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Lecture 02

Beam in Flexure

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

drqaisarali@uetpeshawar.edu.pk

Topics Addressed

Design Steps

Example

1

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Story

Bay

2

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Beam Test

In order to clearly understand the behavior of RC members subjected

to flexure load only, the response of such members at three different

loading stages is discussed.

Beam test video

3

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

At loads much lower than the ultimate, concrete remains un-

cracked in compression as well as in tension and the behavior of

steel and concrete both is elastic.

With increase in load, concrete cracks in tension but remains un-

cracked in compression. Concrete in compression and steel in

tension both behave in elastic manner.

(Ultimate Strength) Stage

Concrete is cracked in tension. Concrete in compression and steel

in tension both enters into inelastic range. At collapse, steel yields

and concrete in compression crushes.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Stage-1: Behavior

Stage-1: Behavior

Compression zone

fc

d ft = f r

h M = Mcr

fc = ft << fc'

Strain Diagram ft

b Stress Diagram Compressive Stress

verge of failure in tension

ft = fr = 7.5fc‘

Tensile Stress

(ACI 19.2.3.1)

Concrete stress-strain

diagram

5

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Compression zone

fc

C= 0.5fc × (b × 0.5h)

1/2 h

d

2/3 h

h M

1/2 h

T= 0.5ft × (b × 0.5h)

ft

b

C = T ; fc = f t fc = ft = Mc/Ig

M = 0.5fc × (b × 0.5h) × (2/3 h) OR where c = 0.5h

= 1/6 fc × b × h2 Ig = bh3/12

fc = ft = 6M/(bh2) fc = ft = 6M/(bh2)

The contribution of steel is

At ft = fr , where modulus of rupture, fr = 7.5 fc′ ignored for simplification.

Cracking Moment Capacity, Mcr = fr × Ig/(0.5h) = (fr × b × h2)/6 If there is no reinforcement,

member will fail in tension.

Stage-2: Behavior

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Stage-2: Behavior

Compression zone

c < 0.003 fc = 0.45fc'

f t > fr

M > Mcr

d fc = 0.45fc'

h

fs = 0.5 fy

s = fs/Es fs = 0.5 fy

Tension Zone

Concrete Cracked Compressive Stress

fc'

fy 0.45fc'

0.5fy c 0.003

Es

t

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I 13

Compression zone

fc

C = 0.5fc (bc)

c

M

d

h la = d – c/3

T= Asfs

Stress Diagram

b

M = Tla = Asfs (d – c/3) (½)fcbc = Asfs

As = M/fs(d – c/3) c = 2Asfs / fcb {where fs = nfc and n =Es/Ec}

c = 2Asn/b

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Stage-3: Behavior

Ultimate Load

T

C

Stage-3: Behavior

Compression zone

c = 0.003 fc

ft > >fr

M > >Mcr

fs = fy

d fc = αfc′, where α < 1

h

s = fy/Es T = A sf y

Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

b Compressive

Stress

Tension Zone f c'

Concrete Cracked fy

Es

c 0.003

t

Stress-Strain Diagram for Stress-Strain Diagram for Concrete

Reinforcing Steel in Tension in Compression

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

fc

c = 0.003 0.85fc′

C = 0.85fc′ab

a = β1c

d la = d – a/2

h

M

T = A sf y

s = fy/Es T = A sf y

Stress Diagram Equivalent Stress Diagram

b

M = Tla = Asfy (d – a/2) 0.85fc ′ab = Asfy

As = M/fy(d – a/2) a = Asfy/ 0.85fc ′ b

A plane section before bending remains plane after bending.

loads (concrete stress ≤ 0.5fc′). When the load is increased, the

variation in the concrete stress is no longer linear.

concrete beams.

The bond between the steel and concrete is perfect and no slip

occurs.

the distance from neutral axis.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

The maximum usable concrete compressive strain at the extreme fiber

is assumed to be 0.003.

The steel is assumed to be uniformly strained to the strain that exists at

the level of the centroid of the steel. Also if the strain in the steel ɛs is

less than the yield strain of the steel ɛy, the stress in the steel is Esɛs. If

ɛs ≥ ɛy, the stress in steel will be equal to fy.

Figure 9

10

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

• According to the ACI Code, the RC Members shall be designed using the

strength design method.

• In the strength design method, the loads are amplified and the capacities

are reduced.

• The loads are amplified in the following manner.

W U = 1.2 W D + 1.6 W L

MU = 1.2 MD + 1.6 ML

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

• According to strength design method the resisting member flexural

capacity calculated from specified dimension (size of members) and

material strength called as the nominal flexural capacity Mn = Asfy (d -

a/2) shall be reduced by multiplying it with strength reduction factor Φ =

0.9, to get the design flexural capacity (Md).

Md = Φ Mn ; Φ = 0.9

For no failure; Φ Mn ≥ Mu

• The nominal flexural capacity of RC Members shall be calculated from the

conditions corresponding to stage 3.

is reached when the strain in the extreme compression fiber reaches

the assumed strain limit of 0.003, (i.e. strains at stage 3.)

steel in tension has yielded well before crushing of concrete.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

• When concrete crushes at εc = 0.003, depending on the amount of steel

(As) present as tension reinforcement, following conditions are possible for

steel strain (εs)

• For relative high amount of tension reinforcement, failure may occur under

conditions 1 & 2, causing brittle failure. It is for this reason that ACI code

restricts maximum amount of reinforcement in member subjected to flexural

load only.

• To ensure ductile failure & hence to restrict the maximum amount of

reinforcement, the ACI code recommends that for tension controlled

sections (Beams) εs = εt = 0.005.

13

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

From equilibrium of internal forces,

∑Fx = 0 → C = T

c/εu = (d – c)/εs

c = dεu/(εu + εs)

For ductility in Tension Controlled sections (Beams)

and at failure εu = 0.003 (ACI R10.3.3),

c = dεu/(εu + εs) → c = 0.375d and, a = β1c = β10.375d

Therefore, when a = β10.375d, As = Asmax in equation (a). Hence equation

(a) becomes,

0.85fc′β10.375db = Asmaxfy

Asmax = 0.31875β1bd fc′/fy … (b)

ACI 318-14, 10.2.7.3 — Factor β1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc′ up to and

including 4000 psi. For strengths above 4000 psi, β1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05

for each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4000 psi, but β1 shall not be taken less than 0.65.

14

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Asmax = 0.31875 β1bd fc′/fy … (b)

′

Asmax = 0.27 𝑏𝑑

ρ= As / bd

Video of beam having reinforcement more than maximum reinforcement

15

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

provided at every section where tension reinforcement is

required by analysis.

a 3 bd

b bd

• Video of beam having reinforcement less than minimum reinforcement

16

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

Selection of Sizes

Calculation of Loads

Analysis

Design

Drafting

17

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

1. Selection of Sizes

Minimum depth of beams as per ACI 9.3.1

Simply supported l /16

One end continuous l /18.5

Both ends continuous l /21

Cantilever l /8

Where l is the span length of the beam

fy

multiplied by (0.4 + ,

).

Design Steps

2. Calculation of Loads

Loads are calculated as follows:

Wu = 1.2W D + 1.6W L

3. Analysis

The analysis of the member is carried out for ultimate load including

self weight obtained from size of the member and the applied dead

and live loads.

18

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

Assume “a”

a = Asfy/0.85fc′b

Perform trial and success procedure until same As value is obtained from two

consecutive trials.

c = 0.003 fc 0.85fc′

C = 0.85fc′ab

a = β1c

d la = d – a/2

h

M

T = Asfy

s = fy/Es T = Asfy

Stress Diagram Equivalent Stress Diagram

b

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I 37

Design Steps

4. Design

′

𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 0.27 𝑏𝑑 (for f′c ≤ 4000 psi)

𝐴𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3 𝑏𝑑 ≥ 𝑏𝑑

19

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

No of Bars Calculation

criteria which is discussed next.

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

given width is limited by bar diameter and spacing requirements

and is also influenced by stirrup diameter, by concrete cover

requirement, and by the maximum size of concrete aggregate

specified.

20

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

shall be 1-1.5 in. (ACI Code 20.6.3.1). Usually concrete clear

cover is taken as 1.5 in.

2,#6 bars

1.5” 18”

4,#6 bars

12”

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I 41

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

ACI Code 25.2 specifies that the minimum clear distance between

adjacent bars shall be at least the greatest of the nominal diameter

of the bars, 1 in and (4/3)dagg.

2,#6 bars

18”

1”

4,#6 bars

12”

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I 42

21

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

distance between layers must not be less than the greatest of 1.5

in.,1.5db, and (4/3)dagg, and the bars in the upper layer should be placed

directly above those in the bottom layer.

2,#6 bars

18”

12”

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I 43

Design Steps

2,#6 bars

4. Design 18”

4,#6 bars

Placement of bars:

2,#8 bars

Variation in diameter of bars in a single layer 12”

bar sizes, using, say, No. 8 and No. 6 bars together, but not Nos. 5 and 8.

Symmetry of bars

22

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

in a single layer

gives the maximum number

of bars that can be placed in

a single layer in beams,

assuming I.5 in. concrete

cover and the use of No.3

stirrups.

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

Minimum number of bars in a single layer

can be placed in a single layer, based on requirements for the

distribution of reinforcement to control the width of flexural

cracks. Table A.8 gives the minimum number of bars that will

satisfy ACI Code requirements.

23

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

Placement of bars:

Table A.8

Design Steps

4. Design

actual ‘d’ and actually placed amount of reinforcement.

ΦMn ≥ Mu

capacity check actual “d” is calculated as shown on next

slide.

24

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design Steps

4. Design

2,#6 bars

Flexure capacity check

If the assumed Effective depth “d” is 18”

15.5 in. The actual d can be calculated (3+2),#6 bars

by calculating actual ȳ.

y2

ȳ = 3.15 in y1

d= h- ȳ=18 – 3.15=14.85 in

12”

As= 5 x 0.44=2.2 in2

y1 =1.5+3/8+1/2(6/8)=2.25 in

a= Asfy/0.85 x f ′c x bw

y2= 1.5+ 3/8+6/8+1.5+1/2(6/8) = 4.5

a= 2.2 x 40/0.85 x 3 x 12 =2.87 in

5 x 0.44 x ȳ=3 x 0.44 x y1+2 x 0.44 x y2

ȳ = 3.15 in

Design Steps

5. Drafting

Based on the design, drawings of the structural members are prepared

showing the dimensions of member and detail of reinforcing bars.

25

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

Design the beam shown below as per ACI 318-14.

W L = 0.5 kip/ft

20′-0″

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 01: Sizes.

For 20′ length, hmin = l /16 = 20 x 12/16 = 15″

beam is taken as 12″

specifically the availability of formwork.

26

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 01: Sizes.

Depth of beam, h = 18″

h = d + ȳ; ȳ is usually taken from 2.5 to 3.0 inches

For ȳ = 2.5 in; d = 18 – 2.5 = 15.5″

Width of beam cross section (bw) = 12″

In RCD, Width of beam is usually denoted by bw instead of b

d 18”

12”

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I 53

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 02: Loads.

kips/ft

W u = 1.2W D + 1.6W L

27

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 03: Analysis.

Flexural Analysis:

1.67 kip/ft

16.7k

SFD

1002 in-kips

BMD

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

For ΦMn = Mu

ΦAsfy(d – a/2) = Mu

28

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

First Trial:

Assume a = 4″

a = Asfy/ (0.85fc′bw)

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Second Trial:

• a = 1.96 × 40/ (0.85 × 3 × 12) = 2.56 inches

Third Trial:

• As = 1002 / [0.9 × 40 × {15.5 – (2.56/2)}] = 1.95 in2

• a = 1.95 × 40/ (0.85 × 3 × 12) = 2.54 inches

“Close enough to the previous value of “a” so that As = 1.95 in2 O.K

29

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Asmax = 0.27 (fc′ / fy) bwd = 0.27 x (3/40) x 12 × 15.5 = 3.76 in2

30

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 04: Design.

Design for flexure:

Bar Placement: 5, #6 bars will provide 2.20 in2 of steel area which is

slightly greater than required.

Example 2.1

Solution:

Step No. 05: Drafting

2,#6 bars

18”

(3+2),#6 bars

12”

31

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.1

ACI: 2,#6 bars

Solution:

Step No. 06: Flexure capacity check 18”

(3+2),#6 bars

Effective depth “d” was initially assumed

as 15.5 in. At this stage actual d can be ȳ = 3.15 in

y2

y1

calculated by calculating actual ȳ.

12”

d= h- ȳ=18 – 3.15=14.85 in

y1 =1.5+3/8+1/2(6/8)=2.25 in

As= 5 x 0.44=2.2 in2

y2= 1.5+ 3/8+6/8+1.5+1/2(6/8) = 4.5

Example 2.1

Solution:

Design is ok!

32

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

3D Model

A

Spacer bar A

2,#6 bars

B L=20’

2,#6 bars

3,#6 bars

Section A-A 18” 18” Section B-B

Spacer bar

(3+2),#6 bars

12” 12”

3D Model

33

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Example 2.2

length of 30 ft and supporting a service dead load of 1.1 kip/ft and a

uniform service live load of 1.1 kip/ft in addition to its self weight.

Take fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi.

References

and Dolan.

34

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