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that the influent sewage strength is quite weak; during the period of August 1983 through July 1984, the average influent BODs and suspended solids concentrations were $8 mg/L. and 126 mg/L, respectively. The District Engineer cited industrial waste contributions as one of the problems at the North Plant. For the activated sludge system, the average FIM ratio was 0.6 and the average aeration basin hydraulic detention time was 3.9 hours during 1983- 84. The annual average solids loading rate appliod to the North plant sludge beds during the year before the reduction to 7 beds, based upon an average wastewater flow of 0.13 m/s (3.1 mgd), is 68.4 kg solidsim2iyr (13.6 lb/sq AY). ‘The polymer system was installed by plant operators ‘at _a minimal construction cost. The operation and ‘maintenance cost for the drying beds is broken down in Table 8-1, which describes the cost to fil and clean one average size bed. During the period of August 1983 through July 1984, the total weight of dry sludge solids remaining following anaerobic digestion was 183 Mg (201 tons). ‘At an average digested sludge solids concentration of 5.6 percent, the total volume of sludge dewatered was 3,230 mSlyr (854,000 galiyr). At a depth of 23 ‘cm (9 in) of sludge and an average sludge bed area of 116 m2 (2,114 sq ft), the average volume of sludge applied per bed is 45 m3 (11,800 gal). This volume of sludge results in a total number of sludge applications to a drying bed of 72 per year, or 5.1 applications per year per bed. This total is low because of tho low- strength influent wastewater and low sludge production; the sludge beds were not used at their full capacity in 1983-84. Based upon an average cost of $195.95 per sludge bed application (from Table 8- 1), the total annual cost during 1983-84 was $135.95 x 72, or $9,800/yr. Currently, with about two-thirds of the North plant sludge beds removed, only a portion of the sludge can ‘be dewatered on the sand drying beds. Dry sludge is hauled away by a contract hauler to various land application sites for a 1986 price of $7.62/m3 (65.57/cu yd) of dry sludge. Assuming the dewatered sludge cake has a solids concentration of 30 percent and a specific gravity of about 1.15, the cost of hauling dry sludge is $21/Mg ($19/ton) of dry solids. Undewatered liquid sludge is hauled away to land application sites for 0.77 cents! (2.9 centsigal) of liquid sludge. 8.2.2 Case Study - Belleville, ilinois The following case study describes sludge dewatering at the wastewater treatment plant for Belleville, Ilinois as it operated in 1986. The plant, located about 32 km (20 mi) southeast of St. Louis, is a 0.4-m3is (8- mgd) activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. 137 Current average daily flows are about 0.28 m3/s (6.5 mgd). Waste activated sludge is returned to the primary clarifiers and the combined sludge is pumped to anaerobic digestion. Sludge treatment at the plant consists of two-stage anaerobic digestion and dewatering on sand drying beds or storage in lagoons, There are 11 sand drying beds and a total sludge bed area of 11,700 m2 (125,900 sq ft). A liquid cationic polymer is added to the digested sludge before it flows onto the drying beds. The typical polymer dosage is 11 g of liquid polymerykg (22 Ib/ton) of solids, or about $11.62/Mg_($10.54iton) of solids, ‘The polymer is pumped into the sludge discharge line from the anaerobic digesters at a point about 244 m (800 ft) before the sludge beds. Digested sludge is ‘normally applied to the beds at a solids concentration of 3 to 3.5 percent and at a depth of 36 to 38 cm (14 0 18 in). The sludge beds are used regularly from March through October. During the winter months, the sludge is only occasionally applied to the beds since dewatering has nearly ceased. The sludge takes normally about 6 to 8 weeks to dry with the polymer ‘and about 12 weeks without polymer. Application of Polymer to the sand drying beds has been practiced at Bellevilo since 1965. The Wastewater Treatment Division Superintendent considers it more cost- effective to dewater sludge on sand drying beds with polymer due to the reduced drying time provided by the polymer. ‘The dewatered sludge is removed from the drying beds at about 30 to 35 percent solids. Sludge is removed from the drying beds manually with shovels, Two men shovel sludge from the bed into a truck for transfer to a stockpile site. Stockpiled sludge is femoved from the plant site for use by farmers, gardeners, nurseries, etc. Sludge removal from one bed takes about 24’ man-hours. Cost estimates for the sludge bed operations for 1985, prepared by the Wastewater Trealment Division Superintendent, are presented in Table 8-2. The total operation’ and maintenance cost estimate is $21,236/yr, or $56.55/dry Mg (851.30/dry ton) of solids. The solids loading rate during 1985 is 84 kgim2iyr (11. Ib/sq fyr).. 82.3 Gwinnett County Water Pollution Controt Department, GA Tne Gwinnett County Water Pollution Control Department, located about 40 km (25 mi) east of downtown Atianta, operates 11 wastewater treatment plants. Polymer addition to improve dewatering on sand drying beds is practiced at throe of the plants. ‘The design capacities of the threo plants are 0.20, 0.13, and 0.09 mils (4.5, 3, and 2 mgd). The sludge bed area at these plants is 2,900 m2 ($1,000 sq ft) for 9 beds, 2,000 m2 (21,000 sq ft) for 6 beds, and 930 m2 (10,000 sq ft) for 3 beds, respectively.