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documented events that happened in the Past

timeline / chronology- dates

Pleasant and Unpleasant Histories

Sources 1.) Primary - first-hand, eye-witness of the events ex. Interviews, diaries,letters, fossils, speech, autobiographies 2.) Secondary ex. textbooks,magazines,articles 3.) Tertiary Source- general reference ex. Card Catalogue

Examining and Analyzing Historical Sources

1. External Criticism - authenticity (lower criticism)

validity and reliability

who made the document?, When did he do it?, Was the author living when he made the document?

1. Internal Criticism - reliability & credibillity, is it biased?, (higher criticism)

*National Archives of the Philippines Documents found in it:

ex. Cedularios,Bautismos, Memorias, Polos y Servicios


5000 BC in Angono Rizal

Manunggul Jar

carcass is put inside the jar; anito


Rolando Borrinaga, Bisayan and it informs the reader that the vessel is sacred to them Butuan Silver Strip

found inside the coffin dating back 1000 AD; Jess Tirol Butuan Ivory Seals

used to trade or to show ownership of the items

Laguna Copper plates

found in river bed of Lumban. Written in old malay

Friar Juan Placensia

Missionary and a Franciscan


customs: detailed account

Social Class : slaves, commoners, nobles (Maharlika)

divorce, dowry,treatments, inheritance, superstitious beliefs, burying the dead

Father Pedro Chirino

Jesuit priest, writer and a Historian (Relacion de las Islas Filipinas)


summarized and synthesized the experiences


Jones Law Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916

make them fit for self government after the fashion of really free nations. (Theodore


Philippines are at present our frontier to deprive ourselves of that frontier. (Woodrow Wilson, 1912)

August 29 1916

Signed by William Atkinson Jones and the bill passes in October 1913

US Law by President Wilson on August 29 1916

Jones Law facilitated gradual transition of the Philippines to Independence

- established rights of its citizens

- replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902

Replaced the Philippine Commission with Senate of the Philippines and Philippine Assembly with the house of Representatives

Jones Law Established

first fully elected Philippine Legislature

Freedom of Religion

Uniform Tax

Tariff Law

Three Main Provisions:

The Tydings Mcduffie Act

The Author’s Main Point of View

* Main objective in writing the article

* does the author seek to persuade,convince, to identify the problem

* the forms of evidence used

Kartilya ng Katipunan

Emilio Jacinto ( author of Kartilya ng Katipunan)


Pseudonym: Dimasilaw

Utak ng KAtipunan

Writer in the official Katipunan Newspaper, the Kalayaan

Content Analysis:

teachings of KKK

14 rules that a member must embody

genuine love for the native land and compassion to people

found in the minutes of the Supreme Assembly on December 1895

potential recruits and members of KKK

Katapusang pamamahayag sa pagpasok sa K. (Artemio Ricarte 1899)

Author’s Main Argument or POV

provide code of conduct

solution regards the colonization of the Spaniards

guide the new members of the association

author is credible: primary source

Primary Source Analysis

kartilya is a solid documentation

possible solution to encourage to fight against colonization

bring together the Tagalogs by Emilio Jacinto to fight against Spain.

Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Pilipino

Content Analysis

Prehispanic Era- What should we do according to Bonifacio

Emotional basis targeted at persuading Filipinos

Nationalist Filipino Social Status of Bonifacio

Filipino’s Life in the Spanish Occupation

Too much reliance only on Bonifacio’s perspective of the Status quo


published under the nom de plume Agapito Bagumbayan March 1896 (sole issue of Kalayaan)

Author is Andres Bonifaio y De Castro

Intended Audience are the Filipinos

opened the eyes of countrymen to lift up their nationalism

Author’s Main Argument

masamang karanasan ng may-akda

maganda ang kalayaan ng Pilipinas bago pa dumating ang mga kastila.


hindi pagkakaibigan ngunit pang-aalipin ang ibinigay

Concrete Details

unang bhagi ng sanaysay ay isnilaysay ang katayuan ng mga Pilipino bago pa man dumating ang mga Kastila

“Pacto de Sangre” ay naganap noong 1565 sa Bohol. Ito ang nagbibigay-diin ng kanilang pagtatraydor.

Analyzing the Text

revolves around the life of Filipinos

brave enough to speak up : Andres Boni

persuade the tagalogs

compare the condition of the Philippines before and after Spain

wants to eye the injustices of the Filipnos

Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa

poem of Andres Bonifacion in relation to the experiences of the Filipinos during the Spanish Era.

Campaign Posters During the Japanese Period

December 8 1941 invasion

10 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor

A highly effective guerilla campaign by Philippine resistance forces controlled sixty percent of the islands, mostly jungle and mountain areas.

Content Analysis

Posters during the Japanese Period

were used as materials for backlash and inferiority against the other nation and supremacy on their own.

relating the creative art on how the Japanese dealt with the Filipinos

Japan occupied the Ph for over three years

Contextual Analysis

document found is critique between Japanese and American Propaganda during World

War II by Anthony Navarro.

beneficial to all its readers

secondary source considering it is a critique made for posters mentioned

Actual scanned pictures of the campaign posters used serve as artifacts, thus evidences, from the Japanese period.


Author’s Main Argument or Point of View

inform and educate the readers

similiarities of the propaganda of the Japanese and Americans

no prejudices or personal interest. no biases on the article

Martial Law

Book Title: Progress and Martial Law Author: Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. Year of Publication: 1981, Manila

Ferdinand Marcos

Graduate of UP, Diliman

Nationalist Party and Liberal Party

President of the Philippines ( 1965-1986)

Primary Source

Author’s Main Argument

laid some points, topics, events to be fair if there is martial law or without martial law in the Philippines.

method of exemplification to prove his certain point

checklist of statements of effects in the political order without martial law

coup de etat: w/o Martial law the gov maybe preparing its downfall

writer wants to make people believe that Martial Law is the best solution that we had.

Speech of Corazon Aquino Before the US Congress

September 18 1986

Historical Context

September 21, 1972 7:17 pm Marcos declared Martial Law

lasted 9 years ( January 17 1981)

Ninoy Aquino (Marcial Bonifacio) executed in MIA now NAIA

Cory ran the elections but was cheated

People Power Happened

About the Speech

4-day people power revolution on February 1986 ended Marcos Dictatorship - then She became the First Filipino Woman President.

Teodoro “Teddy Boy Locsin Executive secretary of Cory Aquino, however he admitted that he didn’t finished.

Cory is considered to be a Primary Souce



addressed the situation of the country

Marcos’ administration unjust leadership

Death of Ninoy how it paved way for the country to be free again.


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