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4 weeks , the baby's heart, digestive system, backbone and spinal cord begins to form

8 weeks the baby's heart is functioning


12 weeks the baby develops recognizable form.
4 months the baby's gender is identifiable.
5 months hair begins to grow on the baby's head.
6 months the baby is able to hiccup.
7 months fat layers are forming.
8 months over all growth is rapid this month.
9 months lungs are matured.
Internal condoms also called “female” condoms — are little nitrile (soft plastic) pouches that you put
inside your vagina
Types of Family: 1. Family of orientation
2. Family of procreation
Characteristics of normal 1. Menarche 12-13 years old
menstrual cycle 2. Interval between cycle – 28 days
3. Duration- average 4-7 days
4. Amount – average 30-80 ml
5. Color – dark red
Elective termination of Procedure performed to deliberately end pregnancy before fetal viability.
Pregnancy
Caesarean delivery is a surgical delivery of a baby by an incision through the mother’s abdomen and
uterus.
Head circumference is the distance around the babies head. Average measurement : 35 cm
Physiological changes during 1. The heart may increase in size during pregnancy due to an increase in its
pregnancy work load.
2. The weight gain in pregnant women increases the workload on the body
from any physical activity.
3. During pregnancy, many women find they get short of breath (cannot breath
as deeply as usual.
4. During pregnancy, many women find they get short of breath (cannot breath
as deeply as usual.
Happiness  is one of the common goals of having a family
Family Goal is as simple as having strong familial bond or peaceful and loving relationships
between family members
Nursing Responsibility can be interpret as the keeper and mediator of relationships between family
member
Obstetrics concerned with childbirth and the care of women giving birth to help them maintain
their optimum level of health
Common Misconceptions UNIVERSAL AND UNCHANGING
about nuclear family:
Common Misconception about “There are lots of shame with blended families because they are not perceived as
Blended Family: normal.”
“The kids are all best friends and get along great.”
Common Misconception about “The partner will have an access on the deceased partner’s account.”
Cohabitation Family:
Common Misconception “Most of the children in the
about Foster Family: homes are orphans.”
Communal family comprise of group of people who have chosen to live together as an extended family
groups.
Primipara is a woman who had delivered one child past the age of viability.
Multipara is a woman who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability.
Maternal and Child Health  Is family centered.
Nursing:  is community-centered.
 Is research oriented.
 Is a challenging role for the nurse and is a major factor in promoting high-
level wellness in families.
 is based on nursing theory.
Cohabitation Family comprises of couples who are living together but remain unmarried.
well family  A has the ability to use a crisis experience as a means of growth.
 the capacity to maintain and create constructive and responsible community
relationships.
 has the ability to perform family roles flexibly.
 has the ability to provide support, security, and encouragement.
Violence, accidents, homicide, – Major cause of death in adolescents
and suicide
Hormones are responsible for the physical development and changes for both boys and girls.
5-7 million There are immature eggs that are stored on the ovaries.
Implantation is the process in which embryo adheres to the wall of the uterus.
Spermatozoa ( or their fragments) remain in the vagina for 72 hours after sexual intercourse.
Symptoms of postpartum range from mild postpartum blues to intense, suicidal, depressive psychosis.
depression
Visualization in pregnancy is a process in which the mother imagines what the child she’s carrying is like and
becomes acquainted with it.
Strabismus is a normal finding in a neonate.
hepatitis b vaccine, The first immunization for a neonate is the which is administered in the nursery
shortly after birth.
Artificial insemination is the instillation of sperm into the female reproductive tract to aid conception.
Leukorrhea • is a whitish, viscous vaginal discharge or an increase in the amount of normal
vaginal secretions.
Surrogate mother • is a woman who agrees to carry a pregnancy to term for an infertile couple
Gestational surrogacy, • in which the surrogate is not related to the child she is carrying, is the most
common type of surrogacy today.
Traditional surrogacy • is sometimes called partial surrogacy or genetic surrogacy because of the
surrogate’s biological link to the child she carries.
Pregnancy-Induced • refers to a potentially severe and even fatal elevation of blood pressure
Hypertension (PIH) during pregnancy.
Palmar erythema occurs in early pregnancy and is probably caused by increased estrogen levels.
Symptothermal Method is a combination of cervical mucus and BBT methods.
Fetoscopy is the insertion of a fiberoptic fetoscope through the mother’s abdomen.
Human Chorionic is the first hormone to be produced in pregnancy.
Gonadotropin
Human Placental Lactogen is responsible in milk production.
Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns. Infants who have not
acquired passive immunity from the mother having been immunised are at risk. It
usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when
the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument.
Micronutrient is necessary to prevent anemia, vitamin A defficiency and other nutritional problems.
Supplementation
Disorders Detected in
Newborn Screening: It is the inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylaline, which is a common
component such a milk.
1. Phenylketonuria Excessive accumulation of phenylaline in the blood causes brain damage.
2. Congenital
Hyperthyroidism most common causes of mental retardation.
Most affected infants may look normal at birth, however, they may have large
fontanels and tounges, big tummies and prolonged yellowish discoloration of the
skin and eyes.

3. Galactosemia Is the absence of enzymes neccesary for conversion of the milk sugar galactose to
glucose.
Affected infants present with difficulty in feeding, vomiting and diarrhea , yellowish
skin and eyes, weakness, white eyes (cat eyes) and bleeding after blood extraction.
4. Congenital Adrenal refers to a group of disorders with an enzyme defect that prevents adequate adrenal
Hyperplasia corticosteroid and aldosterone production an increases production of androgens.
Sickle Cell Disease Red blood cells in babies with this very important genetic disease become sickle-
shaped after they give up oxygen to the tissues. The sickle-shape cells can become
stuck in blood vessels causing pain and organ damage.
Biotinidase deficiency is a genetic disorder in which there is a deficiency of the essential B vitamin biotin
Placenta previa is a rare pregnancy complication that occurs if the placenta attaches to the bottom
part of a woman’s uterine wall, partially or completely covering the cervix.
IUD is one of the types of contraceptives used to prevent impregnation
Tubal ligation a permanent irreversible procedure which is 99.9% effective
Empty nest syndrome is the generalized feeling of loneliness that parents may fell when one or more of
their children leaves home (marriage)
Irregular menstruation lasts for as short as 23 days or as long as 35 days
Zona pellucida is a strong membrane surrounding an oocyte
nonstress test response of fetal heart rate in relation to fetal movement is measured.
Induced lactation  Method of stimulating the production of breast milk in women who have not
gone through the process of pregnancy.
 Tricking the body to believe that you are pregnant in order to stimulate the
production of breast milk.
External fetal heart RATE Uses a device to listen to or record the fetal heartbeat through the mother’s
monitoring abdomen
Full bladder  During an ultrasound earlier in the pregnancy, the mother need to have a full
bladder for the technician to get a clear image of the fetus and reproductive
organs.
 The mother should drink two to three eight-ounce glasses of water one hour
before the scheduled ultrasound.
Alpha fetoprotein normal range AFP is measured in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).
-An AFP level of less than 10ng/mL is normal for adults.
-Maternal AFP levels in pregnancy start rise from 14th week of gestation-32 weeks
gestation. Between week 15 and 20 weeks, levels usually range between 10ng/mL to
150 ng/mL
AFP test A negative or normal test usually means the baby is healthy. A positive test with high
AFP suggests a birth defect like spina bifida and anencephaly.
Internal fetal heart rate Uses an electronic transducer connected directly to the fetal skin.
monitoring
Coitus Interruptus not advisable as contraceptive method because of pre ejaculation fluid and
ejaculation may occur before withdrawal is complete.
RELAXIN A hormone secreted by the placenta that causes the cervix to dilate and prepares
the uterus for the action of oxytocin labor.
Contraction stress test Performed to near the end of pregnancy to determine how well the fetus will cope
with the contractions of childbirth.
Probable sign of pregnancy • Nausea
• Feels tired and sleepy during the day
• Often urination
• Belly grows
• Breasts get bigger
Naegele’s rule • When the LMP falls between April-December
LMP Date – Subtract 3 months
Add 7 Days then Add 1 Year
When the LMP falls between January-March
LMP Date – Add 7 Days
Then add 9 months
PARA It is defined as the number of births that woman has had after 20 weeks gestation.
The number of fetuses does not determine the parity.
trimester A period of three months, especially as a division of the duration of pregnancy.
1st trimester – 12th week
2nd trimester – weeks 13 to 27
3rd trimester – 28 weeks and lasts until birth
Health Rehabilitation - Preventing further complications from an illness; bringing client back to optimal
state of wellness or helping the client accept inevitable death
Health Maintence - Intervening to maintain health when risk of illness is present
Health Promotion Educating clients to be aware of good health through teaching and role
modeling
Obstetrics - Specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during
pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
Syphilis • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a type of bacteria
known as Treponema pallidum.
• The first sign of syphilis is a small, painless sore. It can appear on the sexual
organs, rectum, or inside the mouth.
• Syphilis in pregnant women can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or the baby's
death shortly after birth
Inborn errors of metabolism - Genetic disorders caused by the absence or deficiency of substance
1. Fructose Intolerance - Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disorder in which a person lacks the
protein needed to break down fructose
2. Galactosemia - is a condition in which the body is unable to use (metabolize) the simple sugar
galactose.
Maple syrup Urine Disease - It is a disorder in which the body cannot break down certain parts of proteins. The
urine of people with this condition can smell like maple syrup.
Phenylketonuria - is a rare condition in which a baby is born without the ability to properly break
down an amino acid called phenylalanine.
G6PD - Babies with deficiency have very little or no enzyme called Glucose-6-Phosphate
Dehydrogenase (G6PD)
Ductus Venosus - Connecting vein between the umbilical vein and inferior vena cava
Ductus Arteriosus - a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch that allows most of the
blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus' fluid-filled lungs
Foramen Ovale - A shunt from the right to left atrium
MENARCHE- First menstrual period (changes in female) while SEMEN -Sperm containing fluid in
male.
three phases of menstruation ; proliferative (4-5 days of a circle), secretory or luteal (24-25 day) lastly, menstrual
phase.
FERTILIZATION: The beginning of life, union of ovum and spermatozoon
CONTRACEPTION: The voluntary and artificial prevention of conception of impregnation while
CONTRACEPTIVE -7 a device against conception.
There are many types of 1. Oral Contraception. 2. Pills post coital contraception, subcutaneous, intramuscular
contraceptives some includes; injections, intrauterine device, barter methods.
There are seven (7) ability to carry out daily tasks achieve fitness, practice positive lifestyle habits.
components of wellness

1. Physical :
2. Social: ability to interact successfully with people and within the environment.
3. Emotional: the ability to manage stress and to express emotion appropriately.
4. Intellectual : ability to learn and use information effectively for personal, family and career
development.
5. Spiritual : belief in some force that includes a person’s own morals, values and ethnics
• Provides meaning and direction in life and enables you to grow, learn, and
meet in new challenges.
6. Occupational : comprises aspects of wellness that help achieve a BALANCE between work and
leisure in a way that promotes health and a sense of personal satisfaction.
7. Environment – includes the ability to promotes health measure that improves the standard of living
and quality of life in the community, including laws and agencies the safeguard the
physical environment.