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Types of Muscle Tissue  Peristalsis – rhythmic contraction that pushes

substances through tubes of the body

 Muscle cells
 Neurotransmitters for smooth muscle contraction
 Myocytes called muscle fibers
 Acetylcholine
 Sarcolemma – cell membrane
 Norepinephrine
 Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of cell
 Will cause or inhibit contractions, depending
 Myofibrils – long structures in sarcoplasm
on smooth muscle type
 Arrangement of filaments in Types of Muscle Tissue: Cardiac Muscle
myofibrils produces striations
 Intercalated discs
 Connect groups of cardiac muscle
 Allow the fibers in the groups to
contract and relax together
 Allows heart to work as a pump
 Self-exciting – does not need nerve
stimulation to contract
 Nerves speed up or slow down contraction
Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal Muscle  Neurotransmitters
 Muscle fibers respond to the neurotransmitter  Acetylcholine – slows heart rate
 Norepinephrine – speeds up rate
 Causes skeletal muscle to contract
Structure: Connective Tissue Coverings
 Following contraction, muscles release the enzyme
acetylcholinesterase  Fascia

 Breaks down acetylcholine  Covers entire skeletal

 Allows muscle to relax
 Separates them from
Types of Muscle Tissue: Smooth Muscle each other
 Multiunit smooth muscle  Tendon
 In the iris of the eye and walls of blood  A tough, cord-like structure made of fibrous
vessels connective tissue
 Responds to neurotransmitters and  Connects muscles to bones
 Aponeurosis
 Visceral smooth muscle
 A tough, sheet-like structure made of fibrous
 In walls of hollow organs connective tissue
 Responds to neurotransmitters AND  Attaches muscles to other muscles
 Stimulate each other to contract so that  Epimysium
muscle fibers contract and relax together in
a rhythmic motion – peristalsis  A thin covering that is just below the fascia
of a muscle and surrounds the entire muscle
 Perimysium
 Connective tissue that divides a muscle into Eversion – turning the sole of the foot laterally
sections called fascicles
Retraction – moving a body part posteriorly
 Endomysium
Protraction – moving a body part anteriorly
 Covering of connective tissue that surrounds
Elevation – lifting a body part; for example, elevating the
individual muscle cells
shoulders as in a shrugging expression
Attachments and Actions of Skeletal Muscles
Depression – lowering a body part; for example, lowering the
 Actions depend largely on what the muscles are shoulders
attached to
Major Skeletal Muscles
 Attachment sites
 The muscle name indicates
 Origin – an attachment site for a less
movable bone  Location
 Size
 Insertion – an attachment site for a more
moveable bone  Action
 Movement usually produced by a group of muscles  Shape OR
 Prime mover – muscle responsible for most  Number of attachments of the muscle
of the movement
 As you study muscles, you will find it easier to
 Synergists – muscles that help the prime remember them if you think about what the name
mover by stabilizing joints describes.
 Antagonist (agonist) – produces movement
opposite to prime mover Major Skeletal Muscles: The Head
 Relaxes when prime mover
Attachments and Actions:
Body Movements
Flexion – bending a body part
Extension – straightening a body part
Hyperextension – extending a body part past the normal
anatomical position
Dorsiflexion – pointing the toes up
Plantar flexion – pointing the toes down
Abduction – moving a body part away from the anatomical
Adduction – moving a body part toward the anatomical  Sternocleidomastoid
position  Pulls the head to one
Circumduction – moving a body part in a circle side

Pronation – turning the palm of the hand down  Pulls the head to the
Supination – turning the palm of the hand up
 Frontalis
Inversion – turning the sole of the foot medially
 Raises the eyebrows
 Splenius capitis  Rotates and adducts the arms
 Rotates the head  Latissimus dorsi
 Allows it to bend to the side  Extends and adducts the arm and rotates
the arm inwardly
 Orbicularis oris
 Deltoid
 Allows the lips to pucker
 Abducts and extends the arm at the shoulder
 Orbicularis oculi
 Subscapularis
 Allows the eyes to close
 Rotates the arm medially
 Zygomaticus
 Infraspinatus
 Pulls the corners of the mouth up
 Rotates the arm laterally
 Platysma
Major Skeletal Muscles: Forearm
 Pulls the corners of the mouth down
 Biceps brachii
 Masseter and temporalis
 Flexes the arm at the elbow
 Close the jaw
 Rotates the hand laterally
 Brachialis
Major Skeletal Muscles: Upper Arm
 Flexes the arm at the elbow
 Brachioradialis
 Flexes the forearm at the elbow
 Triceps brachii
 Extends the arm at the elbow
 Supinator
 Rotates the forearm laterally (supination)
 Pronator teres
 Rotates the forearm medially (pronation)

Major Skeletal Muscles:

Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
 Flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris
 Flex and abduct the wrist
 Palmaris longus
 Flexes the wrist
 Flexor digitorum profundus
 Pectoralis major  Flexes the distal joints of the fingers, but not
 Pulls the arm across the chest the thumb
 Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis  Raises the arms
 Extend the wrist and abduct the hand  Pulls the shoulders downward
 Extensor carpi ulnaris  Pectoralis minor
 Extends the wrist  Pulls the scapula downward
 Extensor digitorum  Raises the ribs
 Extends the fingers, but not the thumb
Major Skeletal Muscles: Respiratory Major Skeletal Muscles: Leg
 Diaphragm
 Separates the thoracic cavity from the
abdominal cavity
 Its contraction causes inspiration
 External and internal intercostals
 Expand and lower the ribs during breathing
Major Skeletal Muscles: Abdominal
 External and internal obliques
 Compress the abdominal wall
 Transverse abdominis
 Also compresses the abdominal wall
 Rectus abdominis
 Flexes the vertebral column
 Compresses the abdominal wall  Psoas major and iliacus
 Flexes the thigh
 Gluteus maximus
 Extends the thigh
 Gluteus medius and minimus
 Abduct the thighs
 Rotate them medially
 Adductor longus and magnus
 Adduct the thighs
 Rotate them laterally
 Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and
Major Skeletal Muscles: Pectoral Girdle
 Known as the hamstring group
 Trapezius
 Flex the leg at the knee
 Extend the leg at the thigh
 Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis,
and vastus intermedius
 Extend the leg at the knee
 Sartorius
 Flexes the leg at the knee and thigh
 Abducts the thigh, rotating the thigh laterally
but rotating the lower leg medially
Major Skeletal Muscles:
Ankle, Foot, and Toes
 Tibialis anterior
 Inverts the foot and point the foot up
 Extensor digitorum longus
 Extends the toes and point the foot up
 Gastrocnemius
 Flexes the foot and flexes the leg at the knee
 Soleus
 Flexes the foot
 Flexor digitorum longus
 Flexes the foot and toes
The Muscular System  found in organs or organ systems such as
the digestive or respiratory system
 Made up of over 600 muscles
3. Skeletal Muscle
 Primary Purpose: provide movement for the body
 voluntary: conscious effort or decision to
 Muscles receive their ability to move the body through move
the nervous system
 attached to the skeleton
Major Properties  provide the skeleton with the ability to move

1. Excitable or Irritable
 capable of receiving and responding to Supportive Structures
stimulation from the nerves
1. Tendons: attach a muscle to a bone
2. Contractible
2. Fascia: attach muscle to muscle
 capable of contracting or shortening
3. Extensible
 Tendons and fascia work together with the muscles,
 can be stretched without damage by the which create the muscular system necessary for
application of force movement
4. Elasticity
 able to return to its original resting shape and The Nervous System
length after being extended or contracted
 Intrinsically connected to the muscular system of the
5. Adaptability
 adaptable in that it can be changed in response
 Essential to the voluntary skeletal muscles
to how it is used
 If the communication from the nervous system is
 e.g. a muscle will enlarge or undergo hypertrophy
severed from the skeletal muscles, the skeletal
with increased work; atrophy or waste away if
muscles will to be able to produce movement for the
deprived of work
Types of Muscle Movements o Quadriplegia: the body is in a state of
1. Adduction o Cardiac muscle: the only organ that is not
 moving a body part toward the midline of the directly dependent upon the nervous system
2. Abduction Major Muscle Groups in the Body
 moving a body part away from the body
1. Deltoids or Delts (shoulder muscle)
3. Flexion
 used in all side body lifting motions
 bending a joint to decrease the angle between
 provide support in carrying things
two bones or two body parts
 help keep carried items away from the motion
4. Extension
path of the thighs
 straightening and extending of the joint to
2. Biceps
increase the angle between two bones or body
 in front of the upper arm
 help control the motion of the both shoulder and
5. Rotation
elbow joints
 involves moving a body part around an axis
 elbow: biceps are essentially lifting
Types of Muscles  shoulder: help with moving the arms sideways,
forward and upwards
1. Cardiac Muscle
 involved in forearm rotation (e.g. using
 involuntary: operates without any conscious
3. Triceps
 form the walls of the heart
 back of the upper arm
 contracts to circulate the blood
 help stabilize the shoulder joint
2. Smooth/Visceral Muscles
 allow the elbow joint to be straightened
 involuntary
 involved in passing and shooting a basketball
 help with finite movements (e.g. when you write  help propel body forward when walking, running,
or draw) and jumping
4. Pectorals or Pecs 12. Calves
 large chest muscles  key muscles when lifting heels up (when walking,
 involved in many everyday movements (mainly at running, go upstairs)
the shoulder joint)  important for explosive moves (e.g. sprinting,
 provide support in holding objects in front of the jumping)
body 13. Quads
 activated when reaching across the body (e.g.  upper front part of the leg
grab seatbelt; comb hair on the opposite side);  help the legs straighten
 activated when reaching behind (e.g. reaching  key muscle used when go from sitting to
into back pockets; tucking shirt) standing, in walking, jumping, squatting, and
5. Abdominals running
 located below the pecs  help stabilized the knee joint during those
 assist in the breathing process movements
 protect inner organs  key muscle used during hip rotation
 key in twisting motions (e.g. golf swing, looking
 key part in bending over motions
 maintaining good posture
6. Obliques
 sides of the abdominals
 twisting and bending motions
 help support the spine from the front
 key in keeping good posture
7. Traps
 two large muscles in the upper and middle of the
 used to tilt and turn the head and neck
 shrug the shoulders
 provide support when lifting items over the head
8. Lats
 large muscles below the traps
 used in pulling something into the body (e.g.
taking something down from a shelf above the
 heavily involves in many swimming movements
9. Erector Spinae
 deep muscles
 help to extend the spine
 key in posture
 key important in bending forward and sideways
10. Glutes
 butt muscles
 key muscles in the movement of the legs
backwards and sideways
 help maintain balance when walking ang or
11. Hamstrings
 upper back part of the legs
 to bend the knees