against unlawful deadly force homicide
x Not reasonable against non-deadly assault  Risk of Injury to Others – §3.09(3) holds that D is responsible for injury to innocent
Duty to Retreat bystanders if acted recklessly/negligently w/ regard to possibility of causing them injury
 Strict Duty to Retreat – (SMALL MINORITY)
 “True Man Doctrine” – no duty to retreat (MINORITY) MPC §3.05 – USE OF FORCE IN PROTECTION OF OTHERS
 “Stand Your Ground” – can meet force w/ force, no duty to retreat  Justifiable if 3rd party would be justified under 3.04
(MAJ.)  3rd party would be justified under circumstances as he believed them to be
 “Castle” Laws: may use deadly force in home w/out retreat (ALL JX)  Actor believes intervention is necessary to protect other person
x NEVER have to retreat to use non-deadly force (all JX)  Actor is obligated to try retreat/surrender/compliance if it would secure complete safety
before using DF (unless in home or place of work)
Initial Aggressor
  must be “without fault” or  forfeits privilege of self-defense
(Allen,  was initial aggressor, but V escalated substantially (rake to
face),  still guilty), unless
o Attempt to withdraw/retreat in good faith & communicated
intent to withdraw by words or actions
Imperfect Self Defense
 Some JX recognize “imperfect SD” if an element of SD is lacking
 Your belief was honest but unreasonable, or it was honest and
reasonable but you used disproportionate force
o mitigates murder to Voluntary or Involuntary MSL

Admissibility of Evidence
 BWS not characterized as a syndrome anymore
 Evidence admissible to prove they face imminent risk of injury (Kelly)
x NOT admissible to prove that their belief in that risk was objectively reasonable (Kelly)
 Confrontational homicides – now pretty routine for a court to permit BW to introduce evidence of decedent’s prior abusive treatment of her in support of self defense
Non-Confrontational Homicide (Norman) – (BW kills abuser while he is asleep or during significant lull in the violence)
x MAJORITY VIEW – homicide under such circumstances is unjustified – “inevitable harm is not the same as imminent harm”
(but most charges will be mitigated to voluntary manslaughter)
x Courts have unanimously refused to permit instructions in 3rd party hired-killer cases
 Can use non-deadly force to protect from imminent dispossession of MPC 3.06(3)(d): deadly force not allowed for mere physical protection of property unless:
DEFENSE OF personal property (i)Person attempting to dispossess him of his dwelling, or􏰀􏰀
 Can use deadly force authorized to protect one’s home (ii) Person attempting to commit arson, burglary, robbery, other felonious theft/property
 Must reasonably believe that person intends the unlawful entry and destruction AND either:
(justification) intends to commit unlawful bodily injury within, and that deadly (1) Has employed or threatened deadly force against or in presence of actor, OR
force is necessary to prevent such an intrusion (2) Use of non-deadly force would expose actor or other person in presence to substantial
 Minority:  must ALSO reasonably believe that actor intends to danger of serious bodily harm􏰀􏰀
injure or commit a forcible felony inside  Cannot use deadly traps to protect property (Ceballos) (MPC §3.06(5)(a))
 Extreme: CO “Make my day” law: one can use any degree of o No discretion, no mercy, no judgment (“silent instrumentalities of death”)
physical force against another person who has made an unlawful
entry into one’s dwelling
 [MAJORITY]: mental illness must come from a “disease of the mind” MPC 4.01 [MINORITY]: broadened insanity test, but widely rejected after Hinckley incident
INSANITY o (1) Person does not “know the nature and quality of the act he was (Lyons)􏰀
(excuse) doing” OR  “A person is not responsible for criminal conduct, if at the time of such conduct as a result of
o (2) “he did not know that was he was doing was wrong” mental disease or defect he Lacks the substantial capacity either to:
 An entirely cognitive test  (i) Appreciate the criminality [wrongfulness] of his act (COGNITIVE PRONG) OR
x irrelevant if D was unable to control himself  (ii) To conform his conduct to the requirements of law (VOLITIONAL PRONG)
x if  suffers from delusions in which his actions would be  Critics worry this “volitional” prong goes too far, cuz science can’t prove
criminal if facts were as  believed them, no insanity defense
 Many jxs abandoned MPC test after Hinkley shooting Ronald Reagan
FEDERAL RULE (Lyons, case where fed. gov. abandoned MPC test)
 Affirmative defense that at time of commission of offense, , as   Some states say “guilty but mentally insane”: ppl go to prison but get treatment there, and
result of severe mental disease/defect, was unable to appreciate the must serve their sentence
nature and quality or the wrongfulness of his acts
x Abandons MPC’s volitional incapacity/irresistible impulse
test, cuz physicians can’t properly assess whether a person had
the ability to resist conduct or not
 Reasonable belief that commission of a crime is the only way you MPC §2.09 – DURESS
could avoid an imminent threat of serious bodily harm or death to  Reasonable belief that commission of a crime is the only way you could avoid an imminent
DURESS yourself or a family member threat of serious bodily harm/death to yourself or a family member
x Not available as a defense to homicide  Reasonable person in the situation would be caused to act
x Cannot be from Natural Source  Available for use as a defense to homicide
 Can come from Natural Force
x No defense if D created risk of being subject to duress

 Must be lesser of two evils MPC §3.02 Lesser of Two Evils
NECESSITY  Honest and Reasonable Belief that you needed to avoid evil  Must be lesser of two evils
aka  Must be preventing imminent harm  Must believe it is necessary, but they do have to ultimately be correct about its necessity
“Choice of Evils”  Must have clean hands, (cannot create emergency)  Harm need not be “imminent” (can be “inevitable”)
(Justification)  Must be created by natural causes, not human  Can be used in homicide cases
x Must be no other alternatives  Can sometimes be used to protect economic interests
x Cant be used for homicide x Must be no other alternatives
x Cant be used to protect economic interests x Must not be clear legislative purpose against
x Doesn’t apply if legislator already considered this issue
 If you are so drunk that you lacked the requisite intent to commit the MPC §2.08 – INTOXICATION
crime you cannot be guilty of target crime  Defense if it negates an element of the offense (purposely/knowingly)
INTOXICATION  CANNOT criminalize status of being addict (Robinson, heroin addict) x Self-induced intoxication NOT a defense to reckless crime (MPC §2.08(2))
(& drugs) o BUT, Powell,  had control to curb drinking, act (going in public x Intoxication does not constitute mental disease under 4.01
NOT an excuse! drunk) was culpable
o POSSESSION (of drugs) is culpable act (Moore, heroin) *Potentially mention “problem solving courts” which divert ppl to treatment programs
 BUT…J. Bazelon’s dissent in Moore (D.C. Cir.): would expand
addiction/illness excuse to crimes committed due to addiction


Prosecutorial Discretion: use discretion in deciding to bring charges if United States v. Jackson
they feel that the standard punishment is too severe/inappropriate  Robbed same bank 30 min after release; given life in prison w/o parole
SENTENCING Practically speaking, since nearly everyone (95-97%) pleads guilty, o Posner says too harsh, cuz ppl “age out” of this type of crime!
sentencing is the most important issue!!! o Trail judge disagrees, cites ’s prior, including attempted murder & multiple
& attempted armed robberies!
Theories of Punishment: “Sophisticated means” – for white collar crime
 Incapacitation Health, compassionate release (elderly prisoners) (utilitarian, save $$, no risk of re-
PROPORTIONALITY  Deterrence (general (society at large) AND specific (on the offending!)
individual)) See Madoff ~ sentencing factors:
 Rehabilitation (individual o Amount of $
 Retribution (“blameworthiness”) (sympathetic individual factors?) o # of victims
 Harm-based retributivism: o gain to Madoff
o vulnerability of victims & victim impact
Types of Punishment:
o “sophisticated means”
 Prison or jail (less than 1 year)
Potential Sentencing Considerations
 Shaming (sandwich board) (can be part of “supervised release”)
 ’s age
(Gementera: , stole mail, 4-part punishment including 1-day
o Most people are going to age out of crime, so if defendant is older and
shaming, upheld)
not a high recidivism risk, utilitarian perspective suggests that long
 Treatment (alcohol & drugs)
incarceration isn’t purposeful (costs too much money to keep unlikely
 John school (in DC, for ppl who patronize prostitutes) repeat offender in prison)
o If concern is retributive, age shouldn’t matter
How much prison time?
Some states have no explicit guildelines (judge’s discretion): so, consider “totality of
 3 models: circumstances”
o Discretionary sentence model:
 Determinate (we know what you’re getting) Judge’s don’t like mandatory minimums (Vazquez,  got 5 yrs, but many mitigating factors,
(MAJORITY) trying to be a good father)
 Indeterminate (periodically re-evaluated by a
parol board) (still common) Federal guidelines: start w/ base level offense, then consider special circumstances
o Mandatory model: restrictions and requirements on what (usually aggravating, but some mitigating)
Judge can/must impose  Consider tons of offense characteristics, but do NOT consider “family
 Determinate/indeterminate breakdown still may circumstances
 Used to be mandatory & prosecutors loved it (cuz they could tell them exactly
o Guideline model: (over 1/3 of states, administrative body
what sentence  would get)
that sets guidelines, including federal govt.)
 In 2005, SCOTUS said they were unconstitutional, cuz jury wasn’t finding these
 Federal govt model = SUPER specific
factors (so they became advisory)
 Minnesota model = more flexibility
o Step 1: must use guidelines
o Legislative model: legislature sets mandatory minimums
o Step 2: Does this “fall outside the heartland of cases”
 You can have mandatory minimums in otherwise
discretionary model states o Step 3: Look to the statutes can explain why if they don’t want to
follow it, and point to one of the major theories of punishment to depart
Sentencing Schemes: (true for ½ the country) from it
 Can use hearsay evidence  On appellate review, even if judges don’t follow them at all, they’re generally
 Preponderance of evidence (lower evidentiary standard) upheld
 Pre-sentence reports o E.g. Deegan: (8th Cir. 2010),  abandoned newborn on Native Am.
 Doesn’t apply to capital cases reservation; got 10 yrs, even tho no possibility of re-offense, and much
harsher than if punished under state law
 Thus, the judge you get matters, as does which prosecutor you get!