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Use the present tense to talk about something that is going on now or that is true now
and any time. There are four present tenses in English, as follow:

1) Simple present to express habits and general truths.

2) Present continuous to talk about an action happening now.
3) Present perfect for repeated actions, actions where the time is not important, and actions
that began in the past but are not finished yet.
4) Present perfect continuous to talk about ongoing actions where both the process and the
result are important.

1. Simple present

Verb Positive Negative Question
(+) (-) (?)
Be S + is/am/are S + is/am/are + not Is/Am/Are + S?
Do S + V1 S + do/does + not + V1 Do/Does + S + V1?
Have S + have/has S + have/has + not Do/Does + S + have/has?

Examples of the simple present tense:

1) With auxiliary verb Be:

S Verb be O

+ I am French.

You/we/they are French.

He/she/it is French.

- I am not French.

You/we/they are not French.

He/she/it is not French.

? Am I French?

Are you/we/they French?

Is he/she/it French?

Positive Sentence:
 I like chocolate.
 Angela runs a youth club full of glue-sniffers.
 I ride horses in the summer.

Negative Sentence:
 I do not like chocolate.
 Angela does not run a youth club full of glue-sniffers.
 I do not ride horses in the summer.

Question Sentence:
 Do I like chocolate?
 Does Angela run a youth club full of glue-sniffers?
 Do I ride horses in the summer?

2) With auxiliary verb Do:

S Verb do main verb O

+ I/you/we/they like coffee.

He/she/it likes coffee.

- I/you/we/they do not like coffee.

He/she/it does not like coffee.

? Do I/you/we/they like coffee?

Does he/she/it like coffee?

3) With auxiliary verb Have:

S Verb have O

+ I/you/we/they have a car.

He/she/it has a car.

- I/you/we/they do not have a car.

He, she, it does not has a car.

? Do I/you/we/they have a car?

Does he/she/it has a car?

Notes: In this case, you must form negative sentences and questions with the auxiliary
verb 'do'.

The spelling of the third person singular form of the simple present:
All the verbs take an "s" in the simple present when conjugated in the third person singular
(he, she, it) form:

 I visit my parents every summer holiday. But my wife visits her parents every
 My brother meets his girlfriend everyday.

So the rule is:

He / she / it + Verb + -S

There are however some special cases. Here are the spelling rules:

Verbs ending Verbs ending

Silent e Vowel + y Consonant + y
in o in s, z, sh, tch, ch
close = play = study = go = goes miss = misses
closes plays studies do = does buzz = buzzes
note = notes say = says marry = hatch = hatches
marries finish = finishes
teach = teaches

The Use of Simple Present

1) To express daily habits (routine 2) To give instructions or directions:

 You walk for two hundred meters,
 Every Sunday I don’t go to school. then you turn left.
 Every month in fourth weekend I  Open the packet and pour the
visit my grandmother’s home. contents into hot water.
 He usually drinks tea at breakfast.  You take the No.6 bus to Watney
and then the No.10 to Bedford.
describing a habit, will usually include a
time expression like always, every
year, never, often, on
Mondays, rarely, sometimes, or usually.

3) To describe scheduled events or fixed 4) To express facts or general truths

 Water freezes at zero degrees.
 Your exam starts at 09.00.  The sun rises in the east.
 His mother arrives tomorrow.  Berlin is the capital of Germany.
 Our holiday starts on the 26th  The sun doesn’t rises in the west.
 The supermarket opens at 08:00
and closes at 10:00.
 The airplane arrives at 09:00 p.m
 The bus leaves tomorrow at 4 p.m.

Signal Words of Simple Present:

 always, every ..., often, normally, usually, sometimes, seldom, never

2. Present Continuous
The present progressive is used for actions going on in the moment of speaking and for
actions taking place only for a short period of time.

Present continuous is also known as present progressive.

Form Rules

S + to be (is/am/are) + V-ing.
S + to be (is/am/are) + not + V-ing.
to be (is/am/are) + S + V-ing?

Examples of Present Continuous:

Positive Negative Question

I am eating. I am not eating. Am I eating?

’m ’m not
Are you, we,
You, we, are You, are not they
they we,
’re they aren't
He, she, it is Is he, she, it
He, is not
's she, it

Other examples:

Main Verb-
Subject Verb tobe ing

+ I am speaking to you.

+ You are reading this.

Main Verb-
Subject Verb tobe ing

- She is not staying in London.

- We are not playing football.

? Is he watching TV?

? Are they waiting for John?

Positive Sentence:
 Caroline is looking for the latest brochure.
 Dan and Billy are fishing off the pier.

Negative Sentence:
 Caroline is not looking for the latest brochure.
 Dan and Billy are not fishing off the pier.

Question Sentence:
 Is Caroline looking for the latest brochure?
 Are Dan and Billy fishing off the pier?

Exceptions in Spelling:

Exeption Example
silent e is dropped before -ing (but: ee is not changed) come - coming (but: agree -
final consonant after short, stressed vowel is doubled sit - sitting
final consonant l after vowel is always doubled (in travel - travelling
British English)
ie becomes y before -ing lie - lying

The use of the present continuous tense:

The Use

1. To talk about actions 2. When an action has started 3. To describe an action or

happening at the time of but hasn’t finished yet. event in the future, which
speaking (in progress). has already been planned or
 The man is writing his novel prepared (arrangements for
 She is having a bath. this month.
the near future).
 He is taking the phone.  I’m making an article this
 They are learning English right week.
now.  Are you still working for the
 We're going on holiday
 I’m using the Internet. same company?
 I'm meeting my boyfriend
 Are they visiting you next
 The woman is closing her
store next two hours

Signal Words of Present Continuous:

 at the moment, now / just now / right now, Listen!, Look!, in the morning / in the
afternoon / in the evening, at noon / tonight, this week / this month / this year

3. Present Perfect
The present perfect expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has
an influence on the present.

Form Rules

S + have/has + V3
S + have/has + not + V3
Have/has + S + V3?

Examples of Present Perfect:

Subject Aux. Verb Main Verb

+ I have spoken to her.

+ You have eaten mine.

- She has not been to Rome.

- We have not played football.

? Have you finished?

? Has he done it?

Positive Sentence:
 The board has decided not to uphold the appeal.
 I have taken the wrong path again.

Negative Sentence:
 The board has not decided not to uphold the appeal.
 I have not taken the wrong path again.

Question Sentence:
 Has the board decided to uphold the appeal?
 Have I taken the wrong path again?

Exceptions in Spelling:

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example

after a final e only add d love – loved
create - created
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit – admitted
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried
worry - worried

The use of present perfect tense:

The Use

1. To emphasize on the result of a past action 2. Action performed in a period that has not
without mentioning the actual time when it finished yet (the same day, week, month, etc.)
happened (menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang belum
(Mengungkapkan kejadian di masa lalu yang dikerjakan. Bisa menambahkan kata 'yet'):
telah diselesaikan tanpa menyebutkan kapan
kejadiannya):  Have you seen Lacy today? (The day is not
over yet.)
 I have met that girl before.  I have had several tests this month. (The
 We have discussed this issue a few times. month has not finished yet.)
 I’ve bought new book.  Dika hasn’t taken the bag. (Dika belum
mengambil tasnya.) /
Dika hasn’t taken the bag yet.
(Dika masih belum mengambil tasnya.)

3. It is used to indicate completed activities in the 4. Action that started in the past and has
immediate past (with ‘just’) continued until now.
(Membicarakan kejadian yang baru terjadi 1) Often used with since -- indicating the
dengan menggunakan kata ‘just’): beginning of action (menyatakan kapan suatu
kejadian dimulai) or;
 He has just taken the medicine. 2) Used with for -- indicating the duration of
 I’ve just bought new book. action (menyatakan lamanya suatu kejadian).

 I have not seen her since we left high school.

 I have waited you since two p.m.
 Clare and John have known each
other since they were at primary school.
 They have lived here for ten years.
 I have lived in Jakarta for four years.

Signal Words of Present Perfect:

 already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
4. Present Perfect Continuous
 The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still
going on.
 The Present Perfect Continuous uses two auxiliary verbs together with a main verb.

Form Rules

S + have/has + been + V-ing
S + have/has + not + been + V-ing
Have/has + S + been + V-ing?

The point of rules:

 The first aux. verb (have) is conjugated in the Present Simple: have, has
 The second aux. verb (be) is invariable in past participle form: been
 The main verb is invariable in present participle form: -ing

Examples of Present Perfect:

Aux. Main
Subject Aux. Verb
Verb Verb

+ I have been waiting for one hour.

+ You have been talking too much.

- It has not been raining.

- We have not been playing football.

? Have you been seeing her?

? Have they been doing their


Positive Sentence:
 Amanda has been relying on a pay rise to pay her student loan.
 Mr and Mrs Cox have been taking the wrong pills for years.

Negative Sentence:
 Amanda has not been relying on a pay rise to pay her student loan.
 Mr and Mrs Cox have not been taking the wrong pills for years.
Question Sentence:
 Has Amanda been relying on a pay rise to pay her student loan?
 Have Mr and Mrs Cox been taking the wrong pills for years?

Exceptions in Spelling:

Exceptions in spelling when adding -ing Example

final e is dropped come – coming
(but: ee is not changed) write - writing
(but: agree – agreeing)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting
hit – hitting
bit - bitting
l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British travel – travelling
final ie becomes y lie – lying

The use of present perfect continuous tense:

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about:

 past action still-continuing
 past action recently-stopped

The Use

1. A continuous activity that began in the 2. A continuous activity that began in

past and continues into the present, or past but has now finished (usually
very recently).
(Menunjukkan kegiatan yang telah dimulai di (Menunjukkan kegiatan yang telah di
masa lalu dan masih berlanjut hingga sekarang.) lakukan di masa lalu dan baru saja selesai.)

 I have been reading for 2 hours.  The man is writing his novel this month.
(I am still reading now.)  I’m making an article this week.
 We've been studying since 9 o'clock.  Are you still working for the same
(We're still studying now.) company?
 How long have you been learning English?  I have been feeling really tired,
(You are still learning now.) recently.
 We have not been smoking. (And we are not  She has been smoking too much lately.
smoking now.)  I'm tired [now] because I've been
 She has been waiting for you all day running.
(= and she's still waiting now).  Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been
 I've been working on this report since eight raining?
o'clock this morning  You don't understand [now] because you
(= and I still haven't finished it). haven't been listening.
 They have been travelling since last October
(= and they're not home yet).

Signal Words of Present Perfect Continuous

 all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

Signal Words
Present Perfect
Simple Present Present Continuous Present Perfect
 always  at the moment  already  all day
 every ...  now / just now / right  ever, just  for 4 years
 often now  never  since 1993
 normally  Listen!  not yet  how long?
 usually  Look!  so far  the whole week
 sometimes  in the morning / in the  till now
 seldom afternoon / in the evening  up to now
 never  at noon / tonight
 this week / this month /
this year