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Titrations

1. Draw a diagram of the apparatus used in a titration below.

Label your diagram


using the following
words:
conical flask
burette
beaker
measuring cylinder
funnel
clamp stand

2. Put the first 4 items of apparatus in the list in order of how accurate they are
at measuring the volume of a liquid:
a. c.
b. d.

3. Complete the following passage. Use the words in bold underneath.

The burette is filled with ________ up to the 0 mark. We know the


_______________ (strength) of the acid but not of the ____________. A known
volume of the acid is put in a ___________ ________ under the burette. It also
contains an _________. The alkali is carefully let into the flask. When the acid is
________________, the indicator changes colour so we stop the flow of alkali. This
is called the ______________.
indicator acid concentration conical flask alkali endpoint neutralised

Method
Step 1
 Start with a clean conical flask.
 Take a 25 cm3 pipette. Rinse with a little acid then using the pipette,
transfer 25 cm3 of acid into the conical flask.

Step 2
 Add two to three drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the acid,
which should stay colourless in acid, but pink in alkali.
Step 3
 Fill the burette with alkali to just above the zero, then run out the
spare acid until the meniscus is exactly on the zero.

Step 4
 Put a white tile underneath the burette and stand the conical flask on
it. Open the tap and allow alkali to trickle slowly into the flask. Swirl all
the time. When the indicator changes colour, stop the tap and note
the volume. This gives a rough idea of the amount of alkali needed.
(rough titration)
 Wash the conical flask and refill with acid and indicator. Refill the
burette. Run in alkali; 5 cm3 less than the rough titration. Close the tap
and swirl the flask.
 Now add the alkali drop by drop. Swirl between drops until the pink
colour starts to show.
 When the solution remains pink, record the burette reading. Repeat
the titration at least once more, so that you have two accurate
titration results. Fill in the table.

Results

Burette Rough Accurate titrations cm3


readings titration cm3 1st 2nd 3rd
Start of titration

End point

Volume of alkali
used cm3

 Calculate an average for your accurate titrations

Calculate the concentration of the alkali

4. Calculate the concentration of the alkali in each case.


a. Alkali concentration ……………………………..