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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSTE.2018.2861986, IEEE

Transactions on Sustainable Energy

1

an Integrated Heat-Electricity Energy System

Nian Liu, Member, IEEE, Jie Wang, and Lingfeng Wang, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—In order to facilitate energy sharing and improve Cair The specific heat ratio of air.

system flexibility, a hybrid energy sharing framework of multiple t

Ei,j The electrical energy sold by MG i to MG j at time

microgrids (MGs) is proposed for a heat-electricity integrated slot t (MWh).

energy system (HE-IES) with combined heat and power (CHP) t

and demand response (DR). First, considering the multi-timescale Hair The input thermal energy at time slot t (MWh).

t

characteristics, an electrical and thermal energy sharing model Hchpi The thermal power of MT in MG i at time slot t

of interconnected MGs with CHP and PV systems is built, in (MW).

which CHP can operate in a hybrid mode by selecting the max

Hchp The maximum heat power of MT (MW).

operating point flexibly. Moreover, the local subproblem of each min

Hchp The minimum heat power of MT (MW).

MG is formulated and solved considering a comprehensive set t

of factors including the generating heat and power cost, trading Hi,j The thermal energy sold by MG i to MG j at time

cost with utility grid, trading electrical and thermal energy cost slot t (MWh).

loss

with other MGs, load characteristic, power consumption utility, Hj,i The heat loss in heat pipes caused by purchasing heat

thermal discomfort cost. In addition, a distributed optimization from MG j by MG i (MWh).

algorithm is used to solve the hybrid energy sharing problem,

HRP The rated thermal power of CHP (MW).

where the electrical and thermal energy prices can be obtained.

Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed energy sharing method ki The utility parameter of MG i.

is demonstrated by a case study simulation. Lhvng The low calorific value of natural gas.

t

Index Terms—Energy sharing, interconnected microgrids,

Pchpi The electrical power of MT in MG i at time slot t

combined heat and power, demand response, integrated energy (MW).

max

system, distributed algorithm. Pchp The upper bound of electrical power of MT (MW).

min

Pchp The lower bound of electrical power of MT (MW).

N OMENCLATURE PEmax

i

The upper bound of power consumption (MWh).

PEt i The power consumption of MG i at time slot t (MWh).

λti The electrical price of MG i selling to other MGs at

pgas The price of natural gas (CNY/m3 ).

time slot t (CNY/MWh).

(s) Pgb The buying price of the utility grid (CNY/MWh).

εi,t The total amount of selling electricity in MG i

Pgs The selling price of utility gird (CNY/MWh).

(MWh). loss

t Pj,i The power loss due to purchasing electricity from MG

ξj,i The heat loss coefficient between MG i and MG j.

j by MG i (MWh).

PPt V i The PV power of MG i at time slot t (MWh).

t PRP The rated electrical power of CHP (MW).

Tin The indoor temperature of the building at time slot t

Qf uel The total fuel input.

(◦ C).

QtTi The thermal load of MG i at time slot t (MWh).

αi The sensitivity coefficient indicating the willingness

QtTset The equivalent thermal load when the indoor temper-

of adjustment of temperature.

ature is Tset (MWh).

A,B The adjacency matrix with N rows and N columns.

R Thermal resistance (Ω).

∆E t The amount of insufficient or excess electrical power t

Tout The outdoor temperature at time slot t (◦ C).

at time slot t (MWh).

U The voltage of interconnection lines (V).

∆H t The amount of insufficient or excess thermal power at

uti The power utility of MG i at time slot t .

time slot t (MWh).

xtgrid The trading energy with utility grid at time slot t

∆T The length of time slot (h).

(MWh).

∆t The transmission delay in the heat pipes (h).

δheat The heating coefficient. I. I NTRODUCTION

t

ηchp The power generation efficiency of MT at time slot t.

With the increasing concerns on energy consumption and

ηloss The heat loss coefficient.

environmental protection, how to improve the energy efficien-

ηsys The system efficiency.

cy is becoming one of the most critical and pressing issues

µti The thermal price of MG i selling to other MGs at

around the globe [1]. Recently, optimal energy management

time slot t (CNY/MWh).

(s) of microgrids (MGs) with electrical and thermal demands

φi,t The total amount of selling heat in MG i (MWh).

has become a compelling and much needed research topic

N. Liu and J. Wang are with the State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical [2]. In particular, combined heat and power (CHP) [3] can

Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power provide electrical and thermal energy for MGs simultaneously,

University, Beijing 102206, China. (e-mail: nian liu@163.com). which improves energy supply efficiency. Moreover, renewable

L. Wang is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer

Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA. energy has been regarded as an important factor to address

(e-mail: l.f.wang@ieee.org). energy and environmental issues, such as photovoltaic (PV)

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Transactions on Sustainable Energy

2

systems [4]. In some areas, due to the capacity limitation optimization. As for the centralized optimization [19], all the

of an individual MG, multiple neighboring MGs can share data need to be transmitted to the central coordinator, which

energy with one another to drive the total cost down and may result in the leakage of privacy information of MGs

improve the power supply reliability [5]. More recently, heat- and high data communication requirements. To overcome the

electricity integrated energy systems (HE-IES) [6], [7], [8] drawbacks, there has been some research focusing on the

composed of multiple interconnected MGs with CHP and PV distributed optimization. For instance, a distributed convex

systems are being proposed. Thus far, the optimal electrical optimization framework is developed in [20] to enable en-

and thermal energy sharing problem of multiple MGs in a ergy trading between islanded MGs. A self-organizing and

HE-IES remains a problem to be solved for achieving cost decentralized energy management strategy is proposed for a

reduction and improving energy efficiency. microgrid cluster which is islanded from the main grid [21].

Recently, two common types of CHP units are being ex- A cooperative power dispatching algorithm of interactions

plored: back pressure units and extraction condensing units among microgrids is proposed in [5] for facilitating power

[9], [10]. For extraction condensing units with adjustable heat- sharing within the grid. The optimal control problem of

to-electric ratio, they are usually large-scale generating units, microgrids in [22] is modeled as a decentralized partially-

whose power is several hundreds of megawatts in general [9], observable Markov decision process. Nevertheless, the shared

[11]. As for the integrated energy system (IES) involving mul- energy among multiple MGs in the above studies is limited to

tiple extraction condensing units, a linear model is proposed electrical energy.

in [11] for the centralized dispatch for IES, which increases In the HE-IES with multiple MGs, the energy sharing

the flexibility of CHP units using electrical boilers and heat problem is different from the aforementioned studies. First,

storage tanks in a centralized model. In terms of back pressure there are two physical networks in the system, which means

units, they are usually small-scale generating units, whose both heat and electricity can be shared among different parties.

heat-to-electric ratio is constant. With regard to operating Second, by sharing the heat, multiple CHP systems can

strategy of the back pressure CHP units, it can be divided perform cooperation to meet the total heat demand of the IES.

into following electric load (FEL) and following thermal load Thus, the the traditional FTL mode of a single CHP system

(FTL) modes [12]. Furthermore, following hybrid electric- should be changed. In the existing literature, there has been

thermal load (FHL) is proposed as a hybrid mode, in which no such a solution for addressing these two differences.

the CHP system can select FTL or FEL mode dynamically To this end, this paper focuses on an electrical and thermal

[13]. However, the operation mode of back pressure units is energy sharing method for multiple MGs in a HE-IES. The

limited to the FTL or FEL mode. In this paper, we focus on main contributions of this work are summarized as follows:

the energy sharing problem of multiple interconnected MGs. 1) An electrical and thermal energy sharing framework of

According to the policy in China [14], the maximum electrical multiple MGs with multi-time scale characteristics in a HE-

load of grid-connected MG is limited to 20MW. Due to the IES based on electrical and thermal prices is proposed consid-

research target of multiple MGs in this paper, back pressure ering a comprehensive set of factors such as the cost of power

units are taken into consideration in our work. and heat generation, trading cost with utility grid, trading

Meanwhile, the optimization of back pressure CHP units has cost with other MGs, load characteristics, power consumption

drawn wide attention. For optimal operation of MGs consisting utility, and discomfort cost.

of the CHP system, its optimal objective is generally set as the 2) Through electrical and thermal energy trading, CHP can

minimum operation cost, maximum energy efficiency or mini- choose the operating point flexibly to reduce the operation cost

mum environmental impact [15], [1]. However, most research considering multiple CHP systems, which is not limited by the

mainly focuses on the optimal operation of individual CHP rigid constraint in the FTL or FEL mode.

system. With the number of CHPs increasing, the optimization 3) The distributed optimization algorithm is extended from

of HE-IES with multiple CHPs is one of the key elements to a single electric energy transaction mode between MGs to

reduce the overall cost. For instance, an optimal joint-dispatch the hybrid transaction mode with both electrical and thermal

scheme of energy and reserve is proposed in [16] for combined energy.

cooling, heating and power (CCHP)-based MGs. Additionally,

II. E NERGY SHARING FRAMEWORK WITH ELECTRICAL

an optimization procedure for day-ahead scheduling of a CHP-

AND THERMAL ENERGY

based MG is developed in [1] to minimize operation and

emission costs. In [17], the economic operation model of MGs A. System Architecture

is built to minimize total operation cost of the CCHP-based The hybrid energy sharing framework of multiple intercon-

systems. In the above literature, the optimization of multiple nected MGs in a HE-IES is shown in Fig.1. The interconnected

CHPs is solved by a centralized method. Since the CHPs MGs can exchange electrical and thermal energy through an

may belong to different economic entities, the hybrid energy interconnection infrastructure and a communication network.

sharing of multiple CHPs belonging to different MGs is a Each MG may be composed of the PV system, CHP, electrical

significant issue to be solved to minimize cost of each MG and thermal loads and MG energy management system (MG-

and the overall cost. EMS). From the point view of Transactive Energy, each MG

Much effort has been focused on the optimization of can be regarded as a buyer or a seller for both electrical and

multiple MGs [18], and the relevant studies can be divided thermal energy. The optimal scheduling of each MG is imple-

into two categories: centralized optimization and distributed mented in MG-EMS, which can decide the power generation,

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Transactions on Sustainable Energy

3

and receive the trading data from other MGs, including the Heat-to-electric

expected purchasing energy and prices. The users in each MG 1 Ratio

are assumed to have a certain amount of shiftable loads, which Esell A"

enable them to participate in DR with electricity and heat. B B'

Power line

18 19 20 21

Communication H chp H he

MG1 MG2 Heat line

H RP H waste

110kV/10kV

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B"

MG3

MG

Utility grid

A'

A

Ebuy

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

22 23 24 FTL Pchp 1

FEL

Ă

PRP

MG5 MGN

MG4 Fig. 2. Operation mode of CHP in the independent mode

Fig. 1. The electrical and thermal energy sharing framework of multiple of MGs can be satisfied by choosing to generate heat by CHP

interconnected MGs in a HE-IMS or trade with other MGs.

B. System Operation Mode

A. CHP system

1) Independent mode: Generally, the MGs can be operated

CHP system has become a type of economical and

in an independent mode, in which each MG generates elec-

environmentally-friendly power generation technology, which

tricity by itself or trades with the utility grid to satisfy its own

improves the system efficiency effectively. The key device of

electrical load demand. As for the thermal demands, each MG

a CHP system is the micro turbine (MT) powered by natural

can only generate heat by itself.

gas. Generally, the CHP operates in the FTL or FEL mode.

In the independent mode, the CHP in MG may operate in

1) The FTL mode: In the FTL mode, the priority is given

the FTL or FEL mode, as shown in Fig.2. In Fig.2, the slope

to the thermal load, so the MT generates thermal energy to

of the bold line in the middle represents the heat-to-electric

satisfy heat loads and it is not necessary to meet the electrical

ratio, which means that the electrical load and thermal load

demand. If there is surplus electrical energy generated, the

are matched for the point on the bold line and there is no need

excess portion of the electrical energy will be fed back to the

to add extra energy. The point in the area above the bold line

utility grid; if the generated electrical energy is insufficient,

indicates that the thermal load is more than the electrical load,

MG would purchase electricity from the utility grid.

while the point in the area below the bold line indicates the

t

electrical load is more than the thermal load. Hchpi = QtTi (1)

For points above the bold line (e.g., B), if the CHP operates

′ ∆E = t

− PEt i t

Pchpi (2)

in the FTL mode to meet electrical and thermal demands at B ,

the MG needs to sell Esell electricity to the utility grid. When t

(1 − ηchp

t

− ηloss )δheat Pchpi

t

′′ Hchpi = t (3)

the CHP operates in the FEL mode at B , the insufficient ηchp

thermal energy Hhe should be provided by the heat-only unit. Moreover, the power generation efficiency of MT can be

With regard to the points below the bold line such as A, the expressed as [23]

CHP can operate in the FTL mode or the FEL mode, that is

′ t t t

the point A or A” . If CHP operates in the FTL mode, the MG t

Pchpi Pchpi Pchpi

ηchp = ρ + σ( ) + τ( )2 + ν( )3 (4)

needs to purchase Ebuy electrical energy from the utility grid. PRP PRP PRP

If CHP operates in the FEL mode, the excess heat Hwaste In addition, the electrical and heat power of CHP should be

would be dumped. constrained as follows:

2) Operation mode of CHP in the interconnected mode:

Different from the independent mode, MGs can exchange min

Pchp ≤ Pchpi

t

≤ Pchp

max

(5)

energy in the interconnected mode based on the energy sharing min

Hchp ≤ t

Hchpi ≤ max

Hchp (6)

framework. For electrical energy, each MG gives priority to

t

the utilization of renewable energy. If renewable energy is where Hchpi is the thermal power of MT in MG i at time slot

t t

insufficient, the MG can choose to generate power by CHP, t; QTi is the thermal load of MG i at time slot t; Pchpi is the

t

trade with other MGs or the utility grid. The thermal demand electrical power of MT; PEi denotes the power consumption of

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Transactions on Sustainable Energy

4

t

or excess electrical power at time slot t; ηchp is the power According to the model of thermal load and temperature

generation efficiency of MT at time slot t; ρ, σ, τ and ν proposed in [28], the building temperature in each time slot is

are constant coefficients; PRP is the rated electrical power of represented by

CHP; ηloss is the heat loss coefficient; δheat is the heating

t −1/RCair

min

coefficient; Pchp max

and Pchp are the lower and upper bounds

t+1

Tin = Tin e + (RHair t t

+ Tout )(1 − e−1/RCair )

min

of electrical power of MT, respectively; and Hchp max

and Hchp (12)

t

are the minimum and maximum heat power values of MT, where Tin denotes the indoor temperature of the building at

respectively. time slot t; R is the thermal resistance; Cair denotes the

t

2) The FEL mode: In FEL, MT is in charge of generating specific heat ratio of air; Hair is the input thermal energy

t

electrical energy according to power loads, and the thermal at time slot t; and Tout is the outdoor temperature at time slot

t t t+1

demand is not a demand that must be met. If the generated t. Since Tin , R, Cair and Tout are known, Tin approximately

t

thermal energy is superfluous, the excess part would be has a linear relationship with the input thermal energy Hair .

wasted; if the generated thermal energy cannot satisfy the D. Discomfort cost

thermal load, other heating equipment can be used to supply Combined with [13], the degree of discomfort is defined as

the insufficient thermal energy, such as the heat-only unit.

ort = αi (QTi − QTset )

t t t 2

Cdiscomf (13)

Then we have: Pt = Pt (7)

chpi Ei t

where Cdiscomf ort is the discomfort cost incurred by the

∆H t = QtTi − Hchpi

t

(8) deviation of indoor temperature and comfort temperature;

where ∆H t denotes the amount of insufficient or excess QtTi denotes the equivalent thermal load when the indoor

thermal power at time slot t. temperature is set as Ti at time slot t; QtTset is the equivalent

t

3) Cost model: The cost Cchp of CHP is given by thermal load when the indoor temperature is the comfort

temperature Tset at time slot t; αi is the sensitivity coefficient,

t

t

Pchpi ∆T which indicates the willingness of adjustment of temperature.

Cchp = pgas (9)

t

ηchpi Lhvng For a larger αi (αi > 0), MG i is more sensitive to temperature

variations and is less willing to adjust the temperature.

where pgas denotes the price of natural gas; ∆T is the length The limitations of thermal load QtTi are expressed by

of time slot; and Lhvng represents the low calorific value of

natural gas. Qmin

Ti ≤ QtTi ≤ Qmax

Ti (14)

B. Electrical load where Qmin

Ti and Qmax

Ti are lower and upper bounds of the

Each MG is an autonomous entity which can adjust its thermal load.

loads flexibly. The power consumption utility uti of MG i is E. Cost of trading with utility grid

expressed by

If the renewable energy is insufficient, each MG can perform

uti = ki ln(1 + PEt i ) (10)

energy trade with the utility grid to satisfy the electrical

where ki is the utility parameter, which can be adjusted load. The cost of energy trading with the utility grid can be

according to the power consumption customers of MG i in expressed by

each time slot. The power consumption utility increases with a {

t Pgs xtgrid xtgrid ≥ 0

larger ki . The limitation on power consumption is represented Cgrid = (15)

Pgb xtgrid xtgrid < 0

by

0 ≤ PEt i ≤ PEmax

i

(11) where xtgrid is the trading electrical energy with utility grid

at time slot t; Pgs is the selling price of utility gird; and Pgb

where PEmax i

is the upper bound imposed on the amount of is the buying price of the utility grid; if xtgrid ≥ 0, the MG

power consumption. purchases electricity from the utility grid; otherwise, the excess

For the source of this definition, the natural logarithm ln(·) electricity in MG is fed back to the utility grid.

function has been widely used in economics for modeling the

F. Network cost

preference ranking of users and for decision making, which

is also turned out to be suitable for designing the utility of Due to the cost of investment as well as the cost for

power consumers [24]. The motivation behind choosing this operation and maintenance of distribution network, the fees

utility function is that it is closely related to the utility function charged by the utility grid are given as follows: [20]

ki ln(PEt i ) which leads to proportionally fair demand response γe (xt1 ) = a1 xt1 + b1 (xt1 )3 (16)

[25], [26]. And ki ln(1 + PEt i ) is a typical modified form to

avoid the undesired utility of −∞. where a1 and b1 are the cost coefficients; and xt1 is the trading

Note that ki is the combination of the weight coefficient and electrical energy.

preference parameter [27], which reflects the weight of energy Similarly, considering the cost of investment and mainte-

consumption utility and the energy consumption preference of nance of heat pipes, the fees charged by the heat pipeline

users. It can be derived from (10) that the user with a higher company can be expressed in the same form:

ki will be more likely to consume more energy to attain the γh (xt2 ) = a2 xt2 + b2 (xt2 )3 (17)

maximum utility compared with the user with a lower ki .

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Transactions on Sustainable Energy

5

where a2 and b2 are the cost coefficients; and xt2 is the trading Then we have

thermal energy. (b) [ ]T

Note that the particular functions (16) and (17) are chosen Ei,t = t

E1,i · · · EN,i

t (20)

(b) [ ]T

arbitrarily, which may depend on the physical parameters and Hi,t = H1,it

· · · HN,i

t (21)

business model. The basic principle is that the cost of a (b) [ ]T

t

γe (Ei,t ) = γ(E1,i ) · · · γ(EN,i

t

) (22)

network generally increases with the increase of the traded [ ]T

(b)

energy for both electricity and heat. Moreover, similar results

t

γh (Hi,t ) = γ(H1,i ) · · · γ(HN,i

t

) (23)

are expected with other forms of the function (e.g., linear where ∆t denotes the transmission delay in the heat pipes;

function and quadratic function.) t

Ei,j is the electrical energy sold by MG i to MG j at time

t

slot t; Hi,j is thermal energy sold by MG i to MG j at time

G. Energy efficiency slot t; ei is a column vector with N columns, in which the N th

element is 1 and other elements are 0. A is an adjacency matrix

As for energy efficiency, energy utilization factor (EUF) is

with N rows and N columns, whose element aij indicates

the most commonly used performance indicator to quantify

the connection in power network between MG i and MG j. If

system’s energy efficiency, which is based on the first law of

there is a connection between MG i and MG j in the power

thermodynamics and is built on the basis of energy balance.

network, aij = 1; otherwise, aij = 0. Similarly, B is an

For a particular system, EUF is defined as the ratio of effective

adjacency matrix with N rows and N columns, in which bij =

output energy to the input energy. The total system energy

1 indicates there is a connection between MG i and MG j in

efficiency ηsys is represented as [29]

the thermal network. Otherwise, bij = 0.

∑ ∑

i Pchpi + i Hchpi

The electrical power balance constraint in MG i of the above

ηsys = (18) optimal problem is given by

Qf uel (b) (s)

t

Pchpi + PPt V i + xtgridi + eTi AT Ei,t = PEt i + eTi AEi,t + Pj,i

loss

Moreover, the power loss is shown as follow:

t 2

loss

(Pj,i )

IV. H YBRID ENERGY SHARING MODEL Pj,i = Rij (25)

U2

A. Hybrid energy sharing model of interconnected MGs with t

where Pchpi is the power generation of CHP in MG i at time

multi-time scale characteristics

slot t; PP V i is the PV power of MG i at time slot t; xtgridi is

t

In a HE-IES, consider N MGs constituting an interconnect- the trading electrical energy between MG i and the utility grid

(s)

ed energy system, in which all MGs agree to coordinate with at time slot t. Ei,t is a vector with N columns, and we have

one another to reduce the total operation cost, including the (s) [ ]T

Ei,t = Ei,1 t

· · · Ei,N t loss

; Pj,i is the power loss due

cost of energy trading with the main grid, power generation to purchasing electricity from MG j by MG i, which is born

cost, heat generation cost, network cost, power consumption by MG i; U is the voltage of interconnection lines; and Rij is

utility and discomfort cost. MGs are able to trade with the the resistance of the distribution line between MG i and MG

utility grid. In addition, MG i can purchase electrical energy j.

t

Ej,i (j ̸= i) from MG j, and sell energy Ei,k t

(k ̸= i) to MG The thermal power constraint in MG i requires

k at time slot t. Moreover, MG i is allowed to trade thermal

(b) (s)

energy so that it can purchase thermal energy Hj,i t

(j ̸= i) t

Hchpi + eTi BT Hi,t = Qt+∆t

Ti + eTi BHi,t + Hj,i

loss (26)

from MG j and sell thermal energy Hi,k (k ̸= i) to MG k at

t

In addition, the heat loss in heat pipes can be defined as

time slot t.

follows:

The HE-IES is a complex system, in which the electrical and loss t t

thermal subsystems take different amounts of time to transmit Hj,i = ξj,i Hj,i (27)

electricity and heat, respectively. Obviously, the response t

where Hchpi is the heat generation of CHP in MG i at time

speed of electrical network is faster as it only takes seconds to loss

slot t; Hj,i is the heat loss in heat pipes caused by purchasing

transmit electricity. For the thermal network, the steam or hot heat from MG j by MG i, which is paid by MG i; and ξj,i t

is

water is transmitted at a lower speed, so the transmission delay the heat loss coefficient between MG i and MG j.

in the heat pipes may vary from minutes to hours. Therefore, For the optimization problem in (19), the electrical power

the hybrid energy sharing model of interconnected MGs with balance (24) and heat power balance (26) should be satisfied,

multi-timescale characteristics is proposed, and the objective and other constraints in (3), (5), (6), (11) and (14) also need

function is expressed as follows: to be enforced.

∑N

t B. Operation mode of CHP based on energy sharing frame-

Ct = min (Cgridi (xtgridi ) + Cchpi

t t

(Pchpi t

, Hchpi ))

{Ei,j i,j } i=1

t ,H t

work

∑N

(b) ∑N

(b) In the FEL or FTL mode, there may be excess electrical or

+ eTi AT γe (Ei,t ) + eTi BT γh (Hi,t )−

i=1 i=1 thermal energy generated due to the mismatch of electrical and

∑

N ∑

N

thermal loads for satisfying power and heat demands. In the

ki ln(1 + PEt i ) + αi (Qt+∆t

Ti − Qt+∆t

Tset )

2

i=1 i=1 energy sharing framework, a hybrid mode (HM) is proposed

(19) to reduce the operation cost and improve the energy efficiency.

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Transactions on Sustainable Energy

6

∑

N

Ct = { min }

t

(Cchpi t

(Pchpi t

, Hchpi )

(s) (s) t ,H t

Heat-to-electric εi,t ,ηi,t ,Ei,j i,j

i=1

1 Ratio ∑

N

A" t (b)

A'" + Cgridi (xtgridi )) + eTi AT γe (Ei,t )

Esell i=1 (30)

B B'

∑

N

(b) ∑

N

+ eTi BT γh (Hi,t ) − ki ln(1 + PEt i )

¢

Ebuy i=1 i=1

H chp

¢

H buy ∑N

H buy + αi (Qt+∆t

Ti − Qt+∆t

Tset )

2

H RP ¢

H sell

i=1

¢

Esell B'" H sell

We assume

B"

(s) (s)

εi,t = eTi AEi,t i = 1...N (31)

A'

A (s) (s)

φi,t = eTi BHi,t i = 1...N (32)

Ebuy

FTL Pchp

Then the constraints can be expressed by

FEL

1

HM PRP (b)

t

∆Ehm = PPt V i + xtgridi + eTi AT Ei,t

Fig. 3. Operation mode of CHP based on the proposed energy sharing (s)

(33)

framework − εi,t − Pj,i

loss

i = 1...N

(b)

For the hybrid mode proposed in this paper, we have

t

Pchpi + PPt V i + xtgridi + eTi AT Ei,t =

(s)

(34)

PEt i + εi,t + Pj,i

loss

i = 1...N

t

∆Ehm = PEt i − t

Pchpi (28)

t

∆Hhm = Qt+∆t − Hchpi

t

(29) (b) (s)

Ti t

∆Hhm = eTi BT Hi,t − φi,t − Hj,i

loss

i = 1...N (35)

t

where ∆Ehm denotes the amount of insufficient or excess

(b) (s)

electrical power in the hybrid mode at time slot t; and ∆Ehm t t

Hchpi + eTi BT Hi,t = Qt+∆t

Ti

loss

+ φi,t + Hj,i i = 1...N

denotes the amount of insufficient or excess thermal power in (36)

the hybrid mode at time slot t. Combined with the dual theory, the Lagrange multipliers λt

As shown in Fig.3, taking point B as an example, the ther- and µt are introduced, then the dual problem is formed:

mal load is more than the electrical load. In the interconnected

′ ′′

mode, CHP can operate at an arbitrary point, such as B , B ∑

N

′′′ ′

and B . When CHP operates at point B , CHP operates in

t

C = max

t

Cit (λt , µt ) (37)

λ ,µt

the FTL mode and the extra electrical energy will be sold to i=1

′′

other MGs or the utility grid. If CHP operates at point B , Cit (λt , µt ) = { min t (s) (s) (b) (b) t t

} Ci (εi,t , φi,t , Ei,t , Hi,t , λ , µ )

CHP operates in the FEL model and the thermal energy can be (s) (s) (b) (b)

εi,t ,φi,t ,Ei,t ,Hi,t

traded with other MGs. When CHP operates at a point except

′ ′′ ′′′ [ ]T t [ t ](38)

T

for B and B , such as B , CHP operates in the hybrid mode where λt = λt1 · · · λtN ; µ = µ1 · · · µtN .

which is neither the FTL nor the FEL mode. In this case, this Then each subproblem is solved for the local MG, which is

MG purchases partial heat from other MGs, and sells partial expressed as

electricity to other MGs or the utility grid. By comparison, it

′′

purchases less heat compared to B and sells less electricity (s) (s) (b) (b)

Cit (εi,t , φi,t , Ei,t , Hi,t , λt , µt ) = Cchpi

t t

(Pchpi t

, Hchpi )

′

compared with B . The operation point of CHP is obtained (b) (b)

t

based on the optimal scheduling algorithm by minimizing the + Cgridi (xtgridi ) + eTi AT γe (Ei,t ) + eTi BT γh (Hi,t )−

operation cost. (b)

ki ln(1 + PEt i ) + αi (Qt+∆t

Ti − Qt+∆t

Tset ) + ei A diag{λ }Ei,t

2 T T t

V. D ISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION + eTi BT diag{µt }Hi,t − λti εi,t − µti φi,t

(39)

A. Problem Decoupling where λti is the electrical price of MG i selling to other MGs

To protect the privacy of MGs, the energy management at time slot t; and µti denotes the thermal price of MG i selling

problem of interconnected MGs with electrical and ther- to other MGs at time slot t. As shown in (39), the objective

mal energy sharing is solved by the distributed optimization of each MG is composed of the following components: 1)

algorithm. For reducing the computational complexity, the cost of CHP; 2) cost/profit of trading with the utility grid;

optimization problem (19) is decoupled into N subproblems 3) electrical network cost due to purchasing electricity and

solved for each MG, which needs little information to derive thermal network cost incurred by purchasing heat; 4) power

the optimal scheduling scheme. The problem (19) can be consumption utility; 5) discomfort cost; 6) cost of purchasing

transformed into electricity and heat from other MGs; and 7) profit of selling

electrical and thermal energy.

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0.8

tributed algorithm based on the subgradient method is used to

derive the optimal scheduling scheme [20]. In each round of 0.6

iterations, MG i decides the expected purchasing electricity

(b) (b) (s) (s)

Ei,t and heat Hi,t , electricity εi,t and heat φi,t it is willing 0.4

to sell by solving (39). Then MG i informs MG j of its

0.2

expected purchasing electricity and heat. Referring to the

expected purchasing energy from other MGs, MG i computes

(s) 0

the expected selling electricity eTi AEi,t and expected selling 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00

Time slot

(s) (a) Electrical energy

heat eTi BHi,t . Next, λti and µti of MG i are updated according 1

(s) (s)

to the electricity εi,t and heat φi,t that MG i is willing to sell, 0.9

(s) (s)

and the expected selling electricity eTi AEi,t and heat eTi BHi,t , 0.8

which can be expressed as follows: 0.7

(s) (s)

eT1 AE1,t [k] − ε1,t [k] 0.6

λt [k + 1] = λt [k] + ρ[k]

..

.

(40)

0.5

(s) (s)

eTN AEN,t [k] − εN,t [k] 0.4

(s) (s)

0.3

12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00

eT1,t BH1 [k] − φ1,t [k] Time slot

(b) Thermal energy

µt [k + 1] = µt [k] + σ[k] (41)

.. PV1 PV2 PV3

Power load of MG1 Power load of MG2 Power load of MG3

. Thermal load of MG1 Thermal load of MG2 Thermal load of MG3

(s) (s)

eTN BHN,t [k] − φN,t [k]

Fig. 4. The electrical load, thermal load and PV power of each MG in time

Finally, the optimal scheduling scheme at this iteration is slot 12:00 to 17:00

obtained after the convergence condition is satisfied.

TABLE II

R ELATED PARAMETERS OF CHP S IN MG S

VI. C ASE STUDIES CHP PRP a b c d ηloss δheat

A. Basic data CHP1 200kW 0.16 0.57 -0.41 0.09 0.05 0.8

CHP2 800kW 0.15 0.51 -0.37 0.09 0.05 0.8

In this paper, a real HE-IES consisting of 3 interconnected CHP3 1MW 0.15 0.54 -0.39 0.09 0.05 0.8

MGs is chosen as the case study. All MGs have installed

PV panels. Based on the historical data collected from smart

meters of the buildings in Beijing, China, the load data is B. Optimal results in time slot 12:00-16:00

obtained using the method in [30]. The PV power data is also According to the proposed method in this paper, the optimal

from the buildings in Beijing. There is a CHP in each MG. results of trading energy in time slots 12:00-16:00 are obtained

The simulation is conducted using MATLAB. Pgs and Pgb are by simulations based on forecast data. The results of Fig.5 (a)

set as 0.8 CNY/kWh and 0.35 CNY/kWh, respectively. pgas is show that MG3 acts as a electricity seller and trades electrical

set as 2.2 CNY/m3 . The electrical load, thermal load and PV energy with MG1 and MG2. In contrast, the results of Fig.5

power of each MG in time slot 12:00 to 17:00 are presented (b) show that MG2 acts as a heat seller and trades thermal

in Fig.4. The profiles of MGs and the related parameters of energy with MG1 and MG3. The coupling constraints in (31)

CHPs in MGs are listed in Table.I and Table.II, respectively. and (32) are also satisfied, as shown by the balances of energy

Combined with model in [31], the transmission delay in the trading.

heat pipes is calculated approximately, which varies with Moreover, for the energy scheduling results inside a MG,

parameters of pipes and distance of heat transmission. For MG2 is taken as an example. Figs. 6 and 7 show the results

distance of 3 km between MGs, it may take about one hour for of optimized thermal and electrical variables, respectively. In

thermal network to transmit heat. Thus ∆t = 1h is assumed. In Fig. 6, the upper part shows the generated heat by CHP2

addition, the time of heat transmission to local MG is assumed and the trading heat with other MGs, while the lower part

to be the same as the time of heat transmission to other MGs shows the original thermal load and the adjusted thermal load

in general. after implementing the DR. Considering the thermal energy

transmission delay, the results show that the produced heat at

TABLE I time slot t is consistent with the thermal load at time slot t+1.

P ROFILES OF ALL MG S

Meanwhile, in Fig. 7, the upper part shows the PV energy,

MG PV capacity (kWp) αi

MG1 100 1000 generated electrical energy Pchp2 of CHP2 and purchased

MG2 150 1200 electrical energy E32 from MG3, and the lower part shows

MG3 120 1100 the original electrical load and the adjusted electrical load after

implementing the DR. In MG2, the supplied electric power on

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0.8

0.4

Electrical energy (MWh)

0.6

0.3

0.4

0.2 0.2

0

0.1 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00

Time slot

0 0.95

12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00

0.9

Time slot

(a) Trading electrical energy 0.85

0.2 0.8

Thermal energy (MWh)

0.75

0.15 0.7

0.65

0.1 0.6

12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00

Time slot

0.05 PV2 P chp2 E 3,2

Original net electrical load in MG2 Power consumption in MG2

0

12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00

Fig. 7. Optimized electrical variables of MG2

Time slot

(b) Trading thermal energy

E E e H H j

3,1 3,2 3 2,1 2,3 2

C. Optimal results and analysis at time slot 12:00

Fig. 5. The optimal results of trading energy in time slot 12:00-16:00 (E3,1 1) Electrical and thermal price: Using the distributed op-

denotes the electrical energy purchased by MG1 from MG3)

timization method, the iterative processes of electrical and

thermal prices at time slot 12:00 are obtained, which are shown

in Fig.8 and Fig.9, respectively. We can find that the electrical

the source side is the same as the power consumption of MG2 and thermal prices can converge in about 80 iterations. In terms

at time slot t, due to the faster response speed of electrical of the electrical price, the electrical price of CHP3 in MG3 is

network. the lowest among MGs. Note that the electrical price of MG3

is lower than the selling price of utility grid and is higher

than the purchasing price of utility grid. Therefore, to reduce

the operation cost, MG1 and MG2 purchase electrical energy

1

from MG3 instead of the utility grid. In addition, MG3 gets

Thermal energy (MWh)

0.6

0.4

500

0.2

0

Electrical price (CNY/MWh)

Time slot

0.85

Thermal energy (MWh)

300

0.8

0.75

200

0.7

0.65

100 MG1

0.6

12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 MG2

Time slot MG3

H chp2 j 0

Original thermal load in MG2 Adjusted thermal load in MG2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Iteration number

Fig. 6. Optimized thermal variables of MG2 Fig. 8. Iterative process of electrical price

In the following section, in order to test the performance lowest among MGs so that MG1 and MG3 purchase heat from

of algorithm, iterative process and optimal results of time slot MG2 for ensuring cost minimization. MG2 gains profits by

12:00 are given in details. selling excess thermal energy to other MGs.

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100 0.4

90 0.35

0.3

Thermal price (CNY/MWh)

80

70 0.25

60 0.2

50 0.15

E

40 0.1 2,1

E

3,1

30 0.05

e

1

20 MG1 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

10 MG2 Iteration number

MG3 (a) Trading electrical energy of MG1

0 0.5

E

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1,2

Iteration number E

3,2

0.4

e

2

Fig. 9. Iterative process of thermal price

0.3

are depicted in Fig.10 and Fig.11, respectively. 0.1

and MG2 purchase 0.2266 MWh and 0.0874 MWh electrical 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

energy from MG3, respectively. The total electricity sold by Iteration number

(b) Trading electrical energy of MG2

MG3 is 0.3140 MWh. It is clear that the electricity purchased 0.4

by MG1 and MG2 from MG3 is equal to the electricity 0.35

Electrical energy (MWh)

(31). Similarly, according to Fig.11, MG1 and MG3 purchase

0.25

0.1431 MWh and 0.0240 MWh thermal energy from MG2,

respectively. The heat sold by MG3 is 0.1670 MWh, which 0.2

and MG3 within the error tolerance. Therefore, the coupling 0.1

E

1,3

constraint in (32) is also satisfied. E

2,3

0.05

e

3) Demand response with power and heat: Each MG is an 3

0

independent entity which can participate in DR with power 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

and heat. As for the electrical DR, the ratios of the optimized Iteration number

(c) Trading electrical energy of MG3

power consumption to the original electrical load of MGs are

85.18%, 97.14% and 106.27%, respectively. Considering the

Fig. 10. Iterative process of trading electrical energy in each MG

power generation cost, cost of trading with other MGs or

the utility grid, network cost and power consumption utility,

each MG has different power consumptions for reducing the TABLE III

operational cost. For instance, MG3 consumes more power O PTIMAL SCHEDULING RESULTS OF DR ON THERMAL ENERGY

CONSUMPTION

with a larger power consumption utility while MG1 consumes

MG Initial thermal load Optimized thermal Adjusted temper-

less power to decrease the operation cost. (MWh) load (MWh) ature (◦ C)

In terms of the thermal DR, as previously mentioned, MG1 0.40 0.34 21.77

adjusting the indoor temperature is equivalent to adjusting MG2 0.75 0.72 21.94

MG3 0.88 0.83 21.90

the thermal load. The comfort temperature is set to be 22◦ C.

The optimal scheduling results of DR on thermal energy

consumption is shown in Table.III, which can be interpreted

from two aspects. influenced by the deviation between the comfort temperature

On the one hand, the deviation of comfort temperature from and the adjusted temperature. The degree of deviation mainly

the adjusted temperature increases with the larger difference depends on αi . For instance, MG2 is more sensitive to the

between the initial thermal load and the optimized thermal temperature change with the largest α2 . Therefore, it has the

load. Taking MG2 as an example, the deviation of the initial lowest willingness to adjust the temperature, whose equivalent

thermal load and the optimized thermal load is the least, thus thermal discomfort cost is the highest. To reduce the total

its adjusted indoor temperature is the closest to the comfort operation cost, the deviation of the adjusted temperature from

temperature. On the other hand, the thermal comfort of MGs is the comfort temperature of MG2 is the lowest.

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0.35

in which the inadequate electricity should be purchased from

H

2,1 the utility grid. In interconnected mode, the MG2 generates

0.3 H more electricity by CHP2 and purchases partial electrical

3,1

Thermal energy (MWh)

0.25 1

insufficient electrical energy from the utility grid at a higher

0.2

price. Considering the heat and power coupling of the CHP

0.15 system, the CHP generates a larger amount of heat, which

results in more revenue by selling excess heat to other MGs.

0.1

As a result, the operation cost of the MG2 could be finally

0.05 minimized. Therefore, through energy trading among MGs,

0

the CHP can choose the arbitrary operating point, which is

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 not limited by the rigid constraint of the FTL or FEL mode.

Iteration number

(a) Trading thermal energy of MG1 In terms of MG3, different from the traditional FTL and

0.35

H

1,2 FEL modes, the CHP in MG3 also operates in the hybrid

0.3 H

3,2 mode, which is an interesting finding. Considering the heat-

j

Thermal energy (MWh)

than the electrical load. Combined with Fig.3, the CHP in

′ ′′′

0.2

MG3 operates at a point between B and B ” , such as B .

0.15 To interpret this phenomenon, the CHP3 in MG3 operates in

FTL mode in independent mode, in which the excess electrical

0.1

energy should be fed back in to the utility grid uneconomically.

0.05 In terms of interconnected mode, MG3 purchases partial

thermal energy from MG2 and produces less heat, resulting

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 in the reduced generation cost of CHP. Considering the cou-

Iteration number

(b) Trading thermal energy of MG2 pling characteristics of CHP, the generated electrical power

0.5

H

1,3

decreases with the reduction of thermal power. However, there

H

2,3

is a higher price for MG3 in selling electricity to other MGs,

0.4

j instead of the utility grid. Based on above analysis, a decreased

Thermal energy (MWh)

3

operation cost is eventually resulted in.

0.3

Hence, energy sharing of multiple MGs can resolve the

conflicts among electrical load, thermal load and heat-to-

0.2

electric ratio of CHP, which is not limited by the rigid

constraint imposed on the FTL or FEL mode. Based on the

0.1

proposed energy sharing framework in this paper, the CHP in

MG can select the operating point flexibly, which facilitates

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 electrical and thermal energy sharing and results in the reduced

Iteration number

(c) Trading thermal energy of MG3 operation cost.

5) Comparison with the independent mode: Furthermore,

the cost comparison of MGs between independent mode and

Fig. 11. Iterative process of trading thermal energy in each MG

interconnected mode is shown in Table.IV. According to Table

IV, energy sharing of interconnected MGs can reduce the total

4) Decision-making behavior of each MG: The decision- operation cost by 19.87%, and the operation cost of each MG

making behavior of each MG can be interpreted in the is reduced accordingly.

following.

As for MG1, the CHP1 in MG1 reaches the limitation TABLE IV

C OST COMPARISON OF MG S BETWEEN INDEPENDENT MODE AND

of power generation so that the insufficient power should INTERCONNECTED MODE

be purchased. Based on aforementioned price analysis, MG1 Cost(CNY) Independent mode Interconnected mode

purchases electrical energy from MG3 at a lower price to MG1 353.21 223.04

reduce power generation cost. Moreover, due to the lowest MG2 569.52 467.99

MG3 286.12 277.61

thermal price of MG2, MG1 purchases partial thermal energy Total cost 1208.85 968.64

from MG2 to decrease the heat generation cost.

With regard to MG2, the results show that the CHP in MG2 Based on the energy sharing framework, the electrical and

operates in a hybrid mode by selecting its operating point thermal loads of multiple MGs in the HE-IES can be satisfied.

flexibly, which is different from the conventional operation To reduce the total operation cost, each MG can choose to

modes (i.e., the FTL mode and FEL mode). Combined with produce electricity, generate heat, trade electricity with the

′

Fig.3, the CHP in MG2 operates at a point between A and A” , utility grid, trade electricity or heat with other MGs, whether

′′′

such as A . Having gained the insight into this phenomenon, to participate in DR with electrical and thermal energy consid-

the CHP in MG2 operates in FTL mode in independent mode, ering cost of CHP, trading cost with utility grid, trading cost

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with other MGs, power consumption utility, and discomfort insight into this phenomenon, in the independent mode the

cost. CHP2 operates in the FTL mode, and insufficient electricity

6) System energy efficiency: The energy efficiency compar- should be purchased from the utility grid at a higher price. In

ison of MGs between independent mode and interconnected interconnected mode which breaks the rigid constraint of FTL,

mode is shown Table.V. CHP2 can generate more electricity and sell the excess heat

to MG1 and MG3, which leads to the rise of operation point.

TABLE V As for CHP3 in MG3, it also uses FTL mode when operating

S YSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY COMPARISON BETWEEN INDEPENDENT

MODE AND INTERCONNECTED MODE

independently, in which the surplus electricity should be fed

Operation mode Independent mode Interconnected mode back to the utility grid. However, in the interconnected mode

Energy efficiency 86.91% 87.11% CHP3 purchases partial thermal energy from MG2 and sells

excess electricity to MG1 and MG2 for the reduction of

According to Table.V, we can find that energy efficiency in generation cost and improvement of electricity sale revenue,

interconnected mode can be improved through the proposed which breaks the rigid constraint of FTL. As a result, the

energy sharing method. Compared with the independent mode, operation point of CHP3 shows a slight drop.

the operation point of CHPs in MGs varies in interconnected Based on the above analysis, energy efficiency in the

mode, which leads to the difference of generation efficien- interconnected mode shows a minor improvement, which may

cy and operation point. Fig.12 shows the operating point be due to that the energy efficiency is not considered in the

comparison of each CHP between interconnected mode and objective function. In order to improve the energy efficiency, it

independent mode. could be accounted for in the objective function in our future

work.

1

VII. C ONCLUSION

0.8

In this paper, a new hybrid energy sharing management

RP

/H

chp

H

shown that CHP can select the operating point within the

0.2

capacity limitation flexibly to reduce the operation cost, which

0 is not limited by the rigid constraint imposed on the FTL

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

P /P or FEL mode. Through the proposed hybrid energy sharing

chp RP

(a) CHP in MG1 scheme, the total operation cost of interconnected MGs in the

1 HE-IES can be reduced effectively. Meanwhile, the local cost

0.8 of each MG is also decreased. In addition, the hybrid energy

sharing scheme based on electrical and thermal energy prices

RP

0.6

/H

chp

H

flexibility.

0.2

The proposed work can be extended in multiple directions.

0 The multi-objective optimization model can be built, which

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

P /P may include operation cost, energy efficiency, and emissions.

chp RP

(b) CHP in MG2 Considering different parameters of heat pipes and distances

1

between CHP and consumers, the time delay scales are differ-

0.8 ent. An interesting extension would be integrating the diverse

thermal time scales into the distributed iteration process.

RP

0.6

/H

chp

0.4 the heat and electricity correlations on the consumer side (e.g.,

H

0.2

some appliances or industrial devices) could be considered,

which may have different effects on the performance of energy

0 management systems.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

P /P R EFERENCES

chp RP

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Transactions on Sustainable Energy

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for grid-connected microgrids with heat and electricity coupled demand

response,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. PP, no. 99, Nian Liu (S’06–M’11) received the B.S. and M.S.

pp. 1–1, 2017. degrees in electric engineering from Xiangtan Uni-

[14] “Proposed regulation on promoting construction versity, Hunan, China, in 2003 and 2006, respective-

of grid-connected microgrids,” National Developmen- ly, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering

t and Reform Commission, 2017. [Online]. Available: from North China Electric Power University, Bei-

http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/zcfb/zcfbtz/201707/t20170724 855213.html jing, China, in 2009.

[15] D. Zhang, S. Evangelisti, P. Lettieri, and L. G. Papageorgiou, “Optimal From 2015 to 2016, he was a Visiting Research

design of chp-based microgrids: Multiobjective optimisation and life Fellow with RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

cycle assessment,” Energy, vol. 85, pp. 181–193, 2015. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the School

[16] J. Wang, H. Zhong, Q. Xia, C. Kang, and E. Du, “Optimal joint-dispatch of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of North

of energy and reserve for cchp-based microgrids,” Iet Generation Trans- China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.

mission & Distribution, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 785–794, 2017. His research interests include demand side energy management, microgrids,

[17] N. Nikmehr and S. Najafi-Ravadanegh, “Optimal operation of distributed electric vehicles, and cyber security of smart grid.

generations in micro-grids under uncertainties in load and renewable He serves as Associate Editor of Journal of Modern Power Systems and

power generation using heuristic algorithm,” IET Renewable Power Clean Energy (MPCE), reviewers for more than 10 top-tier international and

Generation, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 982–990, 2015. Chinese journals, and Technical Track Co-chair of IEEE IECON2017.

[18] Z. Xu, P. Yang, C. Zheng, Y. Zhang, J. Peng, and Z. Zeng, “Analysis

on the organization and development of multi-microgrids,” Renewable

& Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 81, 2017.

[19] Y. Li, N. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Jointly optimization and distributed control

for interconnected operation of autonomous microgrids,” in Innovative

Smart Grid Technologies - Asia, 2016, pp. 1–6.

[20] D. Gregoratti and J. Matamoros, “Distributed energy trading: The

multiple-microgrid case,” Industrial Electronics IEEE Transactions on,

vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 2551–2559, 2013.

[21] M. He and M. Giesselmann, “Reliability-constrained self-organization

and energy management towards a resilient microgrid cluster,” in Inno-

vative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, 2015, pp. 1–5.

[22] J. Wu and X. Guan, “Coordinated multi-microgrids optimal control al-

gorithm for smart distribution management system,” IEEE Transactions Jie Wang received the B.S. degree from Hebei

on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 2174–2181, 2013. University of Technology, Tianjin, China, in 2016.

[23] L. Wang, Q. Li, M. Sun, and G. Wang, “Robust optimisation scheduling She is currently working toward the M.S. degree in

of cchp systems with multi-energy based on minimax regret criterion,” the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,

Iet Generation Transmission & Distribution, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 2194– North China Electric Power University, Beijing, Chi-

2201, 2016. na.

[24] S. Maharjan, Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Gjessing, and T. Basar, “Dependable Her research interests include energy management

demand response management in the smart grid: A stackelberg game of microgrids and the optimal operation of integrated

approach,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 120– energy system.

132, March 2013.

1949-3029 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSTE.2018.2861986, IEEE

Transactions on Sustainable Energy

13

B.E. degree in measurement and instrumentation

from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, in

1997; the M.S. degree in instrumentation science and

engineering from Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,

China, in 2000; the M.S. degree in electrical and

computer engineering from the National University

of Singapore, Singapore, in 2002; and the Ph.D.

degree from the Electrical and Computer Engineer-

ing Department, Texas A&M University, College

Station, TX, USA, in 2008. He is currently a Pro-

fessor with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee (UWM), WI, USA, where he

directs the cyber-physical energy systems research group. He also serves as

a Co-Director for the Department of Energy (DOE)’s Industrial Assessment

Center. He was a faculty member with the University of Toledo, Toledo, OH,

USA, and an Associate Transmission Planner with the California Independent

System Operator, Folsom, CA, USA. His current research interests include

power system reliability and resiliency, smart grid cybersecurity, critical

infrastructure protection, energy-water nexus, renewable energy integration,

intelligent and energy-efficient buildings, electric vehicles integration, micro-

grid analysis and management, and cyber-physical systems.

Dr. Wang is an Editor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART

GRID, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, and IEEE POWER

ENGINEERING LETTERS, and serves on the Steering Committee of the

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING. He is also an Editorial

Board Member for several international journals, including Journal of Modern

Power System and Clean Energy, Sustainable Energy Technologies and

Assessments, and Intelligent Industrial Systems. He served as a Co-chair for

IEEE SmartGridComm’15 Symposium on Data Management, Grid Analytics,

and Dynamic Pricing. He is a recipient of the Outstanding Faculty Research

Award of College of Engineering and Applied Science at UWM in 2018.

1949-3029 (c) 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.