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1 Getting the message across

 Act up=if a machine or part of the body acts up, it does not perform as well as it should
 Grope (around)=search for sth inside a container, bag etc by feeling with your hands
 Backup plan
 Seemingly=appearing to be sth, especially when this is not true
 Tedious=boring
 Quaint=attractive because of being unusual and especially old-fashioned
 Anachronism=a person, thing, or idea that exists out of its time in history, especially one
that happened or existed later than the period being show, discussed
 Brass=alama
 Sounder=sonda
 Bear= (of a person) carry
 Distress call=a call to authorities notifying them of a person, vehicle or vessel requiring
emergency services
 Distinctive=sth that is distinctive is easy to recognize because it is different from other
 Dying art
 Enduring=existing for a long time
 Legacy=sth that is a part of your history or that remains from an earlier time
 Relay=repeat sth you have heard, or to broadcast a signal, message, or programme on
television or radio
 As a matter of prudence
 Prudence=the state of being careful in the way you make decisions or spend money so
that you avoid unnecessary risks
 Distorted=if a sound produced on electrical equipment is distorted, it sounds strange and
unpleasant because of changes in the shape of the sound wave
 Come out on top=be the winner in a competitive situation
 Clatter of sounds
 Capability=the ability to do sth
 Peck
 Wire=in the past, to send sb a telegram
 Famed=famous or known to many people
 Wreak=cause sth to happen in a violent and often uncontrolled way
 He/she/it hath=he/she/it has
 Recede=move further away into the distance, or to become less clear or less bright
 Envision=imagine or expect that sth is a likely or desirable possibility in the future
 Strenuous=needing or using a lot of physical or mental effort or energy
 Adrift at sea
 Glare=look directly and continuously at sb or sth in an angry way
 Smirk=a smile that expresses satisfaction or pleasure about having one sth or knowing sth
that is not known by sb else
 Wince=show pain or embarrassment suddenly and for a short time in the face, often
moving the head back at the same time
 Grimace=make an expression, strong dislike, etc. in which the face twists in an ugly way
 Retort=answer sb quickly in an agry or funny way
 Retort angrily/abruptly
 cheer enthusiastically
 smile diplomatically/gently
 instruct firmly/gently
 comfort gently
 shrug indifferently/angrily
 instruct=order or tell sb to do sth, especially in a formal way
 shrug=raise your shoulders and then lower them in order to say you do not know or are
not interested
 thrust=push suddenly and strongly
 The bodyguards thrust past the crowd to get at the cameraman
 niche=a hollow in a wall, especially one made to put a statue (=artistic object) in so that it
can be seen
 receiver=receptor
 reel=mulineta
 prolong=make sth last a longer time
 We were having such a good time that we decided to prolong our stay by another
 recall=to order the return of a person who belongs to an organization or of products made
by a company
 The company recalled thousands of jars of baby food after a salmonella scare.
 armies retreat
 retract=pull sth back or in
 recoil=the sudden backward movement that a gun makes when it is fired
 stern=severe, or showing disapproval
 a stern look/warning/voice
 severe=not kind or showing sympathy; not willing to accept other people’s mistakes or
 firm=forceful and making people do what you want
 abrupt=using too few words when talking, in a way that seems rude and unfriendly
 abrupt manner/reply
 sharp=if sb is sharp or makes a sharp statement, they speak or act in a severe and angry
way that can hurt other people
 materialize=if an object materializes, it appears suddenly
 simper=smile in a silly or annoying way
 growl=say sth in an unfriendly and angry way
 contempt=a strong feeling of disliking and having no respect for sb or sth
 hatred=ura
 scowl at=glare at=stare at
 jeer=laugh or shout insults at sb to show you have no respect for them
 munch=eat sth, especially noisily
 He was munching on an apple.
 Mumble=a mormai
 Muddle=bring into a disordered (=in a confused or badly organized state) or confusing
 I fear he may have muddled the message.
 Muster=produce or encourage sth such as an emotion or support
 She managed to muster the courage to ask him to the cinema.
 Menacingly=in a way that makes you thing that sb is going to do sth bad or that sth bad is
going to happen
 Black clouds gathered menacingly over the hills.
 Gape=look in great surprise at sb or sth, especially with an open mouth
 Ogle=look at sb with obvious sexual interest
 Catch a glimpse -> involuntary
 Cast a glance -> voluntary
 Yelp=make a sudden, short, high sound, usually when in pain
 I accidentally stepped on the dog’s foot and it yelped.
 Shriek=shout in a loud high voice because you are frightened, excited, or surprised
 He suddenly let out a piercing shriek.
 Piercing=(of a sound) high, loud, and unpleasant
 Piercing screams
 The shadow(s) of sth=the problems, sadness, trouble etc. caused by a particular situation
or event
 Subtlety=a small but important detail
 Nuance=a slight difference that may be difficult to notice but is fairly important
 A translator has to be alert to every nuance.
 Tone=the general mood or main qualities of sth
 I didn’t like the jokey tone of the article – I thought it was inappropriate.
 Absorb=understand facts or ideas completely and remember them (take in, digest)
 Interest=if sb or sth interests you, you want to give that person or thing your attention and
discover more about him, her, or it
 Capture=if a computer or similar machine captures information, it takes it in and stores it
 Comprehend=understand sth completely
 Straightforward=easy to understand or simple
 Minimalist=taking or showing as little action and involvement in a situation as possible
 Verbose=using or containing more words than are necessary
 A verbose explanation/report/speech/style
 Long-winded=a long-winded speech, letter, article, etc. is too long, or uses too many
 Elongated=longer and thinner than usual
 In the photo her face was slightly elongated.
 Stretch out=make a process or task continue for a longer period of time than was
originally planned
 Stutter=speak or say sth, especially the first part of a word, with difficulty, for example
pausing before it or repeating it several times
 Splutter=speak in a quick and confused way, producing short, unclear noises because of
surprise, anger, etc.
 Under your breath=quietly so that other people cannot hear exactly what you are saying
 He muttered sth under his breath.
 Tendency=if sb has a tendency to do or like sth, they will probably do or like it
 Pitch=a speech or act that attempts to persuade sb to buy or do sth
 She made a pitch for the job but she didn’t get it.
 Expression=the act of saying what you think or showing how you feel using words or
 It’s better to give expression to (=show) your anger, rather than hiding it.
 tone=a quality in the voice that expresses the speaker’s feelings or thoughts, often
towards the person being spoken to
 striking=very unusual or easily noticed, and therefore attracting a lot of attention
 argue on sth
 boast about sth=speak too proudly or happily about what you have done or what you own
 lecture on Politics
 lecture sb on=an angry or serious talk given to sb in order to criticize their behaviour
 lecture sb on his bad habits
 act on sth=do sth because you have been advised or told to do it
 comment on sth
 for fear that/of sth=because you are worried that a particular thing might happen
 for the sake of sb///for sb’s sake=in order to help or bring advantage to sb
 from memory
 in recession=a period when the economy of a country is not successful and conditions for
business are bad
 on leave=not at work
 in jest=intended as a joke and not said seriously
 not mince (your) words=put it bluntly
 a man of few words=a man who expresses himself without talking too much
 paint a picture (of sth)=describe or show sth in a particular way
 by word of mouth
 speak your mind=speak up
 let sb in on a secret
 making small talk=conversation about things that are not important, often between people
who do not know each other well
 hold my tongue
 be the talk of the town=be what everyone is talking about
 talk is cheap=used for saying that you do not believe that someone will in fact do what
they are saying they will do
 read between the lines
 catch up with her news
 drop sb a line/note=write a short letter to sb
 on the tip of your tongue
 bad news travel fast
 act up
 break up=if sb who is talking on a mobile phone is breaking up, their voice can no longer
be heard clearly
 break down=if a system, relationship, or discussion breaks down, it fails because there is
a problem or disagreement
 break in=interject
 act out=copy actions in a theatrical manner
 break off=to terminate
 break away=detach from
 act your age
 break the news
 break even
 act the part=behave the way that people in a particular role usually behave
 break your silence
 foremost=most important or best; leading;
 reduce to tatters
 frown on/upon sth=disapprove of sth
 blistering=extremely fast, forceful, or impressive
 leap in=do sth immediately, and often with enthusiasm, as soon as you have the chance to
do it
 grim=grim news, situations, or events are unpleasant and make you feel upset and
 warp=
 subsidised
 stumbling
 thriving
 backbones
 embrace
 decentralised
 barg in
 link up
 daring
 supercede
 stockholder
 scattered
 blown away
 barge into
 get in on the act
 lord it over
 misdirected
 mull over
 seethe
 think tank
 fugitive
 technophobe
 fad
 few and far between
 the odd one out
 assert
 give praise
 bank balance
 encroachment
 tumble by
 out of turn
 prospective
 a severe blow to
 retain
 fast asleep
 negotiate the corner
 senior party members
 in his corner
 e-generation
 render
 penning
 missive
 overhaul

 briefing=information that is given to sb just before they do sth, or a meeting where this
 directive=an official instruction
 consensus=a generally accepted opinion or decision among a group of people
 statement=sth that sb says or writes officially, or an action done to express an opinion
 plea=an urgent and emotional request
 reticent=unwilling to speak about your thoughts or feelings
 well-spoken=having a pleasant and polite way of speaking that is considered socially
 corrosive=harmful and causing bad feelings
 persistent=sb who is persistent continues doing sth or tries to do sth in a determined but
often unreasonable way
 misdirected=used in a way that is not right or legal
 flowery=if a speech or writing style is flowery, it uses too many complicated words or
phrases in an attempt to sound skilful
 breakneck speed=carelessly fast and dangerous
 probe=try to discover information that other people do not want you to know, by asking
questions carefully and not directly
 prod=encourage sb to take action, especially when they are being slow or unwilling
 weary=very tired, especially after working hard for a long time
 stuffy=old fashioned, formal, and boring
 profiteering=the act of taking advantage of a situation in order to make a profit, usually
by charging high prices for things people need
 merchant=a person whose job is to buy and sell products in large amounts, especially by
trading with other countries
 disquiet=worry
 impart=communicate information to sb
 relay=repeat sth you have heard, or to broadcast a signal, message, or programme on
television or radio
 foresight=the ability to judge correctly what is going to happen in the future and plan you
actions based on this knowledge
 acumen=skill in making correct decisions and judgements in a particular subject, such as
business or politics
 discourteous=rude and not considering other people’s feelings
 assertive=sb who is assertive behaves confidently and is not frightened to say what they
want or believe
 outspoken=expressing strong opinions very directly without worrying if other people are
 gloomy=unhappy and without hope
 forthright=(too) honest or direct in behaviour
 pushy=behaving in an unpleasant way by trying too much to get sth or to make sb do sth
 apprehensive=feeling worried about sth that you are going to do or that is going to happen
 approachable=friendly and easy to talk to
 convivial=friendly and making you feel happy and welcome
 conceited=too proud of yourself and your actions and abilities
 ill at ease=feeling anxious and not relaxed
 edgy=nervous; not calm
 animated=full of interest and energy
 impulsive=rash
 come of age=reach the age when you are legally recognized as an adult
 be one one’s best behaviour
 tighten one’s belt
 fight a losing battle
 drive a hard bargain=expect a lot in exchange for what you pay or do
 make allowances for=to think about sb’s characteristics and not judge them too severely
 clear the air=remove the bad feelings between people
 injection of cash
 retail=sell goods to the public in shops, on the internet
 reel from=
 sluggish=moving or operating more slowly than usual and with less energy or power
 revenue=the income that a government or company receives regularly
 rebound=to rise in price after a fall
 savvy=practical knowledge and ability