Sei sulla pagina 1di 4
Objects attract other objects simply because because they possess mass. This is referred to as

Objects attract other objects simply because because they possess mass. This is referred to as gravitation.

m 1  ⃗ F 12
m
1
F 12
m 2 ⃗ F 21 
m 2
F 21

r

as gravitation . m 1  ⃗ F 12 m 2 ⃗ F 21  r
as gravitation . m 1  ⃗ F 12 m 2 ⃗ F 21  r

The magnitude of the force of gravity between two objects is given by

F

g = F 12 = F 21 = G m 1 m 2 r 2

G = gravitational constant = 6.67 x 10 -11 N·m 2 /kg 2 r = distance between m 1 and m 2

On or near the surface of the Earth, the force of gravity on an object due to the Earth’s mass is just

F

g = W

F g = mg

For locations far above the surface of the Earth,

M Earth = 5.98 × 10 24 kg

R Earth = 6.37 × 10 6 m

r > R Earth

F

g = G M Earth m

r 2

But what about locations inside the Earth?

If we assume the Earth to be a sphere of uniform mass, we can make use of Newton’s shell theorem which states that a uniform shell of matter exert no net

gravitational force on a particle located inside it.

r
r

density = constant

density = total mass

total

volume = inside mass

inside volume

ρ =

M Earth

=

4

3

π R

3

Earth

m inside

4

3

3

π r inside

m

F

inside =( M Earth ) r inside

3

R

3

Earth

g = G m inside m

2

r inside

= G M Earth r inside

3

3

m

2

R Earth r inside

F

g = G M Earth m

R

3

Earth

r inside

The figure shows an arrangement of 3 particles, particle 1 of mass m 1 =
The figure shows an arrangement of 3 particles, particle 1 of mass m 1 =
The figure shows an arrangement of 3 particles,
particle 1 of mass m 1 = 6.0 kg and particles 2 and 3 of
mass m 2 = m 3 = 4.0 kg and distance a = 2.0 cm. What
is the net gravitational force on particle 1 due to the
other particles?
m 2
a
m 3
m 1
2a
⃗ F 12 ⃗ F 13
F 12
F 13

m 1 =6.0 kg

a = 2.0 cm= 0.02 m

m 2 = m 3 = 4.0 kg

F

F

 

net = 0 =

F 12 +

F 13

netx = 0 F 13 =− G m 1 m 3 4 a 2

F

netx =− 6.67 × 10 11 ( 6.0 ) ( 4.0 )

4

( 0.02 ) 2

F

netx =− 1.0005 × 10 6 N

F

F

F

nety = F 12 + 0 = G m a 1 m 2 2 nety = 6.67 × 10 11 ( 6.0 ) ( 4.0 ) ( 0.02 ) 2 nety = 4.002 ×10 6 N

⃗ F nety ⃗ F net ⃗  F netx
F nety
F net
F netx

F net = F netx + F nety

2

2

F net = 4.125167178 ×10 6 N

tan θ = |F nety |

|F netx |

θ = 75.96375653 o

F

net = 4.125 × 10 6 N ,

75.964º above -x

An astronaut whose height is 1.7 m floats “feet down” in an orbiting shuttle at

An astronaut whose height is 1.7 m floats “feet down” in an orbiting shuttle at a distance r = 6.77 x 10 6 m away from the center of the Earth. What is the difference between the gravitational acceleration at her feet and at her head?

r =6.77 × 10 6 m

M Earth = 5.98 × 10 24 kg

F

g = G M earth m

R

2

= ma

Since r >> 1.7m,

R foot = r r + 1.7 m = R head

→ Δ a = 0

a = G M Earth

R

2

a foot a head

But is we get da, dR = 1.7 m.

da

dR = 2 G M Earth

R

3

da =− 2 G M Earth dR

R

3

da = 2 ( 6.67 × 10 11 ) ( 5.98 × 10 24 ) ( 6.77 × 10 6 ) 3 da =− 4.370588603 × 10 6 m / s 2

( 1.7 )

da =− 4.371 × 10 6 m / s 2

2 ( 1.7 ) da =− 4.371 × 10 − 6 m / s 2 The

The weight of an object on the surface of the Earth is 98.0 N. What is the weight of the object on a planet that has twice the mass of Earth and four times the radius of the Earth?

F

F

Earth = 98.0 N = G M Earth m

2

R Earth

planet = G 2 M Earth 2 m

16

R Earth

= 1

8

( G M Earth m

2

R Earth

F planet = 12.25 N

)