Sei sulla pagina 1di 4

Objects attract other objects simply because because they possess mass. This is referred to as gravitation.

m
1
F 12
m 2
F 21

r

The magnitude of the force of gravity between two objects is given by

F

g = F 12 = F 21 = G m 1 m 2 r 2

G = gravitational constant = 6.67 x 10 -11 N·m 2 /kg 2 r = distance between m 1 and m 2

On or near the surface of the Earth, the force of gravity on an object due to the Earth’s mass is just

 ⃗ ⃗ F g = W

F g = mg

For locations far above the surface of the Earth,

M Earth = 5.98 × 10 24 kg

R Earth = 6.37 × 10 6 m

r > R Earth

F

g = G M Earth m

r 2

But what about locations inside the Earth?

If we assume the Earth to be a sphere of uniform mass, we can make use of Newton’s shell theorem which states that a uniform shell of matter exert no net

gravitational force on a particle located inside it.

r

density = constant

density = total mass

total

volume = inside mass

inside volume

ρ =

M Earth

=

4

3

π R

3

Earth

m inside

4

3

3

π r inside

m

F

inside =( M Earth ) r inside

3

R

3

Earth

g = G m inside m

2

r inside

= G M Earth r inside

3

3

m

2

R Earth r inside

F

g = G M Earth m

R

3

Earth

r inside

The figure shows an arrangement of 3 particles,
particle 1 of mass m 1 = 6.0 kg and particles 2 and 3 of
mass m 2 = m 3 = 4.0 kg and distance a = 2.0 cm. What
is the net gravitational force on particle 1 due to the
other particles?
m 2
a
m 3
m 1
2a
F 12
F 13

m 1 =6.0 kg

a = 2.0 cm= 0.02 m

m 2 = m 3 = 4.0 kg

F

F

 ⃗ ⃗ net = 0 = F 12 + F 13

netx = 0 F 13 =− G m 1 m 3 4 a 2

F

netx =− 6.67 × 10 11 ( 6.0 ) ( 4.0 )

4

( 0.02 ) 2

F

netx =− 1.0005 × 10 6 N

F

F

F

nety = F 12 + 0 = G m a 1 m 2 2 nety = 6.67 × 10 11 ( 6.0 ) ( 4.0 ) ( 0.02 ) 2 nety = 4.002 ×10 6 N

F nety
F net
F netx

F net = F netx + F nety

2

2

F net = 4.125167178 ×10 6 N

tan θ = |F nety |

|F netx |

θ = 75.96375653 o

F

net = 4.125 × 10 6 N ,

75.964º above -x

An astronaut whose height is 1.7 m floats “feet down” in an orbiting shuttle at a distance r = 6.77 x 10 6 m away from the center of the Earth. What is the difference between the gravitational acceleration at her feet and at her head?

r =6.77 × 10 6 m

M Earth = 5.98 × 10 24 kg

F

g = G M earth m

R

2

= ma

Since r >> 1.7m,

R foot = r r + 1.7 m = R head

→ Δ a = 0

a = G M Earth

R

2

But is we get da, dR = 1.7 m.

da

dR = 2 G M Earth

R

3

da =− 2 G M Earth dR

R

3

da = 2 ( 6.67 × 10 11 ) ( 5.98 × 10 24 ) ( 6.77 × 10 6 ) 3 da =− 4.370588603 × 10 6 m / s 2

( 1.7 )

da =− 4.371 × 10 6 m / s 2

The weight of an object on the surface of the Earth is 98.0 N. What is the weight of the object on a planet that has twice the mass of Earth and four times the radius of the Earth?

F

F

Earth = 98.0 N = G M Earth m

2

R Earth

planet = G 2 M Earth 2 m

16

R Earth

= 1

8

( G M Earth m

2

R Earth

F planet = 12.25 N

)