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Chapter 14: -an exile of 1872

RIZAL IN LONDON (1888-1889)

-a practicing lawyer in London
HOME:  By the end of May, Rizal found a
1. To improve his knowledge of the modest boarding place at No. 37
English language. Chalcot Crescent, Primrose Hill.
2. To study and annotate Morga’s  Rizal was a boarder of the Beckett
Sucesos De Las Islas Filipinas. Family
3. London was a safe place for him to  Mr. Beckett, organist of St. Paul’s
carry on his fight against Spanish Church
Tyranny.  Mrs. Beckett (his wife)
TRIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC  2 sons and 4 daughters.
 Rizal met Gertrude Beckett the oldest
• Travel from New York to Liverpool. sister called “Gettie” or “Tottie” by
• He met many new friends inside the her friends
ship called the City of Rome.  Rizal met Dr. Reinhold Rost, the
librarian of the Ministry of Foreign
• While on the board, Rizal entertained Affairs and an authority on Malayan
the American and European language and customs.
passengers with his marvelous skill of  He called Rizal “a pearl of a man”
the yoyo as a defensive weapon. (una perla de hombre)
• Rizal’s discussion on social and  He frequently visited Dr. Regidor and
political issues with American discussed with him problems
publishers. pertaining to Philippines affairs.
 He spent Sundays in the house of Dr.
May 24, 1888 Rost, with whom he had many
- Rizal arrived at Liverpool, England pleasant discussions on linguistics.
 He also played cricket (popular
- He spent his night at Adelphi Hotel. English game)
“Liverpool is a big and beautiful city and its  And boxed with Dr. Rost’s sons.
celebrated port is worthy of its great fame.
The entrance is magnificent and the
customhouse is quite good.” NEWS FROM HOME (MANILA)
Bad News
 Persecution of the Filipino patriots
who signed the “Anti Friar Petition
On May 25, 1888, Rizal went to London. 1888”. Which was presented by
Doroteo Cortes, prominent Mason
He stayed as a guest at the home of: and lawyer, to Jose Centeno, Civil
Dr. Antonio Ma Regidor.
Governor of the Province of Manila September 17, 1888
on March 1, 1888.
 Rizal create a letter to Blumentritt:
 It was addressed to the Queen Regent
of Spain requesting the explusion of “Morga’s work is an excellent book; it can
the friars, including Archbishop be said that Morga is a modern scholarly
Pedro Payo (Dominican) of Manila explorer. He does not have the superficiality
 Persecution of the Calamba tenants. and exaggeration which are found among
 For their courage to petition the Spaniards today; he writes very simple but
government for agrarian reforms. one has to read between the lines...”
 Furious attacks on Rizal by Senators
Salamanca and Vida in the Spanish
Cortes and by Dasenganos Mariano Ponce- Rizal’s friend who lives in
(Wenceslao Retana) and Quioquiap Barcelona, Spain.
(Pablo Feced) in Spanish
- He urged him (Rizal) to edit a
newspaper which would defend the Filipino
 Rizal’s brother-in-law, Manuel T.
interests from the scurrilous attacks of their
Hidalgo, husband of Saturnina, was
Spanish detractors.
exiled by Governor General Weyler
to Bohol without due process of law. October 12, 1888
 A friend of Rizal, Laureano Viado, a
“I am dedicated day and night to
medical student at the University of
certain studies, so that I do not want to edit
Santo Tomas, was arrived and jailed
any newspaper.”
in Bilibid Prison because of the copies
of the Noli were found in his house.
 Rev. Vicente Garcia’s defense of the September 1888, Rizal visited Paris for a
Noli against the attacks of the friars. week in order to search for more historical
materials in the Bibliotheque Nationale.
-He heard this good news
from Mariano Ponce. Juan Luna and his wife Paz Pardo De Tavera-
they accept Rizal to their house and proud of
• On January 7, 1891, he wrote to their young son named Andres.
Father Garcia, expressing his
personal thanks. December 11, 1888
 Rizal visits Madrid and Barcelona to
communicate with the people and
investigate the political situation in
 Sucesos De Las Islas Filipinas which the reforms for the Philippines.
(Historical Events of the Philippine
For the first time, he meet Marcelo H. Del
Pilar and Mariano Ponce- the two titans of the
-published in Mexico in 1609 Propaganda Movement.
CHRISTMAS IN LONDON (1888) of the Asociacion La Solidaridad, on January
28, 1889.
December 24, 1888
1. In young associations the spirit of
 Rizal returned to London and spent tolerance ought to prevail when it
Christmas and New Year’s Day with concerns trifles that do not affect the
the Becketts.
essential part of a thing; in the
To his friend Blumentritt, Rizal send a discussions, the conciliatory tendency
Christmas gift a bust of Emperor Augustus ought to dominate before the
which he had made. tendency to oppose. No one should
resent defeat. When any opinion is
To another friend, Dr. Carlos Czepelak, Rizal rejected, its author, instead of
gave a Christmas gift a bust of Julius Cesar. despairing and withdrawing, should
on the contrary wait for another
occasion in which justice may be done
Rizal’s landlady, Mrs. Beckett, knowing of him. The individual should give way
his interest in magic, gave him a Christmas to the welfare of the society.
gift a book entitled
2. 2. A great deal of integrity and much
“The Life and Adventures of Valentine Vox, good will. No member should expect
The Ventriloquist” rewards or honor for what he does.
He who does his duty in the
expectation of rewards, is usually
RIZAL BECOMES LEADER OF disappointed, because almost no one
FILIPINOS IN EUROPE believes himself sufficiently
An association of Filipinos in Barcelona were rewarded. And so that there may not
planning to establish a patriotic society which be discontented or ill-rewarded
would cooperate in the crusade for reforms. members, it is advisable for each one
to do his duty just for its own sake and
“Asociacion La Solidaridad (Solidaridad at best expect to be later treated
Association)” unjustly, because in anomalous
countries, injustice is the proze for
Was inaugurated on December 31, 1888 with
those who fulfill their duties.
the following officers Galicano Apacible
(President), Graciano Lopez Jaena (Vice- Thrift, thrift, thrift.
President), Manuel Sta. Maira (Secretary),
Mariano Ponce (Treasurer), Jose Ma. Seriousness and equal justice for all.
Panganiban (Accountant) RIZAL AND THE LA SOLIDARIDAD
By unanimous vote of all the members, Rizal NEWSPAPER
was chosen honorary president. This was a On February 15, 1889, Garciano Lopez Jaena
recognition of his leadership among all founded the patriotic newspaper called La
Filipino patriots in Europe. Solidaridad in Barcelona Spain.
As the leader of his countrymen in Europe,
Rizal wrote a letter addressed to the members
La solidaridad aims: Rizal wrote the famous “Letter to the Young
Women of Malolos” (February 22, 1889) in
1. To work peacefully for political and
social reforms
2. To portray the deplorable conditions of He penned it, upon the request of Marcelo del
the Philippines so that the Spain may Pilar to praise the young ladies of Malolos for
remedy them their courage to establish a school where they
3. To oppose the evil forces of reaction and could learn Spanish, despite opposition of
medievalism Father Felipe Garcia, Spanish parish preist of
4. To advocate liberal ideas and progress Malolos
5. To champion the ligirimate aspiration of
the Filipino people to life, democracy and 1. A Filipino mother should teach her
happiness. children love of God, fatherland, and
Rizal’s letter for Jaena he advised him that
great care should be taken in publishing only 2. The Filipino mother should be glad,
the truth in La Solidaridad. like the Spartan mother, to offer her
sons in the defense of the fatherland
3. A Filipino woman should know how
to preserve her dignity and honor
Rizal’s first article in La Solidaridad was
4. A Filipino woman should educate
herself, aside from retaining her good
“Los Agricultores Filipinos (The racial virtues
Filipino Farmers)”
5. Faith is not merely reciting long
It was published on March 25, 1889. Six prayers and wearing religious
days after he left London for Paris. pictures, but rather it is living the real
Christian way, with good morals and
good manners.
Rizal received news on Fray Rodrigues
Dr. Rost, editor of “Trubner’s Record”, a
unabated attack on his Noli.
journal devoted to Asian studies, requested
La Vision Del Fray Rodriguez (The Vision of Rizal to contribute some articles.
Fray Rodriquez) which was published in
Rizal prepared two articles
Barcelona under his nom-de-plume “Dimas
Alang”. 1. Specimens of Tagal Folklore (May,
Rizal demonstrated two things:
2. Two Eastern Fables (June, 1889)
1. His profound knowledge of religion
2. His biting satire.
Rizal had a romantic interlude with the oldest AND THE UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION
of the three Beckett Sisters - Gertrude OF 1889
(Gettie). Gettie, as she was affectionally
o March 1889 – its difficult to a visitor
called, was a buxom english girl with brown
to find a living quarter
hair, blue eyes, and rosy cheeks.
o May 6, 1889 – Universal Exposition
Gertrude loves Rizal and his full attention is
only to Rizal. o Valentin Ventura
He helps Rizal mix colors for painting or clay – No. 45 Rue Maubeug
preparation for scaling.
– published his annotated edition of
Their friendship drifted towards romance. Morga’s book
Rizal affectionately called her “Gettie” and
she foundly called him “Pettie”. o Rizal lived in a little room with:

As their flirtation was fast approaching the  Capt. Justo Trinidad

point of no return. Rizal suddenly realized – former gobernadorcillo of
that he could not marry Gettie for he had Sta. Ana Manila & a refugee of Spanish
mission to fulfill in life. Tyranny
Rizal suppressed the passionate yearning of  Jose Albert
his heart, and decided to go away so that
Gettie may not forget him. – young student from Manila

 Before leaving London, Rizal o Bibliotheque Nationale

finished four sculpture works. (National Library)
- Prometheus Bond
- The Triumph of Death over Life o In his spare hours , Rizal dined at the
- The Triumph of Science over homes of:
Death  Pardo de Taveras
- A composite carving of The head
of the Beckett Sisters (gave as  Venturas
farewell gift to the Beckett sisters  Bousteads
 The Lunas
ADIOS, LONDON Pardo de Taveras
March 19, 1889 o Don Joaquin Pardo de Tavera
Rizal bade goodbye to the kind of Beckett
Family (particularly Gertrude) and left the
London for Paris.
o Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera – March 19, 1889
physician by vocation and philologist
o Members:
by avocation
Antonio and Juan Luna
o Dr. Felix Pardo de Tavera –
physician by vocation and sculptor by Lauro Dimayuga
Gregorio Aguilera
o Paz Pardo de Tavera – wife of Juan
Luna Julio Llorente

o Andres “Luling” – 1st child Fernando Canon

Guillermo Puatu
o “Maria de la Paz, Blanca, Laureana,
Hermenegilda Juana Luna y Pardo
de Tavera“
March 19, 1889- wrote a letter to
June 24, 1889 “ Today we have form a Kidlat Club.
• He wrote a letter to his family in Kidlat in tagalog means “lightning” and for
Calamba dated: the same reasons this club will last only
during the Exposition. We have thought of it
May 16, 1889 and formed it in one hour. It will disappear
also like lightning”
September 21, 1889
May 6, 1889
Amazed to see the Buffalo Bull show which
o Eiffel Tower
features American Indians.
- Alexander Eiffel
Brave Indians
o They pledged to excel in intellectual
o President Sadi Carnot of the third and physical prowess to win the
french republic admiration foreigners
o Felix R. Hidalgo – Practiced to used sword and
o Juan Luna
– Judo (self defense)
o Felix Pardo de Tavera
A mysterious society founded by Rizal
o Jose Rizal
o this secret society was mentioned in
only two letters:
Rizal’s letter to Jose Maria Basa, Paris,
September 21, 1889
Rizal’s letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar, Paris, o Printed by Garnier Freres
November 4, 1889
o Prologue was written by Professor
Dr. Leoncio Lopez- Rizal (gradnephew of o Bluementritt revelead Rizal’s error,
Rizal) namely:
“Redencion de Los Malayos” (1) Rizal commits the error of many
historians in appraising the events of the past
(Redemption of the Malays)
in the light of present standards
Patterned after Freemasonry
(2) Rizal’s attacks on the Church
“the members not knowing each were unfair and unjustified because the
other” abuses of the friars should not be condtrued
to mean that Catholicism is bad.
o Proved that were already civilized
Gregorio Aguilera before the advent of Spain
Mariano Ponce
 Clothes, government, laws, writing,
Jose Ma. Basa
literature, religion, arts, sciences and
Baldomero Roxas
commerce with neighboring Asian
Julio Llorente nations.
Marcelo H. del Pilar  Title page of Rizal’s annotated
edition of Morga reads:
Fr. Jose Maria Changco
o Aim:
“Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos,
 Propagation of all useful
knowledge – scientific, artistic,
literary, etc. – in the Philippines” o Three letters dated 1889– from
Bluementritt, B. Roxas and M. Ponce
 The redemption of the Malay
race o Research studies in
o Max Havelaar written by Multatuli – British Museum (London)
(pseudonym of E.D. Dekker)
– Bibliotique Nationale (Paris)
• Rizals colonization project in Borneo
o Knowledge in foreign language
• Letter to Blumentritt (February
o He acquired wide knowledge not only
of the Philippine history, but also the
o Outstanding achievements in Paris history of European colonization in
(1890) Asia.
o Wrote in the British Museum o Rizal wrote other works which
qualify him to be a real historian
– Filipinas dentro de Cien Anos o December 25, 1889 – planned to have
a sumptous dinner
(The Philippines Within a Century)
o He made a brief visit in London, it
– Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipinos
may be due in two reasons:
(The Indolence of the Filipinos)
o Mid of January 1890 – he was back
o January 14, 1889 – submitted this in Paris
idea to Bluementritt
o Epidemic of influenza was raging in
o To study the Philippines from the Europe
scientific and historical point of view
o The officers were follows
President: Dr. Fedinand Bluementritt
In Belgian, Brussels (1890)
Vice President: Mr. Edmund Plauchut
✣ Life in Brussels
Counsellor: Dr. Reinhold Rost
• Jose Alberto- Accompanied Rizal to move
Counsellor: Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor to Brussels.
Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal • 38 Rue Philippe Champagne- Midsized
boarding House where Rizal lived.
• Suzanne and Marie Jacoby- Sister who
August 1889 – scheduled the holding of
manage the boarding house.
Inaugural Convention
•Jose Alejandro- An engineering student
This college aims “to train and educate men
who replace Jose Alberto .
of good family and financial means in
accordance with the demands of modern • Give his full attention in writing his second
times and circumstances” novel entitled El filibusterismo as well as
articles in La Solidaridad and letters to his
Mr. Mariano Cunanan – a rich filipino
family and friends.
resident in Paris
• He spent part of his time in the medical
o Published in booklet form in
Barcelona, 1889
• Gymnastics, target practice and fencing at
o Dimas Alang (one of Rizal’s pen-
the armory.
• He wrote a letter to Antonio Luna
o Demonstrates Rizal’s:
• Jose Alejandro- Speak on Rizal's frugality
o History shows that the first radio-
telegraph signals received by Marconi
across the Atlantic was 1901 – twelve
years after the publication Rizal’s
Por Telefono
Articles published in La Solidaridad  Antonio Luna
1. “A La Defensa” (To La Defensa), April 30,  Pablo Mir Deas in the
1889 Barcelona newspaper, El
Pueblo Soberano
 Patricio de la Escosura- March 30,
1889 9. “Llanto y Risas” (Tears and Laughters),
November 30, 1889
2. “La Verdad Para Todos” (The Truth for
All), May 31, 1889  Denunciation about Spanish
racial Prejudice
 Defense against Spanish
charges that native Filipino 10. “Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude), January 15,
officials were ignorant and depraved.
 Governor General Valeriano
3. “Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo”, June
15, 1889
New orthography of Tagalog Language
 Exposes Barrantes' ignorance
on the Tagalog theatrical Art • In spite of Rizal's European
Education and his knowledge
4. “Una Profanacion” (A Profanacion), July
31, 1889 in foreign Language. He loved his own native
Mariano Herbosa – husband of Lucia, died of
cholera on May 23, 1889 • He is the first to Advocate the
filipinization of his native
5. “Verdades Nuevas” (New Truths), July 31,
1889 language.
 Vicente Belloc Sanchez – • The Tagalog letters k and w should be
published a letter in La Patria, used instead of the Spanish c and o
Madrid newspaper, on July 4, 1889 > Salacot to Salakot
6. “Crueldad” (Cruelty), August 15, 1889 > Arao to Araw
 Blumentritt (brilliant defense) ✣ New orthography of Tagalog
7. “Diferencias” (Differences), September
15, 1889 • September, 1886- In Leipzig, Rizal
adopted the
 “Old Truths” published in La
Patria on August 14, 1889 Filipinized Tagalog orthography
 Articles published in  Tagalog translations of Schiller’s
La Solidaridad Wilhelm Tell and
8. “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences), Andersen’s Fairy Tales
November 30, 1889
 Noli Me Tangere (Berlin, 1887)
✣ New orthography of Tagalog  Paciano, Antonio Lopez and
Language Silvestre Ubaldo – deported to
• April 15, 1890- Sobre la Nueva
Orthagrafia de la Lengua Tagala,  Manuel Hidalgo – banished for a
published in La Solidaridad. second time to Bohol

 Rules of the new Tagalog ortography • Rizal wrote to his sister Soledad on
June 6, 1890
 Gave credits to Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo
de Tavera, author of the El Sanscrito ✣ Presentiment of Death
en la Lengua Tagala
• In his moment of despair, Rizal had a
✣ Rizal critize Madrid Filipino for bad dreams during the nights in
Gambling Brussels when he was restless
because he was always thinking of his
• Received news from Juan Luna and unhappy family in Calamba.
Valentin Ventura
• June 11,1890- Share the
that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying presentiment of his early death to
the good name/image of their nation by M.H. del Pilar through a letter.
gambling too much, they told Rizal to do
something about it.
• May 28, 1890- Wrote to Marcelo H. ✣ Preparation to go home
Del pilar
• In the face of sufferings which
• Gambling Filipinos in Madrid- afflicted his family,Rizal planned to
Papa instead of Pepe go home

✣ Bad News from Home • Upon hearing that Graciano Lopez

Jaena was planning to go to Cuba, he
• The Calamba agrarian trouble was wrote to Ponce on July 9, 1890,
getting worse opposing Graciano’s plan of action
• The management of Dominican "We have only once to die, and if we
hacienda continuall increased the land do not die well, we lose the opportunity
rents until Don Francisco refused to which will not again be presented to us."
pay it anymore.
• July 18, 1890- Letter to Ponce about
• Dominican Order filed a suit in the his determination to go home
court to disposses the Rizal family of
their lands in Calamba. • All his friends, including

• Tenants including the Rizal family  Blumentritt

wer persecuted
 Jose Ma. Basa
 Ponce, were horrified by Rizal’s plan
to return to the Philippines
✣ Decision to go to Madrid Chapter 17:

• Rizal ignored the dire warning of his MISFORTUNES IN MADRID

• Paciano- Made Rizal change Rizal's FAMILY
 Asociacion Hispano-Filipina
• June 20, 1890 – Rizal wrote to M.H.
Formed in Madrid on January 12, 1889.
del Pilar about his service as a lawyer
It composed of Filipino and Spaniards
• July 29, 1890 – Rizal wrote a letter to
Ponce about the date of his arrival in
Madrid  Miguel Morayta (Rizal Professor in
University of Madrid)
✣ "To My Muse" (1890)
Felipe de la Corte
• During those sad days when he was
worried by family disasters, he wrote ➢ Asociacion Hispano-Filipina
a poem
 “ A Mi. . .” (To My Muse)
 Graciano Lopez Jaena
✣ Relationship with Petite Jacoby
 Marcelo H. del Pilar
• Two things brought happiness to
 Jose Rizal
Rizal, as he was preparing for his trip
to Madrid:  Antonio Luna
1. Summertime festival of Belgium which  Mariano Ponce
was celebrated in carnival style
 Jose M. Panganiban
2. Romance with Petite Jacoby
 Eduardo de Lete and a few others
• A pretty Belgian girl, niece of Rizal’s
 Miguel Morayta (Rizal Professor in
• Rizal was Lonely in strange county University of Madrid)
and Leonor Rivera was so far away.  Felipe de la Corte
• Found certain happiness in the
company of the Pretty Belgian girl ➢ LIBERAL SPANISH
• On the end of July 1890, Rizal left for NEWSPAPER
Madrid, Suzanne cried
• She wrote a letter to Rizal in French
MARCELO H. DEL PILAR Rizal’s friend, and talented co-worker in the
- Acted as his lawyer Propaganda Movement

Señor Fabie Died in Barcelona, August 19, 1890 after a

lingering illness
- Minister of Colonies
In the said eulogy, he praised Panganiban for
- To protest the injustices his extraordinary talent, intelligence and
committed by Governor General industry.
Valeriano Weyler and the
Dominicans against the Calamba



➢ Silvestre Ubaldo – ejectment by the ➢ August, 1890 – Rizal attended a

Dominican against Rizal and other social reunion of the Filipinos in
Calamba tenants Madrid

➢ Saturnina – their parents were ➢ Antonio Luna – was bitter because of

forcibly ejected from their home and his frustrated romance with Nellie
were living in Narcisa’s house. Bousted

Rizal sought the aid of the Liberal RIZAL CHALLENGES RETANA TO

Spanish Statesmen (Beccera and Maura) DUEL

➢ Blumentritt in Leitmeritz urged Rizal ➢ Wenceslao E. Retana – Rizal’s bitter

to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina enemy of the pen
(the Ruler of Spain during the ➢ Spanish Scholar, a press agent of the
minority of Alfonso XIII), friars in Spain.
➢ but he had neither powerful friends to ➢ One day he imprudently wrote in
bring him to the Queen's presence nor
gold to grease the palms of influential ➢ La Epoca – an anti- filipino
courtiers newspaper in madrid, asserting that
the family and friends of Rizal had
not paid their rents
➢ Infidelity of Leonor Rivera Editorial Policy of La Solidaridad under
M.H. Del Pilar – contrary to Rizal’s political
➢ Teatro Apolo – he lost his gold watch views
chain with a locket containing the
picture of Leonor Rivera, his beloved January 01, 1891, New Year’s Day
sweetheart. (Meeting)

➢ December, 1890, with the cold winds - Aversion of Rizal- Del Pilar break-up
of winter sweeping across the - to patch their differences and to intensify
shivering city – Rizal received a letter the Campaign for Reform
from Leonor, announcing her coming
marriage to an Englishman (the Responsible ( decided by 2/3 votes of the
choice of her mother) Filipino community)
- to direct the affairs of Filipino Commnity
➢ February 15, 1891 – Blumentritt
consoled Rizal - to determine the editorial Policy of La
➢ and after 3 months blumentritt sent
another comforting letter to Rizal - Del Pilar’s opposition was abandoned.
saying that Leonor is not the woman
for him
First week of February, 1891- Election for
Rizal- Del Pilar Rivalry Responsible
Towards the closing days of 1890 there arose Rizalistas vs Pilaristas
unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and M.H.
Rizal leads the election for the first 2 days
Del Pilar for Supremacy
Mariano Ponce appealed to his countrymen to
M.H. Del Pilar – Fearless Lawyer-
vote for Rizal
journalist, was gaining prestige in Madrid for
his vigorous editorials in La Solidaridad, Rizal won but he declined the coveted
which he came to own position
Purchased La Solidaridad (fortnightly ADIOS, MADRID
periodical) from Pablo Rianzares
And replaced Graciano Lopez Jaena as its
Rizal’s Idealism – to gain prestige for the
propaganda Movement and to win the respect
of the Spanish people, they must possess high
standards of morality, dignity, and spirit of
Biarritz Vacation and Romance with Nelly Rizal came to entertain considerable
Boustead (1891) affection for Nellie, the prettier and younger
daughter of his host. He found her to be a real
Rizal visited Biarritz to
Filipina, highly intelligent, vivacious in
• Seek solace for his disappointments in temperament, and morally upright.
Rizal wrote to his intimate friends, except
Disappointments in Madrid: Professor Blumentritt, of his love for Nellie,
and his intention to propose marriage to her.
1. Failure to get justice for his family February 4, 1891...
2. Rizal’s eulogy for Panganiban • M.H. del Pilar teased him about changing
3. Aborted duel with Antonio Luna the “o” in Noli to an “e”, which means Noli
to Nelly. Five days later, Tomas Arejola told
4. Rizal challenged Retana to duel Rizal: “In your letter you talk repeatedly of
5. Infidelity of Leonor Rivera Boustead who can be a madame or
mademoiselle... may I take the liberty for
6. Rizal and del Pilar rivalry making the following reflections...
WITH THE BOUSTEADS IN BIARRITZ “In your letter you talk repeatedly of
Beginning of February 1891... Boustead who can be a madame or
mademoiselle... may I take the liberty for
• Rizal arrived in Biarritz. making the following reflections... I know
• Was warmly welcomed by the Bousteads. that you are now free from your engagement
in the Philippines. On the other hand... your
Boustead Family permanence in our country is not advisable;
and even if it were so, they would never leave
Mr. Eduardo Boustead – Father, Rizal
you in peace at your home. Consequently, by
marrying there, I fear that instead of
Mrs. Boustead – Mother happiness, you would only find bitterness and
trouble. And what is the remedy?... See if
Adelina – Eldest daughter
Mademoiselle Boustead suits you, court her,
Nellie – Younger daughter, also called Nelly and marry her, and we are here to applaud
such a good act.”
Aunt Isabel – Mrs. Boustead’s sister
Antonio Luna, who had previously loved and
lost Nelly, wrote a letter encouraging Rizal to
February 11, 1891... woo and marry her. • With the
Rizal wrote from Biarritz to Mariano Ponce encouragement of his close friends, Rizal
on how the one-month vacation in Biarritz courted Nelly who, in return, reciprocated his
worked wonders for him. affection. Unfortunately...
Rizal’s marriage proposal failed for two
1. He refused to give up his Catholic faith and April 4...
be converted to Protestantism, as Nelly
From Paris, Rizal wrote to his friend, Jose
demanded, and
Ma. Basa, in Hong Kong
2. Nelly’s mother did not like Rizal as a son-
• Expressing his desire to go to the British
inlaw. Rizal, being a man of firm conviction,
colony and practice ophthalmology in order
to earn his living
Years later...
• Requested Basa to advance him the amount
• When he was living in exile in Dapitan, he for a first class steamer ticket from Europe to
refuted Father Pablo Pastell’s accusation that Hong Kong.
he was a Protestant.
Middle of April, 1891
• Although they could not get married, Rizal
Rizal was back in Brussels where he was
and Nellie parted as good friends. When she
happily received by
learned that Rizal was leaving Europe, she
sent him a farewell letter. • Marie and Suzanne Jacoby (his landladies)
• Petite Suzanne (the Belgium girl who loved
Frustrated in romance, Rizal found
consolation in writing. While wooing Nellie, Since abdicating his leadership in Madrid in
he kept working on his second novel which January, 1891, Rizal retired from the
he began to write in Calamba in 1887. Propaganda Movement, or reform crusade.
March 29, 1891 He desired to:
The eve of his departure from Biarritz to • Publish his second novel
Paris, he finished the manuscript of El
Filipibusterismo. Writing to Bluementritt on • Practice his medical profession, and
that date. • Make a more vigorous campaign for his
country’s redemption (when he became
financially independent)
May 1, 1891
March 30, 1891...
Rizal notified the Propaganda Movement
• Rizal bade farewell to the hospitable and authorities in Manila to cancel his monthly
friendly Bousteads. allowance (P50) and devote the money to
some better cause, such as the education of a
• He proceeded to Paris by train.
young Filipino student in Europe.
• He stayed at the home of his friend, Valentin
• His notification was addressed to Mr. A.L.
Ventura, on 4 Rue de Chateaudun
Lorena (pseudonym of Deodato Arellano).
RIZAL STOPPED WRITING FOR LA do not receive money, will you ask them to
SOLIDARIDAD send me money for the printing of my book?
If not, I will be leaving this place and be with
• Rizal ceased writing articles for La
Solidaridad simultaneously with his
retirement from the Propaganda Movement June 13, two weeks later...
for three reasons
• Rizal informed Basa “I am now negotiating
1. Rizal needed time to work on his book with a printing firm and as I do not know if it
will be printed here (Belgium) or in Spain, I
2. He wanted other Filipinos to work also
cannot send it to you as yet. In case it is not
3. He wanted unity in the work published here, I will send it to you by the
next mail... It is longer than Noli. It will be
• M.H. del Pilar himself realized the need for finished before the 16th of this month. If by
Rizal’s collaboration in both the Propaganda chance anything happens to me, I leave its
Movement and in the La Solidaridad because publication to Antonio Luna, including its
the enthusiasm for the reform crusade in correction... If my Noli is not published, I
Spain was declining. shall board to a train on the following day
August 7, 1891... when I receive your letter with the passage-
money; but if my book is published I shall
• M.H. del Pilar wrote to Rizal begging have to wait until it comes off the press.”
forgiveness for any resentment and
requesting him (Rizal) to resume writing for
the La Solidaridad.
• In Rizal’s reply, he wrote denying any
resentment and explaining why he stopped
writing for La Solidaridad.
In Brussels •
Rizal worked day after day revising the
finished manuscript of El Filibusterismo and
redeadid it for printing.
May 30, 1891- The revision was mostly
• Rizal wrote to Jose Ma. Basa “My book is
now ready to go to press... If I receive any
money you will surely have it in July. I am
writing it with more ardor than the Noli” and
although it is not so cheerful, at least it is
more profound and more perfect... In case I
Chapter 19 : El Filibusterismo 7. Rizal dedicate his novel to
Published in Ghent
All copies of first edition of fili were placed
in wooden boxes and shipped to Hong Kong,
1888- He made some changes in plot and but almost all the boxes were confisticated
wrote more chapters in Paris and Madrid. and all the books were lost.

MARCH 29, 1891- He finished the The book immediately became rare and
manuscript few available Ghent copies were sold at very
high prices, reaching as high as 400 per copy.
July 5, 1891 - Rizal left Brussels for Ghent
2 reasons why Rizal moved to Ghent:
The original manuscript of El Fili is
1, The printing cost in Ghent was preserved in the Filipiniana Division of the
cheaper than Brussels. Bureau of the Public Libraries, Manila.
2, To escape from the enticing attraction The title page of El Fili contains an
of Petite Suzzane. inscription written by Ferdinand Blumentritt.
Features that didn’t appear in the printed
Rizal Met Two Compatriots book.

1. Edilberto Evangelista (From Manila) • Foreword (Paunang Salita)

2. Jose Alejandro (from Pampanga) • Warning (Babala)
Noli and Fili Comparison
The Printing of El Filibusterismo Noli
RODRIGUEZ ARIAS • Romantic Novel
JOSE MARIE BASA - 200P • Work of the heart
August 6, 1891 - The printing had to be • A book feeling
• It has freshness, color, humor, and
September 18, 1891 - El Filibusterismo lightness
came off the press
• It consist 64 chapters
Rizal sent other complimentary copies to :
1. Blumentritt
2. Mariano Ponce • Political Novel
3. G. Lopez Jaena
• Work of the head
4. T.H Pardo de Tavera
5. Antonio luna • A book of thought
6. And other friends
• It contains bitterness, hatred, pain, 5. Unfinished novel written in
violence, and sorrow Spanish
- Ironic style
• It consist 38 chapters
- Contained in 2 notebooks
6. First notebook contains 31 written
September 22,1891 - Rizal wrote to
7. Second notebook contains 12
Blumentritt saying that he’s thinking of
written pages
writing third novel where ethics will play
principal role.
October 18, 1891 - Rizal boarded the
steamer Melbourne in Marseilles bound for
Hong Kong. He began writing the third novel
in Tagalog. But for some reason he did not
finish it.
 It has no title and consist of 44 pages
in Rizal’s handwriting.
 It is preserved in the National Library,


1. Makamisa
- A tagalog novel
- Written in light sarcastic style
- Incomplete with only 2 chapters
- Consists of only of 20 pages
2. Dapitan
- Written in Ironic Spanish
- He wrote it while in Dapitan to
depict the town life and
- Consists of 8 pages
3. A spanish novel about life in Pili,
- 147 pages
- No title
4. Without title, about Cristobal
- A youthful Filipino student from
- Consists of 34 pages
CHAPTER 21  He told Rizal to return on Wednesday
(June 29)
AUGUST 1887- Rizal’s first homecoming After his interview:
from abroad.
He visited his sisters in the city.
JUNE, 1892- Rizal’s bold return to Manila.
Narcisa- (Sisa, wife of Antonio Lopez)
Neneng- (Saturnina, wife of Manuel T.
“The battlefield is in the Philippines, there is Hidalgo)
where we should meet. There we will help one
another, there together we will suffer or
triumph perhaps.” Visiting friends in Central Luzon.
December 31, 1891 1. At 6:00 P.M. of the following day
(June 27) – Rizal boarded a train in
- He repeats this belief in a letter to
Tutuban Station and visited his
friends in Malolos, San Fernando,
- “I believe that La Solidaridad is
Tarlac, and Bacolor
no longer our battlefield; now it is
2. He was welcomed and lavishly
a new struggle… The fight is no
entertained at the homes of his
longer in Madrid.”


June 28 at 5:00 PM – He returned by train to
JUNE 26, 1892- – Rizal and his widowed Manila.
sister Lucia arrived in Manila.
He was shadowed by government spies who
AFTERNOON AT 4:00 O’CLOCK watched carefully his movement.
 He went to Malacañan Palace to seek The homes he had visited were seided by the
audience with the Spanish governor Guardia Civil.
General Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe
Founding of the Liga Filipina.
 He told Rizal to come back at that
 Evening of Sunday, July 3, 1892 –
night at 7:00 o’clock
Rizal attended a meeting of the
 He returned to Malacañan and was
patriots at the home of the Chinese-
able to confer with Governor General
Filipino mestizo,
 Who agreed to pardon his father but DOROTEO ONGJUANCO
not the rest of his family
 On Ylaya Street, Tondo, Manila.
 Pedro Serrano Laktaw (Panday Pira) Rizal explained the objectives of the Liga
 Domingo Franco (Felipe Leal)
He presented the Constitution of the Liga
 Jose A. Ramos (Socorro) Filipina
 Bonifacio Arevalo (Harem) 1. To unite the whole archipelago
 Deodato Arellano into one compact and homogenous
 Ambrosio Flores (Musa) 2. Mutual protection in every want
and necessity.
 Moises Salvador (Araw)
3. Defense against all violence and
 Luis Villareal injustice.
4. Encouragement of education,
 Faustino Villarruel (Ilaw) agriculture, and commerce.
 Mariano Crisostomo 5. Study and application of reforms.

 Numeriano Adriano (Ipil)

 Estanislao Legaspi
 Teodoro Plata
 Andres Bonifacio
 Apolinario Mabini (Katabay) EVERY MEMBER PAYS AN
 Juan Zulueta 1. ENTRANCE FEE OF P2


5. TO REPORT TO THE FISCAL July 7, 1892 – The Gaceta de Manila
ANYTHING THAT HE MAY published the story of Rizal’s arrest which
HEAR WHICH AFFECTS THE produced indignant commotion among the
LIGA Filipino people, particularly the members of
6. TO BEHAVE WELL AS BEFITS A the newly organized Liga Filipina.
 Contained Governor General
Despujol’s decree deporting Rizal to
“one of the islands in the South”.
 The Gubernatorial decree gave the
reasons for Rizal’s deportation.
As follows:
JULY 6 (WEDNESDAY) – Rizal went to
Malacañan palace to resume his series of 1. Rizal had published books and
interviews with the Governor General. articles abroad which showed
disloyalty to Spain and which were
He suddenly showed him some printed le
“frankly anti-Catholic” and
“imprudently anti-friar”
Pobres Frailes
2. A few hours after his arrival in Manila
(Poor Friars) “there was found in one of the
packages… a bundle of handbills
Under the
entitled Pobres Frailes in which the
authorship of FR.
patient and humble generosity of
Filipinos is satirized, and which
IMPRENTA DE LOS AMIGOS DEL accusation is published against the
PAIS, MANILA customs of the religious orders”.
3. His novel El Filibusterismo was
dedicated to the memory of three
 Rizal denied having those leaflets in “traitors” (Burgos, Gomez, and
either his or Lucia’s baggage. Zamora), and on the title page he
 Despite his denial and insistent wrote that in view of the vices and
demand for investigation in errors of the Spanish administration,
accordance with the due process of “the only salvation for the Philippines
law was separation from the mother
 He was placed under arrest and country.”
escorted to FORT SANTIAGO
4. 4. “The end which he pursues in his
RAMON DESPUJOL- NEPHEW AND efforts and writings is to tear from the
AID OF GOVERNOR GENERAL loyal Filipino breasts the treasures of
DESPUJOL our holy Catholic faith”.
Shortly after midnight of July 14 Rizal could live at the Parish convent on
(12:30 AM of July 15, 1892) - Rizal was the following conditions:
brought under heavy guard to the steamer
1. “That he, publicly retract his errors
Cebu which was sailing for Dapitan.
concerning religion…
 Under Captain Delgras 2. Make statements Pro-Spanish
 Departed at 1:00 am July 15 3. “That he perform church rites and
 - Sailing South, passing Mindoro make confession of his past life.”
and Panay 4. “That he conduct himself in an
 - Reaching Dapitan on Sunday, exemplary manner as a Spanish
the 17th of July, at 7:00 in the subject and a man of religion.”

Captain Ricardo Carnicero- Spanish

CAPTAIN DELGRAS Commandant/warden
CAPTAIN  warm & friendly
RICARDO CARNICERO  gave complete freedom to Rizal
 gave good reports to Gov. Despujol
Spanish commandant
 reporting only once a week
of Dapitan.
 permitted Rizal to ride his chestnut
July 17, 1892 (same night) horse
Rizal began his exile in lonely Dapitan which A Don Ricardo Carnicero- poem- Aug.
would last until July 31, 1896, a period of 26,1892
four years.
September 21, 1892- Butuan
 Lottery Ticket No. 9736
Exile in Dapitan 1892-1896  P20,000
• Dapitan- Mindanao
• under the jurisdiction of Jesuits Debate on religion
Beginning of exile in dapitan - started when Fr. Pastells sent him
a book by Sadra
CEBU- steamer which brought Rizal to
- total of four letters
- revealed his anti- catholic ideas
FATHER PABLO PASTELLS- Superior which he acquired in Europe
of the Jesuit Society in the Philippines
parish priest of Dapitan Letter to Blumentritt - January 20, 1890
“I want to hit the friars, but only friars who - told how he live there in Dapitan
utilized religion not only as a shield, but also
as a weapon, castle, fortress, armor, etc.; I
was forced to attack their false and NOV 3, 1893- Rizal’s Encounter with the
superstitious religion in order to fight the Friar’s Spy
enemy who hid himself behind it.”
- Offered confidential courier
- Captain Juan Sitges arrested P.M
Rizal Challenges a Frenchman to a Duel
- Juan lardet (ANTONIO
- Flared up in anger and challenged - hired by Recollect friars to a
Lardet to a duel secret mission- to incriminate
Rizal in the revolutionary
- Captain Carnicero told Lardet to movement
make an apology - CAGAYAN DE MISAMIS
- March 30, 1893- letter of apology


Father Antonio Obach- cura of Dapitan
Father Jose Vilaclara- cura of Dipolog-
Both were instructed to bring back Rizal in
 He operated his mother’s right
Estudios sobre la lengua tagala
Don Ignacio Tumarong- ₱3,000
Studies of Tagalog Language
Englishman- ₱500
Don Florencio Azcarraga- Cargo of sugar
August 1893- mother; sisters Trinidad,
Maria, Narcisa; and nephews Teodosio,
Estanislao, Mauricio and Prudencio
Water System in Dapitan-
he has 3 houses:
 expert surveyor
own house, school, hospital  Reading of engineering books

letter to Blumentritt
- December 19, 1893
Mr. H.F. Cameron The Mother’s Revenge
 comes from a little mountain stream statuette representing the mother-dog
across the river from Dapitan killing the crocodile.

Rizal as Teacher BUST OF FATHER GUERRICO- one of

his Ateneo professors
• 1893-1896- established school in
Talisay near Dapitan
• did not pay tuition instead they work Rizal as a Farmer
in projects for the community
• bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay
• 2:00 pm- 4:00 pm
• cacao, coffee, sugarcane, coconuts
• Reading, Writing, Language (Spanish and fruit trees
And English), Geography, History,
Mathematics, Industrial Work,
Nature Study, Morals and Ramon Carreon - lime manufacturing,
Gymnastics fishing, copra and hemp industries
HYMN TO TALISAY- poem for his pupils
to sing  improve farm products, obtain better
outlets, collect funds
BAROTO- explored jungles and coasts
 to break the Chinese monopoly
Conchology- 346 shells 203 species
b) Wooden machine (For making
22 languages he know: BRICKS)

1. Tagalog, Ilokano, Bisayan,

Subanun, Spanish, Latin, Greek,
My Retreat ‘Mi Retiro’ - About his serene
English, French, German, Arabic,
life as an exile in Dapitan
Malay, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Dutch,
Catalan, Italian, Chinese,
Japanese, Portuguese, Swedish and
Josephine Bracken
 Irish girl
 born in Hongkong
 Parents: James Bracken and Elizabeth ADIOS DAPITAN
Jane MacBride
“I have been in that district four years,
 adoptive father: Mr. George Taufer
thirteen days and a few hours.”
 Josephine, Josephine- POEM FOR
Chapter 23: Last Trip Abroad (1896)
Rizal’s four-year exile in Dapitan came
 Rizal and Josephine was expecting a
to an end.
 Unfortunately, Rizal played a prank July 31 1896- He left Dapitan on board
frightening her. the “Espana”
 And gave birth to an 8-month baby
Rizal’s Stopovers
boy named Francisco.
 Dumaguete
- Rizal visited Herrero Regidor, his
Rizal and the Katipunan friend and the judge of the
Dr. Pio Valenzuela - emissary to Dapitan
- He also visited Periquet and
to inform Rizal about the revolution
Rufina Families.
 Cebu
June 15 - left Manila, rode the steamer - Rizal went to the house of
Venus Attorney Mateos.
blind man named Raymundo Mata - “I did two operations of
strabotonomy, one operation on
the ears & another of tumor.”
Rizal objected Bonifacio’s project
Aug 3, 1896- He left Cebu going to Ilo Ilo.
1. People are not ready for a revolution
August 4- he arrived to Ilo ilo. He went
2. arms and funds must be collected shopping and visites Molo.
first before raising a revolution
Ilo ilo – Capiz – Romblon - Manila

assigned in Army of Operations to the

Rizal Misses Ship Going to Spain
Medical Corps in Cuba
Aug 6, 1896 – Espana arrived at Manila Bay
Isla De Luzon – Departed Aug 5, 1896 at
The Song of the Traveler- a heart-
warming poem written when he finally
had the chance to travel to Cuba Governor General Ramon Blanco –
ordered to transfer Rizal the same day to a
July 31, 1896- Midnight
Spanish cruiser “Castilla”
Enrique Santalo – Gallant Captain
“… not a prisoner but a guest detained on September 3, 1896 – his last trip to Spain
board." began.
August 6 – September 2, 1896 Don Pedro Roxas – Rich Manila creole,
industrialist and friend
- Rizal stayed on the cruiser Castilla
Periquin – son of Don Roxas
Rizal in Singapore
Out Break of the Philippine Revolution
September 7, 1896- Isla de Panay arrived at
August 19, 1869 – when Father Mariano Gil
discovered the plot of Katipunan
Rizal went sightseeing and shopping.
August 26, 1869 – Bonifacio and the
Katipunan raised the Cry of Revolution  Don Pedro Roxas advised Rizal to
“Sigaw sa Balintawak” stay in Singapore to take
advantage of the protection of the
August 30, 1869 – Bonifacio & Jacinto
British law.
attacked San Juan
 Don Manuel Camus urged Rizal
Governor General Blanco proclaimed a to stay at Singapore to save his
state of war for rising in arms against life.
Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna,
Victim of Spanish Duplicity
Pampanga, Nueva Ecija & Tarlac
Rizal was worried for 2 reason:  Governor General Blanco secretly
conspiring with the Minister of
1. The violent revolution which he War and Colonies for Rizal’s
sincerely believed to be a premature destruction.
and would cause only much suffering
and terrible loss of human life.  … one of his greatest mistake was
trusting Governor General Blanco
2. Arouse Spanish vengeance against all
Filipino patriots.
Departure for Spain Rizal Arrested Before Reaching Barcelona

August 30, 1896 – Rizal received 2 letters  September 8 – Isla de Panay left
from Governor General Blanco for the Singapore at 1:00p.m and he
Minister of War and Minister of Colonies continue to voyage towards
September 2, 1896 – Rizal wrote a letter to
his mother.  September 25 – he saw the
steamer leave the Suez Canal, full
And he transferred to Isla de Panay , a of Spanish troops.
steamer that is sailing for Barcelona, Spain
 September 27 – a telegram from
arrived reporting the execution of
Francisco Roxas, Genato and CHAPTER 24: LAST HOMECOMING
 September 28 – a passenger told YEAR 1896
Rizal that he would be arrested
Rizal's homecoming in 1896, the last in his
and would be sent to prison in
life, was his saddest return to his beloved
Ceuta (Spanish Morocco),
native land. He knew he was facing the
supreme test. The trial that was held shortly
Rizal wrote to Blumentritt after his homecoming was one of history's
mockeries of justice.
 “… I have offered to serve as a
physician, risking life in the A Martyr's Last Homecoming
hazards… and in reward they are
 Since leaving Barcelona on Tuesday,
sending me to prison!!”
October 6,1896, Rizal recorded the
 September 30, 1896 – he was events in his diary. He was given a
officially notified by Captain good cabin and was courteously
Alemany that he should stay in his treated by the army officers. On
cabin until further orders from October 8, Rizal was told by the
Manila. officer that the Madrid newspapers
were full of stories about bloody
Arrival in Barcelona as a Prisoner revolution in the Philippines and were
 September 30, 1896 – steamer blaming him for it. He thanked God
anchored at Malta for giving him the chance to return in
order to confront his slanderers and
 October 3, 1896 – 10:00p.m vindicate his name.
when Isla de Panay arrived at
Barcelona. Confiscation of Rizal's Diary

 General Eulogio Despujol – new It was known to the Spanish

ship captain & military authorities on Board, the Colon that Rizal
commander of Barcelona was keeping track of the daily events in his
diary. Not only their curiosity, but also their
 October 6, 1896 – when Rizal suspicion was aroused, for they feared there
was escorted to prison-fortress might be something seditious or treasonable
Montjuich. written. On October 11 before reaching the
Port Said, Rizal's diary was taken away and
 2:00pm that day he had an
was scrutinized by the authorities. Nothing
interview with General Despujol
imcriminating was found in it's contents. On
telling that he would shipped back
November 2, the diary was returned to him.
to Manila.
Rizal was not able to record the events from
 October 6, 1896 – 6:00p.m when Monday, October 12 to Sunday, November 1.
Colon left Barcelona with Rizal On November 2 he wrote about some
on Board. incidents happened on the dates he was not
able to write in his diary.
Unsuccessful Rescue in Singapore a grueling five-day investigation. He
answered the questions asked by the
News of Rizal's predicament reached his
Judge Advocate but he was not
friends in Europe and Singapore. From
permitted to confront those who
London, Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto
testified against him.
Lopez dispatched frantic telegrams to Hugh
Fort, English lawyer in Singapore, to rescue Two kinds of evidence were presented
Rizal from the Spanish steamer when it against Rizal, namely documentary and
reached Singapore by means of writ of testimonial. The documentary consisted of
habeas corpus. The crux of Mr. Fort's legal fifteen exhibits.
contention was that Rizal was "illegally
. A letter of Antonio Luna to Mariano Ponce,
detained" on the Spanish steamer.
dated Madrid, October 16, 1888, showing
Unfortunately, Chief Justice Loinel Cox Rizal's connection with the Filipino reform
denied the writ on the ground that the Colon campaign in Spain.
was carrying Spanish troops to the
2. A letter of Rizal to his family, dated
Philippines. Hence, it is a warship of a
Madrid, August 20, 1890, stating that the
foreign power.
deportations are good for they will encourage
the people to hate tyranny.
Arrival in Manila 3. A letter from Marcelo H. del Pilar to
Deodato Arellano, dated Madrid, January
• On November 3, the Colon reached
7,1889, implicating Rizal in the Propaganda
Manila. Rizal was quietly transferred
campaign in Spain.
under heavy guard from the ship to
Fort Santiago.Meanwhile, the 4. A poem entitled Kundiman, allegedly
Spanish authorities fished for written by Rizal in Manila on September 12,
evidence against Rizal. Many Filipino 1891.
patriots, including Deodato Arellano,
5. A letter of Carlos Oliver to an
Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Moises Salvador,
unindentified person, dated Barcelona,
Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco,
September 18,1891, describing Rizal as the
Temoteo Paez, and Pedro Serrano
man to free the Philippines from Spanish
Laktaw were brutally tortured to
implicate Rizal. Rizal's own brother,
Paciano was arrested and cruelly 6. A Masonic document, dated Manila,
tortured but he never signed any February 9,1892, honoring Rizal for his
damaging statement incriminating his patriotic services.
younger brother..
7. A letter signed Dimasalang (Rizal's
Preliminary Investigation pseudonym) to Tenluz (Juan Zulueta's
pseudonym), dated Hongkong, May 24,
• On November 20, the preliminary
1892, stating that he was preparing a safe
investigation began. Rizal appeared
refuge for Filipinos who may be persecuted
before the Judge Advocate, Colonel
by the Spanish authorities.
Francisco Olive. He was subjected to
8. A letter of Dimasalang to an unindentified del Rosario, Jose Reyes, Moises Salvador,
committee, dated Hongkong, June 1, 1892, Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Deodato
soliciting the aid of the committee in the Arellano, Ambrosio Salvador, Pedro Serrano
"patriotic work". Laktaw, Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Antonio
Salazar, Francisco Quison, and Timoteo
9. An anonymous and undated letter to the
Editor of the Hongkong Telegraph, censuring
the banishment of Rizal to Dapitan. On November 26, after the preliminary
investigation, Col. Olive transimitted the
10. A letter of Ildenfonso Laurel to Rizal,
records of the case to Governor General
dated Manila, September 3, 1892, saying that
Ramon Blanco, and the letter appointed Cap.
the Filipino people look up to him (Rizal) as
Rafael Dominguez as special Judge Advocate
their savior.
to institute the corresponding action against
11. A letter of Ildenfonso Laurel to Rizal, Rizal.
dated Manila, September 17, 1893, informing
Peña submitted the ff. recommendations: (1)
an unidentified correspondent of the arrest
the accused be immediately brought to trial:
and banishment of Doroteo Cortes and
(2) he should kept in prison; (3) an order of
Ambrodio Salvador.
attachment be issued against his property to
12. A letter of Marcelo H. del Pilar to Don the amount of one million pesos as
Juan A. Tenluz (Juan Zulueta), dated Madrid, indemnity; and (4) he should be defended in
June 1,1893 recommending the court by an army officer, not by a civilian
establishment of a special organizartion, lawyer
independent of Masonry, to help the cause of
Rizal Chooses His Defender
the Filipino people.
On December 8, Feast Day of the Immaculate
13. Transcript of a speech of Pingkian
Conception, a list of 100 first and second
(Emilio Jacinto), in a reunion of the
lieutenants in the Spanish Army was
Katipunan on July 23, 1893, im which the
presented to Rizal, he chose Don Luis Taviel
following cry was uttered "Long live the
de Andrade, 1st Lieutenant of the Artillery.
Philippines! Long live Liberty! Long live
Upon being notified by the authorities that he
Doctor Rizal! Unity!"
was chosen to defend the accused, he gladly
14. Transcript of a speech of Tik-Tik (Jose accepted the task.
Turiano Santiago) in the same Katipunan
Reading of Information of Charges to the
reunion, where in the Katipuneros shouted:
"Long live the eminent Doctor Rizal! Death
to the oppressor nation!" On December 11, the information of charges
was formally read to Rizal in his prison cell,
15. A poem by Laong Laan (Rizal), entitled
with his counsel present. He was accused
A Talisay, in which the author makes the
being "the principal organizer and the living
Dapitan schoolboys sing that they know how
soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder
to fight for their rights.
of societies, periodicals and books dedicated
The testimonial evidence consisted of the oral to fomenting and propagating ideas of
testimonies of Martin Constantino, Aguedo rebellion". Rizal raises no objection but
pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion. members of the military court, dressed in
He waived the right to amend or make further their respective army uniforms, Dr. Rizal, Lt.
statements already made. Taviel de Andrade, Capt. Rafael Dominguez,
Lt. Enrique de Alcocer and the spectators.
Among the spectators were Josephine
Dominguez forwarded the papers of the Rizal Bracken, some newspapermen, and many
case to Malacañan Palace on December 13, Spaniards.
the same day when General Camilio G. de
The trial was opened by Judge Advocate
Polavieja, with the help of the powerful
Dominguez who explained the case against
Dominican friars, became Governor General
Rizal. After him, Prosecuting Attorney
of the Philippines, succeeding General
Alcocer summarized the charges against
Rizal and urged the court to give the verdict
Rizal's Manifesto to His People of death to the accused. After, Defense
Counsel Taviel de Andrade took the floor and
On December 15, Rizal wrote a manifesto to read his eloquent defense of Rizal.
his people appealing to them to stop the
necessary shedding of blood and to achieve When the defender took his seat, the court
their liberties by means of education and asked Rizal whether he had anything to
industry. Fortunately, Judge Advocate say. He further proved his innocence by
General Nicolas de la Peña recommended to twelve points:
Governor General Polavieja that the
1. He could not be guilty of rebellion, for he
manifesto be suppressed.
had advised Dr. Pio Valenzuela in Dapitan
not to rise in revolution.

Rizal's Saddest Christmas 2. He did not correspond with the radical,

revolutionary elements.
December 25,1896, his last Christmas on
earth, was the saddest in Rizal's life. He was 3. The revolutionists used his name without
in despair for, he had no illusions about his his knowldege. If he were guilty he could
fate. Brooding over his hopeless case, he have escaped in Singapore.
wrote a letter to Lt. Taviel de Andrade, asking
4. If he had a hand in the revolution, he could
if he could speak to Rizal before Rizal appear
have escaped in a Moro vinta and would not
to the court
have built a home, a hospital, and a bought
lands in Dapitan.

The Trial of Rizal 5. If he were the chief of the revolution, why

was he not consulted by the revolutionist?
Rizal was tried by a military court
composed of alien military officers. He was 6. It was true he wrote the by-laws of the La
prejudged; he was considered guilty before Liga Filipina, but this is only a civic
the actual trial. At 8:00 a.m., December 26, association - not a revolutionary society.
1896, the court-martial of Rizal started in the
military building called Cuartel de España.
The present in the courtroom were the seven
7. The La Liga Filipina did not live long, for the morning of December 30 at Bagumbayan
after the first meeting he was banished to Field
Dapitan and it died out.
8. If the Liga was reorganized nine months
Chapter 25 : Martyrdom at Bagumbayan
later, he did not know about it.
As a Christian and a hero-martyr, he was
9. The Liga did not serve the purpose of the
serenely resigned to die for his beloved
revolutionists, otherwise they would not have
supplanted it with the Katipunan.
10. If it were true that there were some bitter
comments in Rizal's letters, it was because  “ Pearl of the Orient ” in an article
they were written in 1890 when his family entitled
was being persecuted, being dispossessed of
houses, warehouses, lands, etc. and his  “ Unfortunate Philippines “ published
brother and all his brothers-in-law were in
deported.  The Hongkong Telegraph
11. Hid life in Dapitan had been exemplary as  September 24, 1892
the politico-military commanders and
missionary priests could attest.
12. It was not true that the revolution was Last Hours of Rizal
inspired by his one speech at the house of December 29, 1896
Doroteo Ongjungco, as alleged by witness
whom he would like to confront. His friends 6:00 A.M
knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why Captain Rafael Dominguez
did the Katipunan send an emissary to
Dapitan who has unkown to him? Because  Who was designated by Governor
those who knew him were aware that he General Camilo Polavieja
would never sanction any violent movement.  Read the death Sentence to Rizal- to
be shot at the back by a firing squad
After a short deliberation, the military at 7:00 A.M in Bagumbayan (Luneta)
court unanimously voted for the sentence of
death. On the same day (December 26th), the 7:00 A.M
court decision was submitted to Governor An hour after reading the death sentence,
General Polavieja. Rizal was moved to the prison chapel, where
he spent his last moments.

Polavieja Signs Rizal's Execution Father Miguel Saderra Mata

On December 28th, Polavieja (Rector of Ateneo Municipal)

approved the decision of the court-martial Father Luis Viza
and ordered Rizal to be shot at 7:00 o'clock in
(Jesuit Teacher).
7:15 A.M- Rector Saderra left (Jesuit missionary in Dapitan who had
befriended Rizal during the latter’s exile)
Santiago Mataix
Father Luis Viza
 Spanish Journalist
 Reminded Fr. Viza of the Statuette of
the Sacred Heart of Jesus which he  Who interviewed Rizal for his
had carved with his pen knife as an newspaper EL Heraldo de Madrid.
Ateneo Student.
 Fr. Viza, anticipating such
12:00 A.M. (noon) to 3:30 P.M
reminiscence, got the statuette from
his pocket and gave it to Rizal. The  Rizal was left alone in his cell. He
Hero happily received it and placed it took his lunch, after which he was
on his writing table. busy writing. It was probably during
this time when he finished his
farewell poem
8:00 A.M
 Hid it inside his alcohol cooking stove
 Fr. Antonio Rosell- Rizal invited
(not lamp as some biographers erroneously
him to join him at breakfast, which he
 Paz Pardo de Tavera ( Wife of Juan
 Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade- Rizal’s
Luna) during his visit to Paris in 1890.
defense counsel) Rizal thanked him
for his gallant services.

Kusinilya de Alkohol
9:00 A.M Mi Ulitimo Adios Ni Jose Rizal 1896
 Fr. Federico Faura
 Rizal reminded him that he said that
(Rizal) would someday lose his head 12:00 A.M. (noon) to 3:30 P.M
for writing the Noli. “Father,” Rizal At the same time he wrote his Last Letter to
remarked, “You are indeed a Professor Blumentritt (his best friend) in
Prophet”. German, as follows:
Prof. Ferdinand Bluemenritt:
10:00 A.M My Dear Brother:
Father Jose Vilaclara When you receive this letter, I
(Rizal’s teacher at the Ateneo) shall be dead. Tomorrow at seven, I shall be
shot; but I am innocent of the crime of
Vicente Balaguer rebellion.
I am going to die with a  Trinidad understood. This
tranquil conscience. “something” was Rizal’s Farewell
Goodbye, my best, my dearest
friend, and never think ill of me.  So it came to pass that she was able
to smuggle the hero’s last and greatest
poem – a priceless gem of Philippine
Fort Santiago, December 29,1896. Literature.

(Signed) Jose Rizal

Mi Ulitimo Adios Ni Jose Rizal 1896- A
Regards to the entire family, to Sra. Priceless Gem of Philippine Literature.
Rosa, Loleng, Conradito, Federico.
I am leaving a book for you as a last
After the departure of Doña Teodora and
remembrance of mine
a) Father Estanislao March
3:30 P.M b) Father Vilaclara
c) Father Rosell
Father Balaguer
 He returned to Fort Santiago and
discussed with Rizal about his 6:00 P.M
retraction of the ant-Catholic ideas in
 Rizal had his last supper.
his writings and membership in
Masonry.  Captain Dominguez- He informed
Captain Dominguez who was with
him that he forgave his enemies,
4:00 P.M including the military judges who
condemned him to death.
Doña Teodora
 Rizal knelt down before her and
kissed her hands, begging her to 9:30 P.M
forgive him.
Don Gaspar Cestaño
 Both mother and son were crying as
(The fiscal of the Royal Audencia of
the guards separate them.
 As a gracious host, Rizal offered
 Entered the cell to fetch her mother, him the best chair in the cell.
as they were leaving, Rizal gave to
 After a pleasant conversation, the
Trinidad the Alcohol Cooking Stove,
fiscal left with a good impression of
whispering to her in English “There
is something inside ”.
Rizal’s intelligence and noble It is likewise irrelevant because it does not
character. matter at all to the greatness of Rizal.
Whether he retracted or not, the fact remains
that he was the greatest Filipino hero.
10:00 of the night of december 29th
 This also applies to the other
Archbishop Bernadino Nozaleda controversy as to whether Rizal
married Josephine Bracken before
 The draft of the retraction sent by execution or not.
anti-Filipino Archbishop Bernadino
Nozaleda (1890-1903) was submitted  Why argue on this issue.
by Father balaguer to Rizal for
 Whether or not Rizal married
signature, but the hero rejected it
Josephine in Fort Santiago, Rizal
remains just the same- a hero-martyr
 It was too long and;
 He did not like it
3:00 o’clock in the morning of December
30, 1896

10:00 of the night of december 29th Doña Teodora

 According to Father Balaguer’s  Rizal heard Mass
testimony, he showed Rizal a shorter
 Confessed his Sins
retraction which was prepared by
Father Pio Pi, superior of the Jesuit  Took Holy Communion
Society in the Philippines, which was
acceptable to Rizal.
5:30 A.M
 After making some changes in it,
Rizal then wrote his retraction, in  He took his Last breakfast on
which he abjured Masonry and his Earth
religious ideas which were anti-
Catholic.  He wrote two letters:

 This retraction of Rizal is now a - To his family

controversial document, for the - His older brother Paciano
Rizalists scholars, who are either  Josefa
Masons or anti-Catholic , claim it to  Josephine Bracken
be forgery, while the Catholic - With tears in her eyes,
Rizalists believe it to be genuine. bade him farewell.
- For the last time, Rizal
 This debate between two hostile embraced her for the Last
groups of Rizalists is futile and time, and before she left,
irrelevant. Rizal gave her a last gift
- A Religious Book
( Imitation of Christ by  A few meters behind, Rizal
Father Thomas) walked calmly, with his defense
counsel (Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade)
“ To my dear unhappy wife, Josephine ”
on one side and two Jesuit priest
December 30, 1896 (Fathers March and Villaclara) on the
other. More well-armed soldiers
marched behind him.
Jose Rizal.
 His arms were tied behind from elbow
to elbow, but the rope was quite loose
6:00 A.M to give his arms freedom of
As the soldiers were getting ready for the
death march to Bagumbayan
Rizal wrote his last letter to his beloved  Black Suit
parents, as follows:  Black Derby Hat
My beloved father,
 Black Shoes
 White Shirt
Pardon me for the pain with  Black Tie
which I repay you for sorrows and sacrifices
for my education.
I did not want nor did I prefer it. To the muffled sound of the drums, the
cavalcade somnolently marched slowly.
Goodbye, father, goodbye… There was a handful of spectators lining the
Jose Rizal street from Fort Santiago to the Plaza del
To my very dear Mother, Palacio in front of the Manila Cathedral.
Everybody seemed to be out at Bagumbayan,
Sra. Dña. Teodora Alonso where a vast crowd gathered to see how a
6 o’clock in the morning, December martyr dies.
30,1896 Going through the narrow Postigo Gate,
Jose Rizal one of the gates of the city wall, the cavalcade
reached the Malecon (now Bonifacio Drive),
6:30 A.M which was deserted.
 A trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago, Rizal looked at the sky, and said to one of
a signal to begin the death march to the priests:
Bagumbayan, the designated place
for the execution. The advance guard “ How beautiful it is today, Father.
of four soldiers with bayoneted rifles What a morning could be more serene! How
moved clear is Corregidor and the mountains of
Cavite! On mornings like this, I used to take
a walk with my sweetheart. ”
They reached Bagumbayan Field. fell on the ground dead – with face
upward facing the morning sun.
 Rizal walked serenely to the place,
where he was told to stand.  It was exactly 7:03 in the
 It was a grassy lawn by the shore morning
of Manila Bay, between two lamp
At the age 35 years, five months,
11 days.

Martyrdom of a Hero
January 1, 1883
 He bade farewell to farewell to
Fathers March and Vilaclara and to Two nights ago, that is 30 December,
his gallant defender, Lt. Luis Taviel I had a frightful nightmare when I almost
de Andrade. died. I dreamed that, imitating an actor dying
on stage, I felt vividly that my breath was
 Although his arms were tied, he failing and I was rapidly losing my strength.
firmly clasped their hands in parting. Then my vision became dim and dense
darkness enveloped me- they are the pangs of
 One of the priest blessed him and
offered him a crucifix to kiss. Rizal
reverently bowed his head and kissed Aftermath of a Hero-Martyr’s Death
“ Viva España!”
 Then he requested the commander of
the firing squad, the he be shot facing (Long Live Spain)
the firing squad. His request was “Muerte a los Traidores”
denied, for the captain had implicit
orders to shoot him in the back. (Death to the Traitors)

 Reluctantly, Rizal turned his back to True that the Spanish bullets which killed
the firing squad and faced the sea. Rizal destroyed his brain, but the libertarian
ideas spawned by his brain destroyed the
 A Spanish military physician, Dr. Spanish rule in the Philippines
Felipe Ruiz Castillo, asked his
permission to feel his pulse, which By his writings, which awakened Filipino
request was graciously granted. Dr. Nationalism and paved the way for the
Castillo was amazed to find it normal, Philippine Revolution, he proved that:
showing that Rizal was not afraid to “ The Pen is Mightier than the Sword ”
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso
 The sharp command “Fire” was Realonda
heard, and the guns of the firing squad
barked. Born: 19 June 1861, Calamba

 Rizal, with supreme effort, turned his Died: 30 December 1896, Manila
bullet-riddled body to the right , and